In chemistry, tungsten (LH:4), symbol W, is the 74th element of the periodic table, comprised of 74 protons, 110 neutrons, in its most stable isotope 185W (30.64%), and 74 electrons, with an electron configuration of: [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2. Tungsten was the first element seen by the human eye (Muller, 1955), as shown adjacent.
In 1781, Carl Scheele synthesized a new acid from the mineral CaWO4, then known as tungsten (later renamed scheelite), after which, together with Torbern Bergman, the idea was gleaned on that it might be possible to obtain a new metal by reducing the acid.
In 1783, Jose Elhuyar and Fausto Elhuyar obtained an acid from the mineral wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4, and, via reduction with carbon, isolated the element tungsten.
In 1955, Erwin Muller, at Penn State University, Osmond laboratory, using his field ion microscope, shown below left, observed tungsten atoms at the tip of a tungsten needle, as shown adjacent, as a color enhanced image, or as shown below top left, in model form:
Atoms seen | Dating system
In 2020, Libb Thims invented a new calendar year dating system, using the year Erwin Muller saw atoms, namely: 1955, as the "zero year" (0 AE), thereby defining years prior as year "before elements" (BE) were seen, and years following, as years "after elements" (AE) were seen. This new BE/AE dating system, aka Thimsian calendar, thus replaces the BC/AD dating system, aka Dionysian calendar, invented by Dionysius Exiguus in 525AD.
- Tungsten needle (color) (2006) – APS.org.
- Tungsten needle tip – ResearchGate.
- Tungsten – Princeton.edu.
- Elhuyar, Jose; Elhuyar, Fausto. (1783). “Chemical Analysis of Wolframite, and Examination of a New Metal, which Enters into its Composition” (Análisis químico del volfram, y examen de un nuevo metal, que entra en su composición), Extractos de las Juntas Generales celebradas por la Real Sociedad Bascongada de los Amigos del País en la ciudad de Vitoria, Sep.
- Elhuyar, Jose; Elhuyar, Fausto. (1785). Chemical Analysis of Wolframite, and Examination of a New Metal, which Enters into its Composition to which is prefixed a translation of Scheele’s analysis of the Tungsten, or Heavy Stone; with Bergman’s Supplemental Remarks (translator: Charles Cullen) (Ѻ). Nicol.
- Tungsten – Wikipedia.