Top 2000 minds: 801-1,000

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In genius studies, top 2000 geniuses and minds: 801-1,000 refers to []

Minds | 801-1,000 | IQ:140-150

See also: Higher minds, 1-200, 201-400, 401-600, 601-800, 801-1,000, 1,001-1,200, 1,201-1,400, 1,401-1,600, 1,601-1,800, 1,801-2,000, Full list, Candidates

The following (see: IQ key) are intellects “801-1,000” of the top 2000 geniuses and minds:

# Person D A Overview G Country
801.
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155 Titian 75.png Titian
(1488-1576)
IQ B.png=155 91 (Cattell 1000:146) [RGM:406|1,350+] (Murray 4000:3|WA) Painter;
“Giotto, Titian, Rembrandt, and Goya were the great painters. I am only a public clown.”
— Pablo Picasso (1952), Interview (Ѻ)

Noted for: Assumption of the Virgin (1518), Venus of Urbino (1534), Diana and Actaeon (1559), among others; upgraded from IQ:145|#662 to IQ:155|#582.

M Italian
802.
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155 Polo 75.png Marco Polo

(1254-1324)

M Italian
803.
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155 Casanova 75.png Giacomo Casanova
(1725-1798)
73 (Cattell 1000:814) Adventurer, author, and romance philosopher; a semi-ranked polymath (Carr, 2009); first-slating 155|#490 (Feb 2018). M Italian
804. 155 Rosalind Franklin 75.png Rosalind Franklin
(1920-1958)
37 (RGM:454|1,350+) (Becker 160:30|7L) Chemist and X-ray crystallographer;
“Science, for me, gives a partial explanation for life. In so far as it goes, it is based on fact, experience and experiment. I see no reason to believe that a creator of protoplasm or primeval matter, if such there be, has any reason to be interested in our insignificant race in a tiny corner of the universe, and still less in us, as still more insignificant individuals. Again, I see no reason why the belief that we are insignificant or fortuitous should lessen our faith.”
— Rosalind Franklin (c.1940), “Letter to her father Ellis Franklin” [1]

Noted 1951 view on the genetic molecule: “Big helix in several chains, phosphates on outside, phosphate-phosphate inter-helical bonds disrupted by water. Phosphate links available to proteins”, which paved he way to the 1953 molecular structure discernment of DNA; and later viruses, coal, and graphite; first-slate:155|#738 (Dec 2020).

F English
805. 155 Edward Teller 75.png Edward Teller
(1908-2003)
95 (RGM:534|1,350+) (Becker 160:71|4L) (Simmons 100:88) Theoretical physicist; noted for doing some stellar synthesis of the elements work, which influenced Stanley Miller; friends with Leo Szilard, Neumann, and Eugene Wigner; in 1945, Arthur Iberall completed his PhD under Teller and George Gamow; first-slate: 155|#738 (Dec 2020). M Hungarian-born American
806.
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155 Brownson 75.png Orestes Brownson

(1803-1876)

[RGM:643|1,350+] (EPD:F6) Auto-educated intellectual, activist, and publicist;
“Infidel literature, or science pressed into the service of infidelity, or even into the service of mammon, we grant, has no attractions for us, and, in our judgment, contributes nothing not really injurious to the best interests of mankind. If the reviewer thinks differently, we thank god the church does not think with him. What benefit to mankind does the reviewer think has accrued from the writings of Hobbes, Tindal (1656-1733) (Ѻ), Collins, Morgan (1806-1871) (Ѻ)(Ѻ), Mandeville (1670-1733) (Ѻ) , Voltaire, Rousseau, Helvetius, D'Holbach, Dupuis, Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy, Goethe, Schiller, Kant, Schelling, Hegel, Heine, Eichhorn, Gesenius, Paulus, Strauss, Feuerbach, Godwin, Byron, Shelley, Bulwer, Victor Hugo, De Balzac, George Sand, Paul de Kock, Eugene Sue, and hundreds and hundreds of others we might mention had we room? Genius, talent, learning, are never respectable unless enlisted in the cause of religion, unless they bow low at the foot of the cross, and lay their offerings on the altar of the crucified god. Is the reviewer prepared to deny this?”
— Orestes Brownson (1846), “Article”, Methodist Quarterly Review, Jan

educated on Homer, Locke, and the Bible; noted for his voluminous writings on his respective views as a Presbyterian (1822) turned Universalism pastor (1831) turned infidel-atheist (1840) turned Roman Catholic (1844); first-slating: 155|#530 (Mar 2018).

M American
807. 155 Abu al-Warraq
(c.815-870)
65 Early Islam skeptic and god doubter;
“That Muhammad could predict certain events does not prove that he was a prophet: he may have been able to guess successfully, but this does not mean that he had real knowledge of the future. And certainly the fact that he was able to recount events from the past does not prove that he was a prophet, because he could have read about those events in the Bible and, if he was illiterate, he could still have had the Old Testament read to him.”
— Abu al-Warraq (c.860), Publication

Noted as he first so-labeled “radical atheist” of Islam, noted for Against the Koran and The Futility of Divine Wisdom; friend and mentor to Ibn al-Rawandi, who, in his The Book of Emerald (c.900), described a dialogue between himself and al-Warraq, at the beginning of which al-Warraq is portrayed as the most radical in his god doubt, but by the end of the book, al-Rawandi goes further than al-Warraq in his god doubt radicalness; the pen name “Ibn Warraq”, author of Why I Am Not a Muslim (1995), the Islamic version of Bertrand Russell’s Why I Am Not a Christian (1927), is themed on Abu al-Warraq; first-slating: 155|#739 (Dec 2020).

M Arabian
808.

Steady.png

155 Theodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)
IQ S.png=153 M American
809.
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155 Robert Fulton 75.png Robert Fulton

(1765-1815)

IQ C.png=155
Fulton submarine.jpg
(Cattell 1000:755) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] American inventor, engineer, and artist; in 1800, after being commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte, leader of France, to attempt to design a submarine; he produced the Nautilus, the first practical submarine in history; in 1807, he built The North River Steamboat (later Clermont), the first commercially viable steamboat, which traveled on the Hudson River with passengers, from New York City to Albany and back again, a round trip of 300 miles, in 62 hours.
M American
810.
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155 Livy 75.png Livy
(59BC-17AD)
M Roman
811. 155 Friedrich Wohler 75.png Friedrich Wohler
(1800-1882)
82 (GCE:17) (Partington 50:15) (CR:23) Chemist;
“This investigation has yielded an unanticipated result that reaction of cyanic acid with ammonia gives urea, a noteworthy result in as much as it provides an example of the artificial production of an organic, indeed a so-called animal, substance from inorganic substances.”
— Friedrich Wohler (1828), “On the Artificial Formulation of Urea”

Student of Berzelius; noted for his 1828 synthesis of “urea”, an “animal” or organic molecule, from ammonium cyanate, an inorganic substance, which became one of the first nails in the coffin of the vitalism debate, e.g. Berzelius had believed that that organic atoms, in contrast to inorganic atoms, were responsive to a “vital force”; first-slate: #742 (Dec 2020).

M German
812.
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155 John Haldane 75.png John Haldane
(63 BE-9 AE)
(1892-1964 ACM)
2.15 72 (James 38:30) (CR:19) Biochemist (chnops-chemist), with a "formidable intelligence" (Smith, 1965), noted for his 1929 half living thing theory (see: half-alive theory), for his 1932 hot thin soup theory (see: primordial soup), and for his 1950s kin selection theory; previous Hmolpedia 2020-listed candidate (112-names); first slating: 155|#642 (Nov 2020). M English
813.
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155 William Wilberforce 75.png William Wilberforce

(1759-1833)

IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:434) [RGM:790|1,350+] Politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade; Samuel Wilberforce, his third son, of note, was the combatant in the famous 1860 “Huxley-Wilberforce debate” on evolution at Oxford. M English
814.
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155 Henry IV 75.png Henry IV

(1553-1610)

(Cattell 1000:76) (CR:3) King, in power from 1589 to 1610; characterized has a "powerful intellect" (Buckle, 1856); first-slating: 155|#613 (Aug 2019). M French
815. 155 Elmer McCollum 75.png Elmer McCollum
(1879-1967)
88
Vitamin A (Elmer McCollum).png
(Murray 4000:8|M) Organic chemist, agricultural chemist, and animal chemist; known as “Dr. Vitamin” (Time, 1951) as an infant (1880), he almost died from malnutrition (fed only boiled milk and mashed potatoes), having developed skin sores, swollen joints, and bleeding gums, but after seen sucking on apple peel scraps, his mother noticed him returning to health (Ѻ); as an adult, in 1908, he bought 12 albino rats, and started America’s first nutrition research center, wherein building on his reading of 13 experiments on restricted diets in small animals and mice, in Richard Maly’s Annual Report on the Advances in Animal Chemistry (1884), he went onto discover, with the help of Marguerite Davis, vitamin A (1913), or “factor A” (or fat-soluble A), as they called it, and helped to discover vitamins B and D, and worked out the effect or trace elements in the diet; although, of note, in 1916 the objected to the term “vitamins”, from vital amines, introduced by Casimir Funk (1912), per reason that “vita” gave the substance too much importance, and there was not enough evidence to signify any one “amine” group; first-slate: 155|#745 (Dec 2020).
M American
816.
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155 Alexander Fleming 75.png Alexander Fleming
(1881-1955)
Penicillin.png
[RGM:63|1,350+] (Murray 4000:9|MD) (Gottlieb 1000:55) (Becker 160:28|7L) (Simmons 100:97) (Hart 100:37) (Singh 100:66) (Oduenyi 100:100) (CR:8) Physician and microbiologist; noted for his 28 Oct 1928 discovery of penicillin, when he observed a “fungal contamination” (Penicillium fungi) on a bacterial culture, which appeared to kill the bacteria; he named the fungal extract “penicillin”; by 1942 it was used to treat infections; first-slating: IQ:155|#745 (Nov 2020).
M Scottish
817. 155 William of Conches 75.png William of Conches
(c.1090-1154)
65 (AT:3|D) Scholastic philosopher; thought that physics of atoms made sense[2]; first-slate: 155|#745 (Dec 2020). M French
818. 155 Max Delbruck 75.png Max Delbruck
(1906-1981)
(Simmons 100:68) (CR:5) Physicist and virus genetics researcher;
“The gene is a polymer that arises by the repletion of identical atomic structures.”
— Max Delbruck (1935), “On the Nature of Gene Mutation and Structure” (co-author: Nikolay Timofeev and Karl Zimmer)

Noted for his 1935 “On the Nature of Gene Mutation and Structure”, wherein he gives the basic hypothesis of what a "gene" was; which inspired[3] Schrodinger to give his What is Life? lecture; characterized an “ordinary genius” (Geno, 2013); in 1977, he was in a photo with George Scott; was the one who told Richard Adams (1988) about the famous “Jean vs Donnan and Guggenheim debate”[4] on whether “life” has the capacity to evade the second law; first-slate: 155|#745 (Dec 2020).

M German-born American
819.

