Tungsten

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A color-enhance photo[1] of the tip of a tungsten needle[2], showing individual tungsten atoms, each with a diameter of 0.28nm[3], first seen by Erwin Muller, on 11 Oct 1955, using his newly-invented field ion microscope. This historic event, marks the first time an "atom" was seen by the the human eye. This date is the "zero year" in the Thimsian calendar, invented in 2020 (0AE) by Libb Thims.

In chemistry, tungsten (LH:4), symbol W, is the 74th element of the periodic table, comprised of 74 protons, 110 neutrons, in its most stable isotope 185W (30.64%), and 74 electrons, with an electron configuration of: [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2. Tungsten was the first element seen by the human eye (Muller, 1955), as shown adjacent.

Overview

Discovery

In 1781, Carl Scheele synthesized a new acid from the mineral CaWO4, then known as tungsten (later renamed scheelite), after which, together with Torbern Bergman, the idea was gleaned on that it might be possible to obtain a new metal by reducing the acid.

In 1783, Jose Elhuyar and Fausto Elhuyar obtained an acid from the mineral wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4, and, via reduction with carbon, isolated the element tungsten.[4]

Atoms seen

A depiction an "elemental" thing, namely of Erwin Muller (1955), as a CHNOPS+20E existive, having developed enough, appendages, i.e. brain, arms, eyes, able to "see" one of its own kind, namely: tungsten. This is a kind of universal benchmark, in respect to the start of enlightenment, a rule that would hold on any planet, in the so-called habitable zone.

In 1955, Erwin Muller, at Penn State University, Osmond laboratory, using his field ion microscope, shown below left, observed tungsten atoms at the tip of a tungsten needle, as shown adjacent, as a color enhanced image, or as shown below top left, in model form:

Atoms seen | Dating system

In 2020, Libb Thims invented a new calendar year dating system, using the year Erwin Muller saw atoms, namely: 1955, as the "zero year" (0 AE), thereby defining years prior as year "before elements" (BE) were seen, and years following, as years "after elements" (AE) were seen. This new BE/AE dating system, aka Thimsian calendar, thus replaces the BC/AD dating system, aka Dionysian calendar, invented by Dionysius Exiguus in 525AD.

End matter

References

  1. Tungsten needle (color) (2006) – APS.org.
  2. Tungsten needle tip – ResearchGate.
  3. Tungsten – Princeton.edu.
  4. Elhuyar, Jose; Elhuyar, Fausto. (1783). “Chemical Analysis of Wolframite, and Examination of a New Metal, which Enters into its Composition” (Análisis químico del volfram, y examen de un nuevo metal, que entra en su composición), Extractos de las Juntas Generales celebradas por la Real Sociedad Bascongada de los Amigos del País en la ciudad de Vitoria, Sep.

Further reading

  • Elhuyar, Jose; Elhuyar, Fausto. (1785). Chemical Analysis of Wolframite, and Examination of a New Metal, which Enters into its Composition to which is prefixed a translation of Scheele’s analysis of the Tungsten, or Heavy Stone; with Bergman’s Supplemental Remarks (translator: Charles Cullen) (Ѻ). Nicol.

External links

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