Turnover rate

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In terms, turnover rate (TR:5) (LH:3) (TL:8) refers to the rate at which atoms in a metabolizing body are turned over and replaced with new elements; the rate in humans being 98 percent of all the atoms in a person’s body change out every year, and that within five years all the atoms are changed.[1]


In 1940s, Paul Aebersold, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, conducted studies where he administered radioactive isotopes, e.g sodium-24 and phosphorus-32, to humans, for application in medicine, and determined the rate at which different elements "turnover" with different parts of the body, via process of food consumption, digestion, and excretion, becoming new atoms, every one to five, depending on atom, e.g. water turns over the fastest, and location, e.g. the atoms in teeth taking the longest to turn over.


The following are quotes:

“I have been puzzled by my ability to remember my childhood even though most of the molecules in my body today are not the same ones I had as a child—in particular the molecules that make up my brain are constantly being replaced with newly minted molecules—despite this molecular turnover, I have detailed memories of places where I lived fifty years ago.”
— Terrence Sejnowski (2007), Source
“I don't have any sort of relationship with Elena. None at all. You know, when I was in prison, I met this man, a man who tried to help me. A psychiatrist. He said to me that everyone is made up of many... Atomos? Aatoms? You understand? Atoms. Atoms. Atoms, yes. So for a human being it takes seven years before every atom, one by one, is replaced with a new one. So that means that after seven years this person... Is no longer that. So you are saying that Elena is a completely different person than Esmerelda. That's what you mean. Everything is changed. That is how you console yourself. That you've changed. That you are different. You are not that person anymore. Somebody else did it. You didn't do it. I am not her. Not anymore.”
— Simon Donald (2015), Fortitude (S1E5)[2]

End matter


  1. (a) Seaborg, Glenn T. (1968). “Paul C. Aebersold (1910-1967)” (abs), Radiation Research, 33(3): 677-79.
    (b) Do We Replace Our Cells Every 7 or 10 years? (2010) (comment #20) – AskANaturalist.com.
  2. (a) Donald, Simon. (2015). Fortitude (S1E5) (txt). Publisher.
    (b) Fortitude (TV series) – Wikipedia.

External links

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