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155 Tieck 75.png Ludwig Tieck
(1773-1853)
IQ C.png=165 Poet, fiction writer, translator, and critic; was, supposedly, one of the founding fathers of the romantic movement; Downgrade for going against Goethe, calling his theory-containing novella "torture affinities"; a fact that German writer and novelist Bettina Brentano (1785-1859) let Goethe know. M German
505.
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170 Maximilien Robespierre 75.png Maximilien Robespierre
(197-161 BE)
(1758-1794 ACM)
IQ C.png=170 (PR:672|65AE / politician:170) (Cattell 1000:48) (Gottlieb 1000:68) (EPD:M6) (LH:1) Lawyer, politician, and revolutionist; noted as main leader of the French revolution, from 1792 to 1794, during which time he replaced Catholicism with his new "Cult of Reason" as the new state religion of France; downgrade from 170|#505 to 155|#820 (Jul 66AE). M French
820.
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155 Josephus 75.png Josephus
(c.37-100AD)
M Roman
821.
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155 Maria Montessori

(1870-1952)

IQ B.png=157 81 F Italian
822.
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155 Fontaine 75.png Jean Fontaine

(1621-1695)

IQ C.png=155
Democritus (Paris).jpg
(Cattell 1000:161) (Gottlieb 1000:508) (CR:5) Fabulist and poet;
Hippocrates in time arrived at the conclusion that he had not sought whether the heart or the head was the seat of either reason or sense in man and beast.”
— Jean de La Fontaine (c.1690), 29th fable quote; inscribed at the base of the 1869 statue of Democritus mediating on the seat of the soul, Paris
M French
823.
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155 Hitler 75.png Adolf Hitler
(1889-1945)
IQ SS.png=143
IQ PP.png=130
IQ O.png=125[5], 150[6]
56 (RGML:108|400+)[7] (CR:42) Politician and military leader; leader of the German "national socialism" National-sozialismus (NaZi-ism), an ideological practice characterized as a form of fascism that incorporates biological racism and antisemitism, a reactionary alternative to internationalist Marxist socialism and capitalism; his 1925 Mein Kampf (My Struggle), an autobiographical manifesto, employs a number of emotionally evoking thermal word based analogies and comparisons when discussing the stirrings of human passions; a top ten Smartest People in History (Ѻ). M Austrian-born German
824.
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155 Elisha Otis 75.png Elisha Otis

(1811-1861)

49
Otis elevator brake (1853).png
Industrialist and inventor; noted for his c.1852 invention of safety device that prevents elevators from falling if the hoisting cable fails, demonstrating it in 1853 at the New York State fair and in 1857 installing it in a five-story elevator at a store at Broadway and Broome Street; this ushered in the start of the skyscraper era. (Ѻ)(Ѻ)
M American
825.
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155 Gustave Eiffel 75.png Gustave Eiffel

(1832-1923)

91 Civil engineer; person behind the design of the Eiffel Tower, the Statue of Liberty, and many bridges and buildings; an oft-classified “engineering genius” (Ѻ); see: David Harvie’s 2006 Eiffel: the Genius Who Reinvented Himself (Ѻ); 112-candidate; first-slating: #649 (Nov 2020). M French
826.
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155 William Jenney 75.png William Jenney

(1832-1907)

74
Home Insurance Building, Chicago.png
(Gottlieb 1000:89) Architect and engineer; his 1885 ten-story Home Insurance Building, Chicago, which is considered the first modern skyscraper, aka "as the Father of the American skyscraper"; 112-candidate; first-slating: #650 (Nov 2020).
M American
827. 155 Friedrich Bessel 75.png Friedrich Bessel
(1784-1846)
61
Stellar parallax.png
(Murray 4000:13|A) Astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist; first to determine reliable values for the distance from the sun to another star by the method of stellar parallax (extremely tiny shift in the apparent position of a star when observed from opposite sides of the earth's orbit); specifically in 1838 he announced that 61 Cygni had a parallax of 0.314 arcseconds, which, given the diameter of the Earth's orbit, indicated that the star is 10.3 ly away (current value: 11.4 ly); first-slate: 155|#753 (Dec 2020).
M German
828.
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155 Henry II
(1133-1189)
Trial by jury.png
(Cattell 1000:457) (Gottlieb 1000:359) (Time 100:30) King; noted for his c.1170 introduction of "trial by jury", usurping the older practice of trial by priest with holy water; 112-candidate; first-slating: #650 (Nov 2020).
M English
829.
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155 Bolivar 75.png Simon Bolivar
(1783-1830)
IQ C.png=155
IQ W.png=145
M Venezuelan
830.
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155
Ricardo 75.png
David Ricardo

(1772-1823)

(RGM:645|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:127) (TFE 10:9) (GEcE:#) (CR:3) Political economist; noted from some type of “labor theory of value”; one of the four founders of “classical economics”, along with Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and John Mill (Leontief, 1982); 112-candidate list; first-slating: 155|#650 (Nov 2020). M English
831.
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155 Hannibal 75.png Hannibal

(247-182BC)

IQ B.png=155 M Carthaginian
832.
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155 Wells 75.png Herbert Wells

(1866-1946)

79
God No! Carnot Yes..png
[RGM:267|1,500+] (CR:10) Writer, futurist, and philosopher; characterized a “lower middle-class academic prodigy” (Stiles, 2009);
“He was a practical electrician fond of whiskey, a heavy, red-haired brute with irregular teeth. He doubted the existence of a deity but accepted Carnot’s cycle, and he had read Shakespeare and found him weak in chemistry.”
— Herbert Wells (1906), "Lord of the Dynamos" (Ѻ); in: The Door in the Wall, and Other Stories

first-slating: 155|#501 (Feb 2018).

M English
833.
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155 Ali Pasha

[Ait Weil Zade] (1740-1822)

IQ C.png=155 82 (Cattell 1000:351) M Albanian
834.
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155 Budge 75.png Wallis Budge
(98-21 BE)
(1857-1934 ACM)
(PR:42,043|65AE / archeologist:74) (RMS:86) (TL:154|#62) Egyptologist, Orientalist, archeologist, religio-mythologist, philologist, Assyriologist; noted for his 20+ volume collected works set on Egyptian hieroglyphics translated, with religio-mythology commentary, into English; first-slating: 155|#540 (Feb 2018). M English
835.

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155 Richard Baxter

(1615-1691)

IQ C.png=155 76 (Cattell 1000:379) Puritan church leader, poet, hymnodist, theologian, and controversialist. M English
836.

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155 Pierre Beranger

(1780-1857)

IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:323) Poet and songwriter. M French
837.
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155 Sperry 75.png Roger Sperry

(1913-1994)

Sperry split brain.png
Neurophysiologist;

“The cells and fibers of the brain must carry some kind of individual identification tags, presumably cytochemical in nature, by which they are distinguished one from another almost, in many regions, to the level of the single neurons.” — Roger Sperry (c.1965), Publication (Ѻ) Noted for his split-brain research on epileptic cats (1953), after which he did split-brain experiments on humans (1962), wherein he found that the left side of the brain can read words, e.g. “nut”, and the right side of the brain can feel things, grab a “nut”, but not recognize the word; first-slating: IQ:155|#602 (Jan 2019).

M American
838.
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155 Broca 75.png Paul Broca

(1824-1880)

Broca's area 2.png
Physician, anatomist, and anthropologist;

“The left hemisphere is well-qualified for dominance because we know following Broca’s remarkable work last century that it is the site of speech and ideation center.” — Eugene Schoffeniels (1973), Anti-Chance (pg. 76) noted for work which revealed that the brains of patients suffering from aphasia contained lesions in the left frontal cortex region, aka "Broca's area" (shown); this also relates to the work of Roger Sperry who showed that only the left side of a split-brain was able to recognize written words; first-slating: IQ:155|#603 (Jan 2019).

M French
839.

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155 Gaskell 75.png Elizabeth Gaskell

(1810-1865)

IQ C.png=160 55 Novelist, biographer and short story writer; noted for her 1857 The Life of Charlotte Bronte; down-graded from: 160|#550 to 155|#602 per relative non-notability, as compared to other GFG (Jan 2019). F English
840.

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155 Richard Cobden

(1804-1865)

IQ C.png=155 60 Manufacturer, radical, and politician, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty. M English
841.
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155
Diogenes Laertius
(1765-1705 BE)
(c.190-250 ACM)
(CR:49) Historian; noted for his c.230 The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, oft-cited for a number of historical topics, such as discussion of Democritus, monad theory, Zeno of Citium and the slave stealing parable (Ѻ), the existographic data on Epicurus, being and nonbeing, etc.; cited by Simonton (Ѻ), in his Genius 101 (2009), as the first existographical work on geniuses; first slating: 155|#505 (Feb 2018). M Greco-Roman
842.

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155 Georges Danton

(1759-1794)

IQ C.png=155 34 (Cattell 1000:297) Leader during the French revolution. M French
843.
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155 Albrecht Durer 75.png Albrecht Durer

(1471-1528)

IQ C.png=155 56 (Cattell 1000:155) [RGM:503|1,350+] (Murray 4000:6|WA) Painter, woodcut printmaker, and author of theoretical treatises, involving principles of mathematics, perspective, and ideal proportions; Hans Baldung [RGM:503|1,350+] is characterized as Durer’s most gifted student; cited by Herman Melville (1851) M German
844.
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155 Carlyle 75.png Thomas Carlyle
(160-74 BE)
(1795-1881 ACM)
1.82 85 (Cattell 1000:103) (PR:4,952|65AE / philosopher:232) (Gottlieb 1000:691) (TL:21) Philosopher and historian;
“Close thy Byron, open thy Goethe.”
— Thomas Carlyle (c.1850), Publication (Ѻ)

noted for his The French Revolution (1837), wherein he described members of states general convention of 1789 as gravitating bodies (see: social gravitation); and for his “great men” theory of history, which Henry Buckle and Morris Zucker both grappled with; friends with John Mill and Ralph Emerson; doctrines sometimes referred to as Carlylism (Nietzsche, 1887); first slating: 155|#546 (Feb 2018).

M Scottish
845.

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155 George Fox

(1624-1691)

IQ C.png=155 66 Founder of the Religious Society of Friends (aka Quakers or Friends); he rebelled against the religious and political authorities by proposing an unusual, uncompromising approach to the Christian faith; he travelled throughout Britain as a dissenting preacher, performing hundreds of healings, and often being persecuted by the disapproving authorities; viewed with respect, supposedly, by William Penn and Oliver Cromwell. M English
846.

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155 Charles Fox

(1749-1806)

IQ C.png=155 57 Whig statesman; was the arch-rival of the Tory politician William Pitt the Younger. M English
847.
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155 Gustave Le Bon 75.png
Gustave le Bon
(114-24 BE)
(1841-1931 ACM)
1.50 90 Social psychologist, sociologist, anthropologist, inventor, and amateur physicist;
“What really takes place, in crowds, is a combination followed by the creation of new characteristics, just as in chemistry certain elements, when brought into contact, e.g. bases and acids, combine to form a new body possessing properties quite different from those of the bodies that have served to form it.”
— Gustave le Bons (1895), The Crowd (pg. #)

Noted for his 1895 The Crowd, wherein he employs chemical and electromagnetic logic to describe "crowds" as a type of chemical transition state; rare HC pioneer; first-slate: 155|#772 (Dec 2020).

M French
848.

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155 Leon Gambetta
(1838-1882)
IQ C.png=155 44 Statesman, prominent during and after the Franco-Prussian War. M French
849.
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155 Koch 75.png Robert Koch

(1843-1910)

66
Koch (1882).png
[RGM:282|1,350+] (Murray 4000:3|Med) (Becker 160:89|3L) (Simmons 100:44) (Glenn 20:13) (CR:7) Physician; founder of modern bacteriology; known for his role in identifying the specific causative agents of tuberculosis (1882), cholera, and anthrax and for giving experimental support for the concept of infectious disease; son of a mining engineer, he astounded his parents at the age of five by telling them that he had, with the aid of the newspapers, taught himself to read, a feat which foreshadowed the intelligence and methodical persistence which were to be so characteristic of him; first draft gauged at 155|#465 (Nov 2017).
M German
850.
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155 Hawthorne 75.png Nathaniel Hawthorne

(1804-1864)

IQ C.png=155 59 (Cattell 1000:527) Novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer; in 1906 Frank Stearns published The Life and Genius of Nathaniel Hawthorne (Ѻ), wherein the “genius” mind of Hawthorne, supposedly, is described. M American
851. 155 Thomas Sydenham 75.png Thomas Sydenham
(1624-1689)
65 (Murray 4000:14|M) Physician;
“The arrival of a good clown exercises a more beneficial influence upon the health of a town than of twenty asses laden with drugs.”
— Thomas Sydenham (c.1680), Publication

aka “English Hippocrates”; noted for his 1676 Medical Observations, a manifesto on the general principles of the practice of medicine; associated with John Locke and Robert Boyle; first-slate: 155|#775 (Dec 2020).

