Working substance

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In terms, working substance (TR:67) (LH:6) (TL:73) refers to any physical substance in the universe; a synonym for what would later defined as the “working body” (Clausius, 1865).


The following are quotes:

“In the phenomenon of the production of motion by heat, it is necessary to establish principles applicable not only to steam engines, but to all imaginable heat engines, whatever the working substance and whatever the method by which it is operated.”
Sadi Carnot (1824), On the Motive Power of Fire (pg. 6)[1]

End matter


  1. Carnot, Sadi. (1824). Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire: and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power (editor: Eric Mendoza) (pg. 6). Dover, 1960.

External links

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