M English
852.

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155 Madame Maintenon
(1635-1719)
IQ C.png=155 83 (Cattell 1000:281) Noblewoman who secretly married King Louis XIV, becoming his second wife; was one of the King's closest advisers and the royal children's governess; in 1684, she founded the Maison royale de Saint-Louis, a school for girls from poorer noble families. F French
853.
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155 Hugh Miller 75.png Hugh Miller

(153-99 BE)
(1802-1856 ACM)

IQ C.png=155 54 (Cattell 1000:696) (EPD:F5) Self-taught geologist and writer, folklorist, and an evangelical Christian; he did not believe that later species were descended from earlier ones; he denied the Epicurean theory that new species occasionally budded from the soil, and the Lamarckian theory of development of species, as lacking evidence; argued that all this showed the direct action of a benevolent creator, as attested in the Bible; he accepted the view of Thomas Chalmers that Genesis begins with an account of geological periods, and does not mean that each of them is a day; Noah's Flood was a limited subsidence of the Middle East; geology, to Miller, offered a better version of the argument from design than William Paley could provide, and answered the objections of sceptics, by showing that living species did not arise by chance or by impersonal law. M Scottish
854.

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155 Jacques Necker

(1732-1804)

IQ C.png=155 71 (Cattell 1000:235) Statesman and financier. M French
855. 155 Hugh Everett 75.png Huge Everett
(1930-1982)
51
MWI model.png
Physicist; at age 12, was exchanging letters with Einstein, asking him whether that which maintained the universe was something random or unifying, and whether there was an “irresistible force” and or “immovable bodies”;
“Everett was smart in a very broad way. I mean, to go from chemical engineering to mathematics to physics and spending most of the time buried in a science fiction book, I mean, this is talent.”
— Harvey Arnold (c.1956), “Comment on Everett during his third year a Princeton”

Noted for his 1957 PhD thesis “The Theory of the Universal Wavefunction”, done under John Wheeler, wherein he, supposedly, expanded on Schrodinger’s 1952 “seemingly lunatic” suggestion that the Schrodinger equation does not explain several different histories or alternatives, but what is “all happening simultaneously”, to propose the “many world’s interpretation” (Ѻ), which gives solution to the Schrodinger cat paradox; 2018 TopTenz.net “great mind throughout history” (Ѻ); first-slate: 155|#778 (Dec 2020).

M American
856.

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155 Daniel O’Connell
(1775-1847)
IQ C.png=155 71 (Cattell 1000:438) Patriot and orator. M Irish
857.
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155 Weininger 75.png Otto Weininger

(1880-1903)

23 (Cattell 1000:61) (CR:49) Philosopher; noted for his 1903 Eros and Psyche or Sex and Character: A Fundamental Investigation, published four months before he shot himself in the heart (see: founders and suicide), in which he claims to be the first to extrapolate upon German polymath Johann Goethe’s 1809 chemical affinity theory of relationships, passions, sex, marriage and divorce; first slating: 180|#106 (Dec 2016); down-grade ↓ to 155|#560 after finishing Sex and Character (Mar 2018). M Austrian
858. 155 Friedrich Miescher 75.png Friedrich Miescher
(1844-1895)
51
DNA (1869).png
Physician and chemist; noted for his 1869 isolation of nucleic acid, which he called “nuclein”, specifically from the nuclei of what blood cells; latter, supposedly, conjectured that the stereochemistry of nuclein, as some sort of alphabet, might serve as the basis for the transmission of hereditary variation (Ѻ); first-slate: 155|#780 (Dec 2020).
M Swiss
859.

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155 Giovanni Palestrina
(1525-1594)
IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:471) Composer. M Italian
860.
Down.png
155 William Prescott

(1796-1859)

IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:321) Historian. M American
861.

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155 Girolamo Savonarola

(1452-1498)

IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:187) Dominican friar and preacher. M Italian
862.
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155 Ignaz Semmelweis 75.png Ignaz Semmelweis
(1818-1865)
Semmelweis Doodle.png
(Murray 4000:20|M) (Gottlieb 1000:286) (RGM:767|1,350+) Physician; noted for his 1847 promotion of the practice of “handwashing” before surgery, e.g. with chlorinated lime solutions; publishing his findings in 1861 Etiology, Concept and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever; his ideas, however, were rejected by the “established” medical community, and he suffered a nervous breakdown and was committed to an asylum, by his colleagues, where he dies 14-days later; his handwashing idea to reduce mortality rates in hospitals only gained acceptance years after following the work and practice of Pasteur and Lister; image (Ѻ) from 20 Mar 2020 Doodle in recognition of Semmelweis; first-slating: 155|#783 (Nov 2020).
M Hungarian
863.
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155 Diagoras 75.png Diagoras

(c.448-388BC)

Diagoras (about).png
(FA:17) (CR:27) Lyric poet, philosopher, and sophist, student of Democritus; cited by Cicero (On The Nature of the Gods, 45BC), along with Theodorus, as the first person to profess that gods do not exist at all (see: first true atheist); in 430BC, the Athenians erected a bronze inscription offering one talent in silver to anyone who killed; first-draft guesstimated at #475 (Dec 2017).
M Greek
864.

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155 William Seward

(1801-1872)

IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:441) Statesman; opponent of the spread of slavery, in the years leading up to the American Civil War. M American
865. 155 Roderick Murchison 75.png Roderick Murchison
(1792-1871)
79 (Murray 4000:6|E) (EPD:F4) Geologist; noted for his 1867 Siluria, which, according to Bruce Fegley (2013), was the first use of thermodynamics in geology[8]; he was friends with Humphry Davy, who told him that he was wasting his time riding to hounds and shooting, and that he should turn his energy to science, which prompted him to join the Geological Society of London, wherein he became colleagues with: colleagues there included Adam Sedgwick, William Conybeare, William Buckland, William Fitton, Charles Lyell (who he went exploring with), and Charles Darwin; first-slate: 155|#785 (Dec 2020). M Scottish
866.
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155
Harriot 75.png
Thomas Harriot
(1560-1621)
(Siegfried 10:8) (GME:#) (CR:3) Mathematician, philosopher (Hues, 1594), physicist, navigator, linguist, an oft-cited general polymath;
“The mark of the majority (signum majoritatis) as a > b, signifies a greater than b and the mark of the minority (signum minoritatis) to a < b signifies a lesser than b.”
— Thomas Harriot (c.1610), The Analytical Arts Applied to Solving Algebraic Equations

noted for the c.1595 introduction of the inequality sign; 112-candidate list; first-slating: 155|#679 (Nov 2020).

M English
867. 155
William Smith 75.png
William Smith
(1769-1839)
70
Map that Changed the World.png
(Murray 4000:3|G) Geologist, aka “Strata Smith” and “father of English geology”; noted for his discernment, while working in coal mines, in the 1790s, of how rock layers were always arranged in predictable patterns, with a succession of fossil groups, all over England; in 1799, he began making geological map of England, showing the heights of rock formations, later characterized as the "map that changed the world"[9]; his work paved the way for the theory of evolution and the eventual determination of the true age of the earth; first-slate: 155|#786 (Dec 2020).
M English
868.

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155 William Temple
(1628-1699)
IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:470) Diplomat, statesman, and author. M English
869.
Wavy.png
155
Percy Julian 75.png
Percy Julian
(1899-1975)
Chemist; noted for his 1935 synthesis of the drug physostigmine (beating out Robert Robinson, who incorrectly claimed synthesis before him), previously only available from its natural source, the Calabar bean; after which glaucoma began to be treatable (Ѻ); and for later work on soybean chemicals and steroids; first-slating: IQ:155|#787 after watching first 47-min of 2007 PBS NOVA documentary: Percy Julian: Forgotten Genius (Nov 2020). M American
870.
Wavy.png
155
Sextus Empiricus 75.png
Sextus Empiricus (c.160-210) (Becker 139:107|3L) (Stokes 100:17) (PEC10:3)[10] (CR:26) Philosopher, physician, and skeptic;

“Since justice too was introduced according to the relationship of men to each other and to the gods, if there are no gods, justice too will not exist. And this is absurd.” — Sextus Empiricus (c.200), Against the Mathematicians (9.126-130) ; first-slated: IQ:155 (Nov 2020).

M Greco-Roman
871. 155
Helena Blavatsky 75.png
Helena Blavatsky
(1831-1891)
(RGM:722|1,350+) (CR:6) Religio-mythology scholar;
“The universe is worked and guided from within outwards.”
— Helena Blavatsky (c.1888), The Secret Doctrine, Volume One (pgs. 272-79)

noted for her two-volume Isis Unveiled (1884), wherein she decodes parts of Set, and El in respect to Saturn and Israel (see: Is-Ra-El); co-editor, with Annie Besant, of the journal Lucifer, which has helpful articles on the gematria values of Abraham and Braham; coiner, supposedly[11], of the term “law of attraction” (Hurst, 2019), as expounded in her two-volume The Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy (V1: Cosmogenesis; V2: Anthropogenesis); first-slate: 155|#788 (Dec 2020).

F Russian
872.

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155 Anthony Van Dyck
(1599-1641)
IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:162) Painter. M Flemish
873. 155
No image 2.png
Ibn al-Rawandi
(827-911)
84 (RGM:554|1,350+) (FA:31) (CR:17) Religious scholar, with roots in Shia and Mutazlite schools, turned free thinker, atheist, skeptic of Islam, and religious critic;
Al-Rawandi disputed the reality of the miracles of Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad and claimed that they were fraudulent tricks and that people who performed them were magicians and lairs; that the Quran is the speech of an unwise being, and that it contains contradictions, errors, and absurdities.”
— Al-Hayyat (c.910), Publication

Noted for his Book of the Emerald, only fragments of which exist; is grouped with Zakariya Razi as a top "free thinker" of medieval Islam[12]; similar to David Hume in respect to his miracle views[13]; first-slate: 155|#789 (Dec 2020).

M Persian
874.
Wavy.png
155
Chamfort 75.png
Nicolas Chamfort
(1741-1794)
53 (Cattell 1000:958) (RGM:873|1,350+) Writer, epigramist, and aphorist;

“The aphorism as a deliberately cultivated literary form, as distinct from something said briefly, did not appear in European literature until the Renaissance, when the aphoristic writings of Erasmus, Michelangelo, Paracelsus and Bacon, but above all those of the line of French philosophers from Montaigne to Chamfort, bestowed on it the distinctive character by which we now recognize it.” — Reginald Hollingdale (1990), “Introduction” to Georg Lichtenberg’s The Waste Books (1799) First-draft slating: IQ:155|#603 (Jan 2019).

M French
875. 155
John Smeaton 75 .png
John Smeaton
(1724-1792)
68
Smeaton engine.png
(Murray 4000:8|T) (EP:30) (CR:10) Mechanical engineer, civil engineer, and physicist;
Smeaton was the first to call himself a ‘civil’, as distinguished from a ‘military’, engineer.”
— Richard Kirby (1956), Engineering in History

Noted for his 1769 Smeaton engine (an improved Newcomen engine); in 1765, equated one horsepower to 5 men or to 22,916 pounds of water raised one foot high in one minute against the force of gravity; first-slate: 155|#790 (Dec 2020).

M English
876. 155
Jonas Salk 75.png
Jonas Salk
(1914-1995)
80 (RGM:624|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:314) (Simmons 100:91) (Becker 160:72|4L) Virologist and medical researcher; noted for his 1952 development of the polio vaccine; first-slate: 155|#790 (Dec 2020) M American
877. 155
Samuel Morse 75.png
Samuel Morse
(1791-1872)
80
Morse telegraph system.png
(Murray 4000:20|T) (Gottlieb 1000:329) Artist and inventor;
“I have been so constantly under the necessity of watching the movements of the most unprincipled set of pirates I have ever known, that all my time has been occupied in defense, in putting evidence into something like legal shape that I am the inventor of the ‘electro-magnetic telegraph! Would you have believed it ten years ago that a question could be raised on that subject?”
— Samuel Morse (1848), “Letter to Brother” (Ѻ), Apr 19

noted for his 1837 Morse code system for telegraphy, co-developed with Joseph Henry and Alfred Vail (who in 1840 added letters and special characters); first used in practice in 1844; first-slate: 155|#790 (Dec 2020).

M American
878.

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155 Robert Walpole
(1676-1745)
IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:394) Statesman. M English
879.

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155 William Warburton

(1698-1779)

IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:499) Prelate, theological controversialist, and critic. M English
880.

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155 Robert Blake

(1599-1657)

IQ C.png=155 (Cattell 1000:460) Admiral. M English
881.
Wavy.png
155
Kubrick 75.png
Stanley Kubrick

(1928-1999)

IQ O.png=200[14] [RGM:567|1,320+] Film director, screenwriter, and producer; noted for meticulous to detail and emotion films such as Spartacus, The Shining, Full Metal Jacket, A Clockwork Orange; his purported "genius" is a frequent Quora topic (Ѻ); first-slating: 155|#570 (Mar 2018). M American
IQ 155 up.png
882.
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150
Lyell 75.png
Charles Lyell

(1797-1875)

Lyell model.jpg
(Murray 4000:1|ES) (Gottlieb 1000:512) (Becker 160:115|3L) (Simmons 100:28) (CR:11) Lawyer turned geologist;

“Hitherto, no rival hypothesis has been proposed as a substitute for the doctrine of transmutation; for ‘independent creation’, as it is often termed, or the direct intervention of the ‘supreme cause’, must simply be considered as an avowal that we deem the question to lie beyond the domain of science.” — Charles Lyell (1863), The Antiquity of Man (pg. 421) (Ѻ) noted for his 1830 Principles of Geology, published in three volumes (1830-33), wherein he showed that according to geological evidence that the earth was more than 300-million years old, rather than 6,000-years-old, the Biblical view; influenced a young age 22 Charles Darwin greatly; first-slating: 150|#570 (Mar, 2018).

M Scottish-born English
883.
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150
Maillet 75.png
Benoit de Maillet

(1656-1738)

Maillet evolution model.png
(CR:3) Natural philosopher, diplomat, and proto-evolution theorist; noted for his 1732 Telliamed (a reverse anagram of his surname “de Maillet”), wherein he posited, based on the fact that iron rings of ancient moored ships now sat in the desert in the ruins of Memphis, that the earth could not have been created instantaneously, as the Bible decreed, but rather was 2-billion years old, based on the datum that the sea was receding at a rate of three inches per century, and that all land creatures originally derived from sea-based human-like creatures; influential to Buffon and to Julien la Mettrie; first-slating: 150|#570 (Apr 2018).
M French
884.

Steady.png

150
Rembrandt 75.png
Rembrandt

(1606-1669)

IQ CB.png=150

IQ C.png=155

IQ B.png=150

The Night Watch.png
(Cattell 1000:168) [RGM:94|1,350+] (Murray 4000:7|WA) (Norlinger 22:20) Draughtsman, painter and printmaker;

“Giotto, Titian, Rembrandt, and Goya were the great painters. I am only a public clown.” — Pablo Picasso (1952), Interview (Ѻ)regarded as the greatest artist of Holland's ‘golden age’; his “Pendant Portraits of Maerten Soolmans and Oopjen Coppit”, which sold for $190M, is the eight most expensive painting (Ѻ) in history; is ranked #4 in Ranker.com’s Best Painters of All Time (Ѻ) listing; his “The Night Watch”, adjacent, is Ranker.com ranked at #23 “Best Paintings of All Time” (Ѻ) out of 200.

M Dutch
885.
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150
Horace 75.png
Horace
(2020-1963 BE)
(65-8 BCM)
2.68 56 (Cattell 1000:53) (PR:258|65AE / writer:32) (Murray 4000:16|WL) (TL:12) Poet and Epicurean-Stoic philosopher;
“A word uttered once can never be recalled.”
— Horace (c.20BC), Publication (Ѻ)

Noted for defining “happiness” as consisting in the practice of virtue and freedom from superstition (Collins, 1713); first-slating: 150|#527 (Feb 2018).

M Roman
886. 150
Galton 75.png
Francis Galton (133-44 BE) (1822-1911 ACM) IQ O.png=200
Galton's IQ
88
Francis Galton (Forrest, 1974).png
(RGM:172|1,350+) (PR:2,916|65AE / statistician:1) (Becker 160:123|3L) (Simmons 100:94) (TL:60) Anthropologist, statistician, psychologist; half-cousin to English naturalist Charles Darwin; characterized a "Victorian genius" (Forrest, 1974), noted for his 1869 Hereditary Genius, one of the first books on the science of genius; for his 1879 dialogue with James Maxwell on the topic of free will; and for his interest in William Thomson’s lecture on Maxwell's demon at the Royal Institute; moves: 200|#12 (2007); 165|#246 (2014); 145|#714 (2019); 150|#886 (Apr 66AE)
M English
886.
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150
Lovecraft 75.png
Howard Lovecraft
(65-18 BE)
(1890-1937 ACM)
IQ O.png=160[15] 47
Do rocks have souls?.png
[RGM:424|1,350+] (FA:127) (EPD:F8) (CR:17) Horror fiction author, philosopher, and epistolarian;

“Who can say that men have souls while rocks have none?” — Howard Lovecraft (1916), “Letter to Rheinhart Kleiner, Ira Cole, and Maurice Moe”, Aug 8 Noted for his philosophically discerning letters of correspondence, wherein he gives ripe honed statements about existence, religion, science, atheism, and meaning; first-slating: 150|#690 (Nov 2020).

M American
887.
Up.png
150
Ingersoll 75.png
Robert Ingersoll

(1833-1899)

Ingersoll cross.png
[RGM:802|1,500+] (removed 2020) (HD:34) (FA:117) (CR:29) Lawyer, colonel, politician, and free thought orator;

Ingersoll is the nearest approach we Americans have had to Voltaire.” — James Gillis (1925), Publication nicknamed the “great agnostic”, “great American atheist” (1888) (Ѻ), or "pagan prophet" (Hecht, 2003), noted for being one of the first to state that "Adam and Eve never existed" (c.1882), for making one of the first atheist eulogies, for being one of the supposed atheist rocks to avoid in the Christian captain anecdote, and for being one of the most-prolific atheism quotesmiths; first-slating: 150|#633 (Jan 2019).

M American
888.
Wavy.png
150
Kemal Ataturk 75.png
Kemal Ataturk
(1881-1938)
IQ O.png=160+[16] 2.72 57 [RGM:473|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:187) Political leader, field marshal, statesman, author; largely responsible for modernizing Turkey into a secular, industrial nation; added at IQ:150|#650-range (Oct 2020). M Turkish
889.
Up.png
150
Alfred Mayer 75.png
Alfred Mayer

(1836-1897)

2.46 61
Mayer floating charged needles.png
(CR:31) Physicist; noted for 1878 floating magnets experiment, wherein, based on the c.1590 floating loadstone experiments of William Gilbert, he put charged needles in cork floating in water, above which he put an opposite-charged magnet, and therein discerned geometric patterns, changing per number of needles; this data served as the theoretical basis for Joseph Thomson’s 1904 plum pudding model of the atom, two big stepping stones in the development of atomic theory; first slating: 150|#567 (Feb 2018).
M American
890.
Up.png
150
Strabo 75.png
Strabo

(c.63BC-24AD)

Strabo map of world.png
(Cattell 1000:500) (CR:6) Philosopher and historian; noted for his 23AD Geography, which established the science of geography, based on then-current views, and historical precursor models; first-slating: IQ:150|#633 (Jan 2019).
M Greek
891.
Wavy.png
150
Crookes 75.png
William Crookes

(1832-1919)

Crookes tube.png
(Murray 4000:12|C) (CR:3) (CR:6) Chemist and physicist; noted for his for his 1870 invention of the Crooke tube, and cathode-ray studies, fundamental in the development of atomic physics, and for his discovery of the element thallium; first-slating: 150|#663 (Oct 2019).
M English
892.
Wavy.png
150
Protagoras 75.png
Protagoras
(2445-2375 BE)
(c.490-420 BCM)
(PEC10:4)[17] (FA:8) (ACR:21) (CR:11) Philosopher, possible student of Democritus, noted, in the atheism timeline, for expressing the first agnostic views on the existence of the gods, for which he was labeled an atheist, and his books were burned; first-slated: IQ:150 (Nov 2020). M Greek
893.
Wavy.png
150
Scotus 75.png
Duns Scotus
(1266-1308)
(Cardano 12:4) (Gottlieb 1000:635) (Becker 139:67|5L) (Stokes 100:23) (CR:4) Philosopher and theologian;

“If all men by nature desire to know, then they desire most of all the greatest knowledge of science. And he immediately indicates what the greatest science is, namely the science which is about those things that are most knowable.” — Duns Scotus (c. 1300), Publication (Ѻ) aka "medieval Kant" (Anar, 2019); oft-grouped with: Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham (who he influenced), and Francisco Suarez as top four middle ages philosopher theologians; influenced: Rene Descartes, Martin Heidegger, Gilles Deleuze, Antonius Andreas; first-slating: 150|#662 (Sep 2019).

M Scottish
894. 150
Abu Zahrawi 75.png
Abu Zahrawi
(936-1013)
77
Zahrawi instruments.jpg
(Shariff 10:4)[10] Physician and surgeon; aka "Albucasis" (Latin) or "Zahravius"; known as the "father of operative surgery"; noted for his 1,500-page The Method of Medicine (Azija ‘an at-Ta’lif ), a 30-volume medical encyclopedia, with focus on obstetrics, maternal and child health, and the anatomy and physiology of the human body, the last volume “On Surgery”, being the first-ever surgical treatise ever written; first translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona (c.1170), which was said to have initiated the first English books on medicine in 1250[18]; was regarded as greater than Galen, in his day; first-slate: 150|#806 (Dec 2020).
M Arabian
895.
Up.png
150
No image 2.png
Thomas Aikenhead
(279-258 BE)
(1676-1697 ACM)
7.5 20
Aikenhead award.png
(FA:80) (EPD:FM|10) (TL:9) Philosopher, medical student, and satirical and outspoken irreligionist;
“It is a principle innate and co-natural to every man to have an insatiable inclination to the truth, and to seek for it as for hid treasure. So I proceeded until the more I thought thereon, the further I was from finding the verity I desired.”
— Thomas Aikenhead (1697) “Letter to Friend” (last words) morning, Jan 8

after losing two of his sisters and both of his parents before age 10, he began to seek answers to questions such as: if more truth could be made by stretching the truth? Why did the Lord need so many bairn? Do cats have souls, and if so, can cats go to hell?”; at age 17, read Descartes, Spinoza, Hobbes, Blount, Toland, and Servetus; by age 20, was a medical student at University of Edinburgh, wherein he began to profess some form a pantheism, after which he was hung (by vote); all of the material on him was meticulously preserved by Locke; first-slating: 150|# 696 (Nov 2020).

M Scottish
896.
Wavy.png
150
Peirce 75.png
Charles Peirce
(117-41 BE)
(1838-1914 ACM)
[RGM:667|1,500+] (Becker 139:51|6L) (Stokes 100:60) (Listal 100:35) (GAG:#) (CR:16) Chance-based philosopher and logician;
“In an article published in The Monist for January, 1891, I endeavored to show what ideas ought to form the warp of a system of philosophy, and particularly emphasized that of absolute chance.”
— Charles Pierce (1892), “The Law of Mind”

First-slate: 150|#896 (Nov 2020).

M American
897.
Wavy.png
150
Eco 75.png
Umberto Eco

(1932-2016)

[RGM:308|1,500+] (CR:2) Novelist, literary critic, philosopher, and semiotician, noted in genius studies culture for having the third-largest personal library in history, said to contain 30,000 to 50,000 books, influential to influenced Nassim Taleb, noted for generally for his 1980 The Name of the Rose, which is ranked by some (Ѻ) alongside Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code and Graham Hancock’s Fingerprints of the Gods; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 150|#696 (Nov 2020). M Italian
898.

Steady.png

150
Nelson 75.png
Horatio Nelson

(1758-1805)

IQ CB.png=148

IQ C.png=150

IQ B.png=145

(Cattell 1000:69) [GCH:6|300+] Naval commander and national hero; famous for his naval victories against the French during the Napoleonic Wars. M English
899.
Wavy.png
150
Leidy 75.png
Joseph Leidy

(1823-1891)

Paleontologist, parasitologist and anatomist; a fabled “last person who knew everything” (Warren, 1998); first-draft IQ gauged at 130-155 (c.2015).[19][20] M American
900.
Wavy.png
150
Veblen 75.png
Thorstein Veblen
(1857-1929)
(CR:14) Economist; a fabled “last person who knew everything” (Heilbroner, 1999); IQ first-draft guesstimated at 130-155 (c.2015).[20][21] M American
901. 150
Dionysius Exiguus 75.png
Dionysius Exiguus
(1485-1411 BE)
(470-544 AD|ACM)
(185-259 AM|AD)[22]
(1223-1297 AUC)[23]
74
BC - AD.png
Monk and religious scholar; noted for his 525AD (1260AUC) invention of the BC/AD dating system; became popular, in western Europe, after Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731), began to use it to date events; during the reign of Charlemagne (742-814), it became the state dating system, and usurped the previous AUC dating system, with a “from empire [of Rome] founding” dated dating, according to him to have begun at the approximate mid-point (6.5 BC) of the reign of Caesar Augustus, from 27 BC-14 AD, but overtly themed it as a “birth of Christ” dating system, to align with the then-established Christianity form of the state religion; first-slate: 150|#812 (Dec 2020).
M Roman
902.
Wavy.png
150
C.S. Lewis 75.png
C.S. Lewis
(1898-1963)
[RGM:533|1,350+] (CR:19) Writer and philosopher; popularly known for his 1956 The Chronicles of Narnia; intellectually known for his 1940s atheism-turned-apologetics works, such as his 1952 Mere Christianity; said to have “extremely high intelligence in the linguistic domain”, but unable to pass a school certificate mathematics exam, despite many attempts (see: IQ tests and mislabeled geniuses); a common query is who had the higher IQ: Tolkien or Lewis (Ѻ)(Ѻ); first-slating: 150|#616 (Jul 2018). M Irish-born English
903. 150
Lazzaro Spallanzani 75.png
Lazzaro Spallanzani
(1729-1799)
70
Spallanzani experiment.png
(Murray 4000:17|B) Natural scientist; noted for his 1765 Microscopic Observations Regarding the Generation Systems of Needham and Buffon, wherein he refuted, via his famous hermetically-sealed boiling experiment, the spontaneous generation theories of Maupertuis, Buffon, and John Needham, who argued that argued that that there was an life-generating force inherent in certain kinds of inorganic matter that caused living microbes to create themselves in time; influenced: Pasteur who defeated the spontaneous generation theory in the next century; In his 1786 Generation of Animals and Plants, he was the first to argue that fertilization requires both spermatozoa and an ovum, and was the first to prove this via doing the first-ever in vitro fertilization, specifically on frogs and dogs; first-slate: 150|#813 (Dec 2020).
M Italian
904.
Wavy.png
150
John Eriugena 75.png
John Eriugena
(c.815-877)
Pantheist theologian, philosopher, and poet; penned The Division of Nature, based on aggregate of the ideas of Plato, Plotinus, Proclus, and Origen; Meister Eckhart and Nicholas of Cusa are considered his successors (Ѻ); Schopenhauer ranks (Ѻ) him, pantheistically, with Giordano Bruno, Nicolas Malebranche, and Benedict Spinoza; considered a neglected middle ages genius whose works are “finally coming into their own after centuries of neglect and condemnation (Carabine, 2000) (Ѻ); an "interesting" potential top 1000 candidate (Philoepisteme, Jun 2018) (Ѻ); 112-candidate; first-slating:#700 (Nov 2020). M Irish
905.
Wavy.png
150
Franklin D. Roosevelt 75.png
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882–1945)
IQ S.png=151 63 [RGM:1061|1,350+] (API:12)[24] Politician; 32nd American President; noted as being person who pulled America out of the great depression and aligned the US with the Allied Powers during WWII. M American
906. 150
Charles Messier 75.png
Charles Messier
(1730-1817)
(Becker 160:108|3L) (GAE:#) (EPD:F11) (CR:3) Astronomer; noted as a "comet hunter", which resulted in him publishing a 1744 compendium of comets versus "mistaken comet-like" objects, known known to be: 39 galaxies, 4 planetary nebulae, 7 other types of nebulae, and 55 star clusters; first-slate: 150|#815 (Dec 2020). M French
907.
Wavy.png
150
Cezanne 75.png
Paul Cezanne
(1839-1906)
IQ B.png=150 67 [RGM:580|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:72) (Murray 4000:10|WA) Artist and Post-Impressionist painter; Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cézanne "is the father of us all"; one of his paintings is name-dropped in the 1958 film Houseboat. M French
908. 150
George Gamow 75.png
George Gamow
(1904-1968)
64 (Gottlieb 1000:674) (GPE:107) (GAE:#) (CR:10) Theoretical physicist and cosmologist;
“Look what happens to [geniuses] when they get married.”
— Niels Bohr (1937), comment to George Gamow, in reference to Paul Dirac’s 1937

At age 27, in Russian, Gamow was forbidden to speak about Heisenberg’s version of quantum mechanics as it was deemed anti-materialistic and incompatible with the state’s increasingly rigid version of Marxist philosophy[25]; known as an "ordinary genius" (Serge, 2013)[26]; his idea, along with Bohr (who had the idea), that an atomic nucleus might be akin to a liquid drop, that after reaching a certain size would “split” into two new droplets, influenced: Lise Meitner; first-slate: #816 (Dec 2020).

M Russian-born American
909.

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150 Frederick Alexander

(1869-1955)

IQ B.png=150 Shakespearian actor; noted for the “Alexander technique”, a psycho-physical re-learning process aimed at fixing ailments, and to recognize and overcome reactive, habitual limitations in movement and thinking. M Australian
910. 150
Vilhelm Bjerknes 75.png
Vilhelm Bjerknes
(1862-1951)
89 (Murray 4000:16|E) (Gottlieb 1000:236) (GPE:#) Physicist and meteorologist; student of Hertz; noted for developing some of the first primitive equations used in weather prediction; first-slate: 150|#817 (Dec 2020). M Norwegian
911.
Wavy.png
150
Martha Graham 75.png
Martha Graham
(1895-1991)
IQ B.png=148 96 [RGM:556|1,350+] Dance choreographer; inspiration to Madonna, who stated upon meeting her: “she absolutely lived up to all my expectations with her wit, intelligence, and nerve-wracking imperiousness”. F American
912.
Wavy.png
150
Muhammad Ali 75.png
Muhammad Ali

(1942-2016)

IQ B.png=147 74 [RGM:984|1,310+] Boxer and activist. M American
913.
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150
Gutenberg 75.png
Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468) IQ B.png=140 68
Moveable metal type.png
(Cattell 1000:231) [RGM:21|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:1) (Hart 100:3) (CR:4) Blacksmith, goldsmith, and engraver; noted for his c.1450 invention of the movable type printing press; upgraded from 140|#614 to 150|#575 (Feb 2018).
M German
914.

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150
John Bright 75.png
John Bright

(1811-1889)

IQ C.png=150 77 (Cattell 1000:366) Liberal statesman and orator; coined the term: "flog a dead horse". M English
915.
Wavy.png
150
Robert Burns 75.png
Robert Burns

(1759-1796)

IQ C.png=150 4.05 37 (Cattell 1000:92) [RGM:913|1,350+] Lyric poet;

“Facts are chiels that winna ding, an’ downa be disputed.” — Robert Burns (1786), A Dream (Ѻ)(Ѻ); cited by Steven Shapin (1985) in Leviathan and the Air Pump (pg. 22)

M Scottish
916.
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150
Hesiod 75.png
Hesiod
(2705-2605 BE)
(c.750-650 BCM)
Greek pantheon.png
(Cattell 1000:477) (RGM:157|1,350+) (PR:539|65AE / Writer:69) (ACR:15) (TL:51|#169) Writer, poet, and theologian, noted for his 700BC Theogony, wherein he rescripts the therianthropic Egyptian pantheon into a new more anthropomorphic Greek pantheon, with more anthropomorphism than the former.; noted for his c.700BC Theogony, aka “generation of the gods", from whence the roots of terms such as “theology” and “thermodynamics” derive, wherein he transliterates the Egyptian pantheon into a Greek pantheon[27], pictured adjacent, according to which in the beginning was Chaos, the primordial void or chasm of darkness, from which springs the feminine principle Gaia (earth) and then Eros (desire), which establishes the procreative principle by which the cosmos became populated; first-draft slated at #525 (Jan 2018).
M Greek
917.
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150
Emil Reymond 75.png
Emil Reymond
(1818-1896)
(PEC10:11)[28] (CR:5) Physiologist;
“[We pledge] to put in power this truth: no other forces than the common physical chemical ones are active within the organism. In those cases which cannot at the time be explained by these forces one has either to find a specific way or form of their action by means of physical mathematical method, or to assume new forces equal in dignity to the chemical physical forces inherent in matter, reducible to the force of attraction and repulsion.”
— Reymond-Brucke oath (1842), the central pledge of the Helmholtz school, signed in blood

In 1838, aged 20, after reading Lucretius’ On the Nature of Things, he was converted to a positivist view of biology (powered chnopsology), meaning that he dispensed with teleology, vitalism, and other romantic notions; first-slated: IQ:150 (Nov 2020).

M German
918. 150
Heinrich Olbers 75.png
Heinrich Olbers
(1758-1840)
81 (Murray 4000:18|A) Astronomer and physician; noted for his 1823 description of the “dark night sky paradox”, aka Oblers paradox, namely: if there are an infinite number of stars in the universe, is the sky dark? The paradox, supposedly, was ruminated on by Thomas Digges (c.1580), Kepler (1610), Halley, Cheseaux, Poe (1848), and Thomson (1901); first-slate: 150|#824 (Dec 2020). M German
919.

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150 William Cobbett
(1763-1835)
IQ C.png=150 (Cattell 1000:406) Political writer. M English
920 150
Paul of Aegina 75.png
Paul of Aegina
(c.625-690)
65 (Shariff 10:8)[29] Physician, aka “Paulus Aegineta”; noted for his c.680 Medical Compendium in Seven Books, a compilation of extant medical knowledge; first-slate: 150|#825 (Dec 2020). M Greek
921. 150
Claudio Monteverdi 75.png
Claudio Monteverdi
(1567-1643)
76 (Murray 4000:16|WM) (Gottlieb 1000:231) (GMG:20)[28] Composer, string player, choirmaster, and priest; composer of both secular and sacred music, and a pioneer in the development of opera; considered a crucial transitional figure between the Renaissance and Baroque periods of music history; first-slate: 150|#825 (Dec 2020). M Italian
922.

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150 John Franklin
(1786-1847)
IQ C.png=150 (Cattell 1000:442) Naval officer. M English
923. 150
Claude Debussy 75.png
Claude Debussy
(1862-1918)
IQ O.png=165[30] 56 (Murray 4000:8|WM) Composer; first-slate: 150|#826 (Dec 2020). M French
924.

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150 Auguste de Marmont
(1774-1852)
IQ C.png=150 (Cattell 1000:174) Marshal. M French
925. 150
Franz Liszt 75.png
Franz Liszt
(1811-1886)
IQ O.png=140[30] 75 (Murray 4000:9|WM) Composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, and organist of the Romantic era; first-slate: 150|#827 (Dec 2020). M Hungarian
926.
Wavy.png
150
Thomas Moore 75.png
Thomas Moore
(1779-1852)
IQ C.png=150 (Cattell 1000:332) [RGM:953|1,350+] Poet; not to be confused with: George Moore (1873-1958) (Stokes 100:80). M Irish
927. 150
Karl Baer 75.png
Karl Baer
(1792-1876)
84 (Murray 4000:17|B) Naturalist, zoologist, geologist, meteorologist, geographer;
“Von Baer, towards whom all zoologists feel so profound a respect, expressed about the year 1859... his conviction, chiefly grounded on the laws of geographical distribution, that forms now perfectly distinct have descended from a single parent-form.”
— Charles Darwin (1861), Origin of Species, 3rd Edition

Noted for his 1828 work on comparative embryology and his four laws of embryology; aka “father of embryology”; first-slate: 150|#828 (Dec 2020).

M German
928.
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150
Aesop
(2575-2519 BE)
(c.620-564 BCM)
Scorpion and the frog.png
(Cattell 1000:944) (ACR:32) (CR:17) Moral philosopher and fabulist;
“We fear what we don’t understand.”
— Aesop (c.550BC), Publication; cited in Batman Begins (2005)

noted for his storytelling using animal-human figures, e.g. the "scorpion and the frog", “Androcles and the lion” (aka Daniel 6, of the Bible), etc., to convey teachings about ambiguous natures; cited by Herodotus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, etc; while under the death sentence, was said to have passed the time by converting his fables, from memory, into verse (Plato, c.360BC); first-slated: 150|#495 (Dec 2017).

M Greek
929. 150
Harold Urey 75.png
Harold Urey
(62 BE-26 AE)
(1893-1981 ACM)
87
Urey article (1952).png
Physical chemist; student of Gilbert Lewis; noted for his Jan 1952 “On the Early Chemical History of the Earth and the Origin of Life” (Ѻ), wherein, building on the ideas of Oparin (1926), he suggested that organic compounds were synthesized in a reduced atmosphere of methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen; in Dec 1952, this hypothesis was successfully tested by Stanley Miller, who synthesized organic compounds, thereby yielding the first scientific proof of Darwin's "warm pond" origin of life model; noted for his advocation, as a convicted atheist, of a new “prophet” to bring together the new scientific view of the universe with the moral teachings of western religions. (Ѻ); first-slate: 150|#829 (Dec 2020).
M American
930.
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150
Schwann 75.png
Theodor Schwann
(1810-1882)
Schwann cells.png
(Cattell 1000:733) [RGM:719|1,350+] (Murray 4000:8|B) Physiologist and physician; noted for his 1839 demonstration that animal tissues were made of cells, which, together with Schlieden’s 1838 statement that plant tissues were composed of cells, laid the foundation for “cell theory”; eponym of Schwann cells; discoverer of the digestive enzyme pepsin; coiner of “metabolism”; first-slating: IQ:150|#654 (Jan 2019).
M German
931.
James Johnstone 75.png
James Johnstone
(1870-1932)
62
Figure 26 of The Philosophy of Biology (Johnson, 1910).png
(Thims 33:6) (CR:45) Oceanographer, micro-organism experimentalist, and philosopher;
“The law of conservation of energy applies to some things and not to others, and the things which it does not apply are unreal.”
— James Johnstone (1914), The Philosophy of Biology

Noted for his: The Philosophy of Biology (1914), e.g. figure 26 (adjacent); The Mechanism of Life in Relations to Modern Physical Theory (1921), and for his 1932 “Entropy and Evolution” chapter, throughout which he defines an organism as a “physio-chemical mechanism”, jettisons things such as entelechy, and digresses on free will; influenced: Alfred Lotka and Alfred Redfield; first-slate: 150|#830 (Dec 2020).

M English
932. 150
Arnold Schoenberg 75.png
Arnold Schoenberg
(1874-1951)
IQ O.png=150[30] 77 (RGM:1171|1,350+) (Murray 4000:13|WM) (GMG:21)[28] Composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter; said to have extended the romantic styles of Brahms and Wagner; the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motifs without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea; The music is tonal, but highly chromatic. Major works include the String Quartet #1 (1904), the Chamber Symphony #1 (1906), the lush choral Friede auf Erden (1907), the string sextet Verklärte Nacht (1899; probably his most popular piece), and the massive, Mahlerian Gurre-Lieder (1900-1911). M Austrian-born American
933.

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150 Bartolome Murillo
(1617-1682)
IQ C.png=150 (Cattell 1000:386) Baroque painter. M Spanish
934. 150
Nicolas Desmarest 75.png
Nicolas Desmarest
(1725-1815)
90 (Murray 4000:12|E) Geologist; noted for his multi-volume 1795-1807 Physical Geography; was the first person to state the doctrine that valleys are the result of the erosive action of streams flowing through them (Geike, c.1870); his investigations in Auvergne and Italy (among other places) had important consequences in geological theory and practice, beyond that of simple vulcanism and neptunism; considered a pioneer[31] during earth sciences enlightenment period; influences: Buffon; first-slate: 150|#831 (Dec 2020). M French
935.
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150
Madalyn O'Hair 75.png
Madalyn O'Hair
(1919-1995)
IQ O.png=high[32]
O'Hair at Robert Ingersoll statute.png
(FA:115) (CR:10) American engineer, lawyer, philosopher, free thinker, and social activist; noted for her 1960 to 1963 efforts to get the Supreme Court in 1963 to officially end mandatory Bible-reading in public schools; for starting American Atheists (1963); for books such as Why I’m an Atheist: Including a History of Materialism (1980); at right O’Hair (1983) in front of the Robert Ingersoll statue in Glen Oak Park, Peoria, Illinois; first-slating: 150|#716 (Nov 2020).
F American
936.
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150
Eduard Suess 75.png
Eduard Suess
(1831-1914)
82
Geologist, geographer, oceanographer, and paleontologist;
“One thing seems to be foreign on this large celestial body consisting of spheres, namely, organic life. But this life is limited to a determined zone at the surface of the lithosphere. The plant, whose deep roots plunge into the soil to feed, and which at the same time rises into the air to breathe, is a good illustration of organic life in the region of interaction between the upper sphere and the lithosphere, and on the surface of continents it is possible to single out an independent ‘biosphere’.”
— Eduard Suess (1875), The Formation of the Alps

Noted for his 1861 theory of the supercontinent Gondwana, and for his 1875 coining of the term biosphere.

M Austrian
937. 150
Edward Hall 75.png
Edward Hall
(1914-2009)
95
Hall space.png
(CR:13) Anthropologist; known as “father of proxemics”;
“As more and more is learned about both men and animals, it becomes clear that the skin itself is a very unsatisfactory boundary or measuring point for crowding. Like molecules that make up all matter, living things move and therefore require more or less fixed amounts of space.”
— Edward Hall (1966), The Hidden Dimension (pg. #)

noted for his 1966 The Hidden Dimension: an Anthropologist Examines Man’s Use of Space in Public and Private, wherein, building on the 1947 to 1961 rat population density studies of John Calhoun and the 1955 “fight or flight” animal space research of Heini Hediger, advanced ideas such as “action chains” (or chain reactions), e.g. how there are 15-ordered-steps required in the mating of sticklebacks, arguing that humans, similarly, do nothing that is not part of an action chain; speculated that social gravity is inversely proportional to the square or cube of the distance bodies; advanced the concept of “social space” or “invisible bubbles” that surround people, determining the nature of their reactions; influenced: Raikhlin (2003) and Thims (2007), in respect to: boundary social mechanism, reaction space, and human molecular orbital theory; first-slate: 150|#833 (Dec 2020).

M American
938.

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150 Nicolas Soult
(1769-1851)
IQ C.png=150 (Cattell 1000:343) Marshal. M French
939.
Wavy.png
150
Giotto 75.png
Giotto
(1267-1337)
70 [RGM:579|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:219) (Murray 4000:8|WA) (Nelson 19:5) (GAG:#) (CR:3) Painter and architect;

“Giotto, Titian, Rembrandt, and Goya were the great painters. I am only a public clown.” — Pablo Picasso (1952), Interview (Ѻ) Noted for artwork in the "halo" article; influential to John Ruskin; first-slating: 150|#717 (Nov 2020).

M Italian
940. 150
John Wilkinson 75.png
John Wilkinson
(1728-1808)
80 (Murray 4000:13|T) (CR:3) Industrialist and cast iron manufacturer; noted for his 1774 “boring machine” which made precisely-round cylinders for steam, which allowed Watt to progress in the development of his Watt engine; used the ball-in-hand sleep method (also used by Aristotle and Alexander the Great);; first-slate: 150|#835 (Dec 2020). M English
941. 150
Al-Ghazali 75.png
Al-Ghazali
(1058-1111)
53 (RGM:904|1,350+) (Becker 139:66|5L) (Shariff 10:2)[10] (CR:5) Philosopher, jurist, theologian;
“If religion were true, the common man might think, it would not have escaped the mathematicians, since they are so precise in this science. The student who studies these sciences, will be infected with the evil and corruption of the philosophers. Few there are who devote themselves to this study without being stripped of religion and having the bridle of godly fear removed from their heads.”
— Al-Ghazali (c.1005), Deliverance from Error [33][34]

aka "Algazel"; noted for his Incoherence of Philosophers (Tahâfut al-falâsifa), wherein he attempts to attack Aristotelian ideas (because they advocate a type of nature that is self-contained, without need of direction of the divine); supposedly argued that there is no reason to believe in “cause and effect”; and idea also professed by: Charvaka, Nicholas of Autrecourt, and Hume; is credited as being the person that ended the Islamic golden age, when he ended when he declared mathematics “evil” or the “work of the devil” (Tyson, 2011)[35]; cited in the context of middle ages “doubters” (Hecht, 2003)[36]; first-slate: 150|#835 (Dec 2020).

M Iranian
942. 150
John Harrison 75.png
John Harrison
(1693-1776)
82 (GB 100:39) Carpenter and clockmaker; known as inventor of the marine chronometer (1730), which solved the problem of calculating longitude while at sea.[37]; first-slate: 150|#835 (Dec 2020). M English
943.
Wavy.png
150
Francisco Goya 75.png
Francisco Goya
(1746-1828)
82 [RGM:408|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:340) (Murray 4000:16|WA) Romantic painter and printmaker;

“Giotto, Titian, Rembrandt, and Goya were the great painters. I am only a public clown.” — Pablo Picasso (1952), Interview (Ѻ) First-slating: 150|#717 (Nov 2020).

M Spanish
944.
Wavy.png
150
Benoit Mandelbrot 75.png
Benoit Mandelbrot
(1924-2010)
Mandelbrot's 96th Birthday 300px.gif
(CR:11) Mathematician, aeronautics engineer, economist;
“Some existing models of income distribution considered as ‘thermodynamic’ theories. There is a great temptation to consider the exchanges of money which occur in economic interaction as analogous to the exchanges of energy which occur in physical shocks between gas molecules. In the loosest possible terms, both kinds of interactions ‘should’ lead to ‘similar’ states of equilibrium. That is, one ‘should’ be able to explain the law of income distribution by a model similar to that used in statistical thermodynamics: many authors have done so explicitly, and all others of whom we know have done so implicitly.”
— Benoit Mandelbrot (1960) “The Pareto-Levy Law and the Distribution of Income”
“Everyone knows that Shannon’s derivation is in error.”
— Benoit Mandelbrot (1961), “response to Myron Tribus MaxEnt interpretation”

Noted for his 1967 “How Long is the Coast of Britain”, wherein he developed the concept of “fractals”, or self-similar curves that have Hausdorff dimension between 1 and 2; later, using IBM computers, discovering the so-called “Mandelbrot set” (1980); ideas which he later applied to financial markets; knowledgeable[38] about Stoppard's Arcadia; visualized (Ѻ) the Cantor’s 1883 “monster” set in the “noise” of IBM transmission lines; a classified “polymath” (Mirowski, 1989); image (Ѻ) from 20 Nov 2020 Doodle of his 96th Bday; first-slating: 150|#836 (Nov 2020)

M Polish-born American
945. 150
Leslie White 75.png
Leslie White
(1900-1975)
75 (CR:35) Anthropologist, sociologist, and philosopher;
“Man is wholly at the mercy of external forces, astronomic and geologic. Human beings are merely the instruments through which cultures express themselves.”
— Leslie White (1948), “Man’s Control Over Civilization”

Noted for his “Energy and the Evolution of Culture” (1943), wherein he classified civilizations and cultures as “forms of organized energy”, The Science of Culture (1949), The Evolution of Culture (1959); known as: “prophet of the second law in anthropology”; founder of the University of Michigan’s anthropology department; influenced by: Wilhelm Ostwald, Alfred Lotka; influenced: Richard Adams; first-slate: 150|#836 (Dec 2020).

M American
946.
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150 John Wilkes 75.png John Wilkes
(228-158 BE)
(1727-1797 ACM)
IQ C.png=150 (Cattell 1000:401) Politician, publicist, and political agitator. M English
947.
Wavy.png
150
Oberth 75.png
Hermann Oberth

(1894-1989)

95 Physicist and engineer; after reading the works of Jules Verne at age 11, went onto pen By Rocketry into Planetary Space, and become a founding father of rocketry and astronautics, along with Robert Pelterie, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, and Robert Goddard; influential to Werner Braun. M Austro-Hungarian-born German
948.
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150
Capote 75.png
Truman Capote

(1924-1984)

IQ SS.png=155
Breakfast at Tiffany's.png
[RGM:774|1,350+] Novelist and philosopher;

“It’s a scientific fact that if you stay in California, you lose one point off your IQ every year.” — Truman Capote (c.1965), The Portable Curmudgeon (pg. 59) (Ѻ) Author of Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1958), made famous in the 1961 film starring Audrey Hepburn [RGM:1,239|1,350+]; first-slating: 150|700-ish (c.2019).

M American
949.
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150
Le Sage 75.png
Georges Le Sage

(1724-1803)

Sage telegraph.png
Physicist; known for his theory of gravitation, his invention of an electric telegraph (consisting of 24 wires, each suitably spaced and insulated by means of glass partitions at frequent intervals, placed in a trough in the ground, according to which each wire represented a certain letter of the alphabet), for his anticipation of the kinetic theory of gases, and a contributor to the Diderot-d’Almbert Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts; also did a mathematical proof of chemical affinity; first-slating: 150|600-ish (c.2019).
M Genevan
950.
Wavy.png
150
Donatello 75.png
Donatello

(1386-1466)

79 [RGM:482|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:319) (Murray 4000:14|WA) (Collins 20:6) Sculptor; first-slating: 150|#720 (Nov 2020). M Italian
951.
Wavy.png
150
George Michael 75.png
George Michael (1963-2016) 54
One More Try (video screen shot).png
Singer, songwriter, record producer, and philanthropist; noted for his 1987 song "One More Try" (video still pictured), among others; first-slating: 150+ (Dec 2020) NO down grade.
M English
952.
Wavy.png
150
Proudhon 75.png
Pierre Proudhon

(1809-1865)

(Cattell 1000:742) (Gottlieb 1000:648) (CR:2) Politician, economic theorist, and self-defined anarchist;
“Anarchy is order without power.”
— Pierre Proudhon (1848), Confessions of a Revolutionary
M French
953. 150
Gerhard Domagk 75.png
Gerhard Domagk
(1895-1964)
68
Prontosil.png
(Murray 4000:16|M) Pathologist and bacteriologist; noted as the leader of the research team, at Bayer Laboratories, that in 1933 developed the drug Prontosil, the first systemically active antibacterial drug; first-slate: 150|#842 (Dec 2020).
M German
954.
Wavy.png
150 Ronald Fisher
(65 BE-7 AE)
(1890-1962)
(RGM:859|1,500+) (James 38:29) (CR:9) Statistical evolutionary biologist noted, in evolution thermodynamics, for his 1933 theory that "fitness", as described via Darwin's natural selection theory, has something to do with entropy and entropy increase; also known, supposedly, for the “sexy son hypothesis” (Ѻ); previous Hmolpedia 2020-listed candidate (112-names); first slating: 150|#720 (Nov 2020). M English
955.
Wavy.png
150
Churchill 75.png
Winston Churchill

(1874-1965)

[RGM:999|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:38) Politician, prime minister, historian, writer, and artist; missing IQ:200+ candidate (Ѻ); a gifted child who failed sixth grade (see: mislabeled geniuses) (Ѻ); first-slated: 150:600-ish (c.2018). M English
IQ 150 up 3.png
956. 145
Rene Laennec 75.png
Rene Laennec
(1781-1826)
45
Laennec stethoscope 2.jpg
(Murray 4000:7|M) Physician and musician; noted for his 1816 invention of the stethoscope, derived from his skill of carving his own wooden flutes, which he used to diagnose various chest conditions; first-slate: 145|#844 (Dec 2020).
M French
957.
Up.png
145
Herman Melville 75.png
Herman Melville
(136-64 BE)
(1819-1891 ACM)
2.01 72 (RGM:341|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:716) (Bloom 100:37) (GLAE:#) (TL:8) Novelist, short story writer, and poet; noted for his 1851 Moby Dick, with its philosophically absorbing character “Captain Ahab”; added at IQ:145 (14 Oct 2020). M American
958. 145
Kitasato Shibasaburo 75.png
Kitasato Shibasaburo
(1853-1931)
78
Kitasato Shibasaburo (working).png
(Murray 4000:13|M) Physician and bacteriologist; noted for his 1890 work with Emil Behring on the discovery of the diphtheria antitoxin; first-slate: 145|#845 (Dec 2020).
M Japanese
959. 145
Matthew Maury 75.png
Matthew Maury
(1806-1873)
67 (Murray 4000:7|E) Astronomer, naval officer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator; best known for his The Physical Geography of the Sea (1855), the first such extensive and comprehensive book on oceanography to be published; first-slate: 145|#845 (Dec 2020). M American
960.
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145
Darrow 75.png
Clarence Darrow
(1857-1938)
M American
961.
Up.png
145
Cardwell 75.png
Donald Cardwell
(36 BE-43 AE)
(1919-1998 ACM)
M English
962.
Wavy.png
145
Georg Simmel 75.png
Georg Simmel

(1858-1918)

[RGM:413|1,350+] (Scott 50:35) (PEC10:5)[28] (CR:13) Sociologist and philosopher, stylized the "brightest man in Europe” (Santayana, c.1913), classified by Werner Stark (1962), as a “secondary form” social mechanism theorist, noted for his 1908 Sociology, wherein he classifies himself as an anti-organist, supposedly, and talks about powerful forces pushing man and woman towards each other, speak of man as the “atom of society” and of people as “elements [that] incessantly gain, lose and shift their equilibrium”; first-slated: IQ:145 (Nov 2020). M German
963. 145
Franz Boas 75.png
Franz Boas
(1858-1942)
84 (RGM:956|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:741) (Simmons 100:14) (CR:7) Physical geographer; noted for his application of physics to geographical aspects of anthropology—therein developing “physical anthropology”, so to say; in short, he superimposed the criteria of the physical sciences unto cultural anthropology, employing materialistic convictions throughout; first slate: 145|#848 (Dec 2020). M German-born American
964. 145
Jean Guettard 75.png
Jean Guettard
(1715-1786)
70
Guettard map of minerals.png
(Murray 4000:9E) Physician, naturalist, and mineralogist; as his father was a druggist, he was led into a study of botany in various parts of France, which led him into a study of soils and subsoils, which led him into a study of minerals and rocks, which led him to produce on of the first geological maps, in the form of a “map of minerals”, from his Atlas et Description Minéralogiques de la France (1780); first-slate: 145|#858 (Dec 2020).
M French
965.
Wavy.png
145
Hunter Thompson 75.png
Hunter Thompson
(18 BE-68 AE)
(1937-2005 ACM)
IQ O.png=140s+[39] [RGM:691|1,350+] (EPD:F14) Journalist, author, and realism existence philosopher;
“All energy flows according to the whims of the great magnet. What a fool I was to defy him.”
— Hunter Thompson (1971), Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (Ѻ)

112-name list candidate; first-slating: 145|#724 (Nov 2020).

M American
967. 145
Anselm of Canterbury 75.png
Anselm of Canterbury
(c.1033-1109)

IQ SK.png=185|#22[40]
76 (Cattell 1000:620) (RGM:1055|1,350+) (Becker 139:49|6L) (Stokes 100:25) (Perry 80:65) (PEC7:4)[41] (CR:6) Monk, abbot, philosopher, and theologian; cited by Feuerbach in his “The Natural Sciences and the Revolution” (1850); first-slating: 145|#850 (Dec 2020). M Italian
968. 145
Soren Sorensen 75.png
Soren Sorensen
(1868-1939)
71
PH scale.png
Chemist; noted for his 1909 invention of the pH scale; image (Ѻ) from the 29 May 2018 Doodle celebrating Sorensen; first-slate: 145|#850 (Dec 2020).
M Danish
969.
Wavy.png
145
Magellan 75.png
Ferdinand Magellan
(1480-1521)
IQ B.png=145 M Portuguese
970. 145
Ibn Zuhr 75.png
Ibn Zuhr
(1094-1162)
68 Aka “Avenzoar” (Latin); physician, surgeon, and poet; as a youth, his father introduced him to Galen and Hippocrates, and made him swear the Hippocratic oath; later he heard Averroes lecture and learned physics from him; he advanced the "experimental school" of al-Razi of animal testing before human testing, e.g. he did a tracheotomy on a goat before doing it on humans; removed cataracts, kidney stones, and discussed dilation and contraction of the pupil; first-slate: 145|#850 (Dec 2020). M Arabian
971.
Wavy.png
145 Arthur Wellesley
(1769-1852)
IQ B.png=145 (Cattell 1000:717) Soldier and statesman; defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. M Anglo-Irish
972.
Wavy.png
145 Monet 75.png Claude Monet

(1840-1926)

Water lillies in bloom (Monet, 1917).png
(RGM:409|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:196) (Murray 4000:17|WA) (Collins 20:7) Impressionist painter; best known for his series of serene water lilies paintings; his Water Lilies in Bloom, adjacent, sold for $85M (2018); first-slating: IQ:145|#662 (Jan 2019)
M French
973. Henrietta Leavitt 75.png Henrietta Leavitt
(1868-1912)
53 (RGM:971|1,350+) Astronomer; noted for her 1912 period-luminosity relation, namely that is a “simple relation between the brightness of the Cepheid variables and their periods”, which provided astronomers way to measure the distance to faraway galaxies; later used by Hubble, with galactic spectral shifts, measured by Vesto Slipher, to establish that the universe is expanding; first-slate: 145|#853 (Dec 2020). F American
974.
Wavy.png
145 Zizka 75 2.png Jan Zizka
(c.1360-1424)
IQ B.png=145 (RGML:134|400+)[42] M Czech
975. 145 Eilhard Mitscherlich 75.png Eilhard Mitscherlich
(1794-1863)
69
Ideas concerning affinity (Van't Hoff, 1905).png
(Murray 4000:17|E) Chemist; student of Berzelius; aka “prince of Prussian chemistry” (Schutt, 1997)[43]; is categorized as a third-tier affinity chemist (van't Hoff, 1905);[44] in 1831, was referring to catalyst as a "contact process"; first-slate: 145#|#854 (Dec 2020).
M German
976.
Up.png
145 Eckhart 75.png Meister Eckhart
(1260-1327)
(RGM:304|1,350+) (RMS:14) (CR:#) Theologian, philosopher, and spiritual mystic;

“The only thing that burns in hell is the part of you that won't let go of your life: your memories, your attachments. They burn them all away, but they're not punishing you, they're freeing your soul. If you're frightened of dying and you're holding on, you'll see devils tearing your life away. If you've made your peace, then the devils are really angels freeing you from the earth.”

— Meister Eckhart (c.1310), Speech 5b DW I + Speech 30 DW II + On Detachment DW V; paraphrased by Bruce Rubin (1990) in film Jacob’s Ladder

Characterized as a successor (Ѻ), with Nicholas of Cusa, of John Eriugena; influenced: Schopenhauer and Tom Harper; first-slating: 145|#664 (2018);

M German
977.
Wavy.png
145 Gunter Grass 75.png Gunter Grass (1927-2015) (SPE 2014:42)[10] (CR:27) Writer; noted for his 1959 The Tin Drum, wherein Oskar, central character, rips out pages from Goethe’s 1809 Elective Affinities, and a book on women by Rasputin, shuffles them together, and uses them for "guidance" in the world. M German
978. 145 Thomas Chamberlin 75.png Thomas Chamberlin
(1843-1928)
85 (Murray 4000:15|E) Geologist, zoologist, and botanist; noted for work on glaciation deposits around Wisconsin; for founding the Journal of Geology (1893); for his 1890 article “The Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses”, arguing that sometimes following multiple hypotheses[45] are better than one, which later became in inspiration behind John Platt's “strong inference” (1964) model of scientific inquiry; first-slate: 145|#856 (Dec 2020). M American
979.
Wavy.png
145 Joseph Campbell 75.png Joseph Campbell
(1904-1987)
[RGM:642|1,350+] (RMS:103) (CR:5) Literature professor, comparative religion and mythology scholar;

“History, Joseph Campbell argued, is completely silent (see: silent historians problem) on Jesus Christ. The only sources on Jesus are the Pauline Epistles and the Four Gospels of the New Testament. Having eliminated them as having no historical or evidential value, all that remained were alleged references to Jesus by Jewish and pagan writers, upon whom "religious apologists" rely to make their case for the historical Jesus. They are from the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus, and from the three Roman writers Tacitus, Pliny the Younger, and Suetonius. None, he argued, could withstand critical testing.” — Bryan Beau (2005), The Atheist Madalyn Murray O’Hair (pg. 213) Popularly known as the world’s most famous mythologist; 112-candidate; first-slating: 145|#730 (Nov 2020).

M American
980. 145
Barbara McClintock 75.png
Barbara McClintock
(1902-1992)
90
American genius (US Post Office Stamps, 2005).png
(Becker 160:70|4L) Botanist, cytogeneticist, and scientist;
“I don’t choose my masters and friends according to limelight. Galileo, Semmelweis, Wegener, Darwin, Belousov, McClintock, and Lynn Margulis were not always in the limelight.”
— Erland Lagerroth (2011), “My Way of Discover”

Noted for her 1940s work on maize chromosomes, wherein she developed the theory of genetic recombination by crossing-over during meiosis, and also “transposition”, that DNA sequences can change position within a genome; in 2005, she one of four US scientific genius stamp series, along with Gibbs, Neumann, and Feynman; not to be confused with Martha McClintock (1947-), eponym of the "McClintock effect"; first-slate: 145|#856 (Dec 2020).

F American
981.
Wavy.png
145
Gould 75.png
Jay Gould
(1836-1892)
M American
982.

Down.png

145 Giulio Alberoni

(1664-1752)

IQ B.png=145 (Cattell 1000:148) Cardinal and statesman. M Italian
983. 145
Per Cleve 75.png
Per Cleve
(1840-1905)
65 (Murray 4000:19|E) Chemist, biologist, mineralogist and oceanographer. He is best known for his discovery of the chemical elements holmium and thulium; first-slate: 145|#858 (Dec 2020). M Swedish
984.
Wavy.png
145
Alfred Whitehead 75.png
Alfred Whitehead
(1861-1947)
[RGM:608|1,350+] (Becker 139:73|5L) (Stokes 100:58) (PEC10:7)[28] (CR:34) Mathematician and philosopher; solve the "moral responsibility problem" via recourse to a organism-centric materialistic mechanism theory, and for his followup 1928 process theory wherein he outlines a god-based quantum based micro-panpsychist approach to mind and a micro-panvitalist approach to life, and in which he employ ‘extended’ usage of the term “organism”, to embrace the atomic and molecular aggregate of physics as well as chnopsology (biology) organisms; first-slated: IQ:145 (Nov 2020). M English
985.
Wavy.png
145
Andersen 75.png
Hans Andersen
(1805-1875)
IQ B.png=145 M Danish
986. 145
Horace Saussure 75.png
Horace Saussure
(1740-1799)
59 (Murray 4000:11|E) Physicist, geologist, and early Alpine explorer; noted for developing an improved hygrometer to measure atmospheric humidity; first-slate: 145|#860 (Dec 2020). M Genevan
987. 145
Al-Jahiz 75.png
Al-Jahiz
(776-869)
93 Writer, theologian, and politico-religious scholar; expanded on Aristotle; known as the "Voltaire of Arab literature"[46]; works include: Book of Animals, and anecdotes, poetic descriptions, and proverbs related to 350 animals; Book of Misers, wherein he ridicules greedy people, and Book of Eloquence, where he discusses the art of giving good speeches; first-slating: 145|#860 (Dec 2020). M Arabian
988.

Down.png

145 Gebhard Blucher
(1742-1819)
IQ C.png=145 (Cattell 1000:342) Field marshal. M Prussian
989.
Wavy.png
145
Garrison 75.png
William Garrison

(1805-1879)

IQ C.png=145 (Cattell 1000:592) (CR:3) Journalist and slavery abolition activist;

“I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice.” — William Garrison (c.1835) influenced Henry Thoreau and his Civil Disobedience.

M American
990. 145
Abraham Werner 75.png
Abraham Werner
(1749-1817)
67
Neptunus.png
(Murray 4000:5|E) Geologist, mineralogist, miner; promoted a theory called Neptunism, which argued all the rocks observable on earth’s surface were once precipitated out of a vast ocean that covered the entire earth (in opposition to the Plutonists or Vulcanists who argued that granite and many other rocks were of igneous origin)[47]; his 1773 On the External Characteristic of Fossils, outlined how to identify minerals based on color and physical characteristics; referred to his school of thought as “geognosy”, from geo- “earth” + - gnosy “to known”, defined similar to geology, but based on observation, as apposed to theory.[48]; first-slate: 145|#862 (Dec 2020).
M German
991.
Wavy.png
145
Thaddeus Stevens 75.png
Thaddeus Stevens
(1792-1868)
Politician; noted as intellectual driving force behind the passage of the 13th amendment;

“Stevens was one of the most remarkable figures in 19th century American politics. Two principles shaped Stevens's public career. One was his belief in public education. As a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature in the 1830's, Stevens was known as the “Father of the Common School” because of his efforts to prevent the retrenchment of public schooling during a state budget crisis. The second was his hatred of slavery and commitment to the equal rights of black Americans.” — Eric Foner (1976), “If You Wondered About Thaddeus Stevens” (Ѻ), The New York Times, Dec 31 portrayed powerfully by Tommy Jones in the film Lincoln (2012); see actual quotes (Ѻ) and film quotes (Ѻ); 112-candidate; first-slating:#735 (Nov 2020).

M American
992.

Down.png

145 William Hogarth
(1697-1764)
IQ C.png=145 (Cattell 1000:395) Painter and engraver. M English
993. 145
Ibn Hazm 75.png
Ibn Hazm
(994-1064)
72 (CR:3) Poet, philosopher, and polymath;
“The lover’s soul is ever-seeking for the other, striving after it, searching it out, yearning to encounter it again, drawing it to itself it might be as a magnet draws the iron.”
— Ibn Hazm (1022), The Ring of the Dove

Noted for his The Ring of the Dove (1022), which is grouped with Goethe’s 1809 Elective Affinities, Stendhal’s crystallization theory based “On Love” (1822), Ovid’s “Ars Amatoria, Andreas Capellanus’ “De Amore”, as an early treatise on the "science of love" (Perry, 1979); first-slate: 145|#864 (Dec 2020).

M Andalusian
994.
Wavy.png
145
Jan van Eyck 75.png
Jan van Eyck

(1390-1441)

Ghent Altarpiece.png
(RGM:299|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:335) (Murray 4000:15|WA) (Collins 20:9) Belgian oil painter; famous for his Ghent Altarpiece (1432), with its human-faced lamb, which countless artists, e.g. Durer, have trekked to see; first-slating: 145|#736 (Nov 2020).
M Belgian
995.
Wavy.png
145
Jackson 75.png
Andrew Jackson

(1767–1845)

IQ C.png=145

IQ S.png=145

(Cattell 1000:244) Politician; 7th American President. M American
996.
Up.png
145
Bracciolini 75.png
Poggio Bracciolini

(1380-1459)

(Cattell 1000:694) Humanist and papal secretary; his 1417 discovery of Lucretius’ On the Nature of Things (55BC) together with Petrarch’s 1385 find of the lost Letters of Cicero (50BC) are said to have initiated the Italian renaissance; first-draft gauged at #515 (Dec, 2017). M Italian
997.

Down.png

145 John Churchill

(1650-1722)

IQ C.png=145 (Cattell 1000:187) [GCH:11|300+] General. M English
998.
Wavy.png
145
Hayek 75.png
Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992) (RGM:199|1,500+) (Gottlieb 1000:738) (GEcE:#) (CR:6) Economist and philosopher; previous Hmolpedia 2020-listed candidate (112-names); first slating: 145|#740 (Nov 2020). M Austrian-born English
999.

Down.png

145 Mehemet Ali

(1769-1849)

IQ C.png=145 (Cattell 1000:389) Commander; became founder of modern Egypt. M Albanian
1000. 145
Alexis Carrel 75.png
Alexis Carrel
(82-11 BE)
(1873-1944 ACM)
71 (Murray 4000:17|M) (EPD:F5) (CR:6) Surgeon and philosopher; noted for his 1902 technique for the end-to-end anastomosis of blood vessels and to describe kidney transplant in dogs; for his 1908 devised method for whole organ transplant; for his 1910 demonstration that blood vessels could be stored cold for long periods of time before being used as transplants in surgery; for his 1935 development, working with Charles Lindbergh, of the machine perfusion organ transplant technique; down-grade ↓ for his 1935 Man: the Unknown, wherein he argues for the existence of miracles and gives a non-reducible spiritual mysticism view of things, and denies the operation of second law in the domain of feelings and the mind; influenced: Mehdi Bazargan and Roger Caillois; first-slate: #|#869 (Dec 2020). M French-born American

Divides

155 divide

Presently, there are 103-names in the 155+ (to previous divide) range.

150 divide

Presently, there are 74-names in the 150+ (to previous divide) range.

End matter

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References

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