Top 2000 minds: 601-800
In genius studies, top 2000 geniuses and minds: 601-800 refers to 
Geniuses | 601-800 | IQ:150-165
- See also: Higher minds, 1-200, 201-400, 401-600, 601-800, 801-1,000, 1,001-1,200, 1,201-1,400, 1,401-1,600, 1,601-1,800, 1,801-2,000, Full list, Candidates
The following (see: IQ key) are intellects “601-800” of the top 2000 geniuses and minds:
(28 BE-52 AE)
|79||Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow; first slated: 165|#469 (c.1919).||M||American|
|=185||[RGM:130|1,350+] (Stokes 100:67) (CR:82) Psychiatrist; noted, in psychodynamics, for his 1928 to 1960s work on an attempt to create a modified version of Freud's energy-dynamics based psychology.||M||Swiss|
||165||Anthony Shaftesbury, 1st Earl (1621-1683)||=165||(Cattell 1000:365) Politician; grandfather to deism moral philosopher Anthony Shaftesbury, 3rd Earl (1671-1713).||M||English|
|=165||[RGM:43|1,350+] (Becker 139:63|5L) Military leader and war theorist; purported author of the Art of War.||M||Chinese|
|=165||84||(Becker 160:63|4L) Surgeon; noted for his research into bacteriology and infection in wounds raised, which pioneered the art of antiseptic surgery.||M||English|
||165||Friedrich Lange (1828-1875)||(CR:29) Philosopher and sociologist;
characterized as neo-Kantian and against but sympathetic to materialism (Russell, 1925), and sociologist noted for his 1865 The History of Materialism and Critique of its Present Importance, wherein he recounts the history of materialism from Democritus and his atomic theory through Francis Bacon into Ludwig Buchner and his extreme materialism; influenced: John Tyndall and Friedrich Nietzsche, who read it "again and again"; first-slating: #500 (Nov 2020).
|2.03||81||CR:35) Geochemical mineralogist and grand-theory philosopher; after studying with Henri Chatelier (1889), and building on Eduard Suess’ 1875 “biosphere” (sphere of life) concept, published The Biosphere (1926), wherein he attempts to sell a highly-advanced in thinking living matter biosphere theory, in which he attempts to surmount the life / non-life issue, thermodynamically, by arguing that certain portions of the periodic table go into living matter, and that there is some type of unbridgeable gap between living matter and non-living matter, or something along these lines, but one that leads to insurmountable difficulties on theory, in modern retrospect; also introduced the term “noosphere”, later advanced by Pierre Teilhard.||M||Russian|
|(Cattell 1000:642) (HC11:6) (CR:3) Theologian, physician, cartographer, and humanist; noted for his The Restoration of Christianity (1553) which rejected (Ѻ) trinity and the concept of predestination; influential to: Thomas Aikenhead; 112-candidate; first-slating: #500 (Nov 2020).||M||Spanish|
|(Murray 4000:15|M) (Eells 100:22) (GME:23) (CR:5) Mathematician and astronomer;
Noted for his 1591 Introduction to the Analytic Arts, wherein he introduced the first systematic algebraic notation, due to its innovative use of letters as parameters in equations; influenced: Gilles Roberval, Descartes, and Harriot; first-slating: 165|#580 per GME ranking IQ interpolation (Nov 2020).
|615.||165||Nicholas of Autrecourt
|70||(AT:8|D) (CR:3) Skeptical philosopher and theologian; noted for his defense of atomic theory, repudiation of Aristotle, and rejection of the Democritus-Epicurus view of the soul as a type of atom or atomic movement, instead considering soul to be composed of two immortal spirits called “intellect” and “sense”; argued, supposedly, that cause and effect did not exist; in 1347, all of his works were ordered to be "burned", and only two letters to a friend survive; first-slate: 165|#580 (Dec 2020).||M||French|
|60||TL:10) Skeptic philosopher and “free thinker”; noted for disbelief in all beliefs philosophy; studied Democritus; admired by Epicurus; downgrade for the fact that his friends had to follow him around so that he wouldn't get hurt; first-slating: 170|#350 (Mar 2018); downgrade: 165|#620 (Apr 66AE).||M||Greek|
|(Oduenyi 100:51) Chinese astronomer, mathematician, politician, inventor; calculated pi to seven places a record beat until al-Kashi (c.1400) (Ѻ); in astronomy, he was able to make a calendar with this degree of accuracy since he had calculated the length of the tropical year (time between two successive occurrences of the vernal equinox) as 365.24281481 days (an error of only 50 seconds from its true value of 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds), and a nodal month for the moon of 27.21233 days (compare the modern value of 27.21222 days) (Ѻ); inventor of human-powered paddle wheel boats; a Hedkandi2 (Ѻ) top 1000 missing candidate (Apr 2020); previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 165|#507 (Nov 2020).||M||Chinese|
|76||(Becker 139:52|6L) (Stokes 100:76)||M||German|
|RGM:136|1,350+] (Murray 4000:7|A) (Simmons 100:22) (Becker 160:78|3L) (CR:31) Astronomer; noted for his 1588 On the Most Recent Phenomena of the Aetherial World, based on the comet of 1577, wherein he attempts to make a hybrid out of the heliocentric Copernican and geocentric Ptolemaic models, which had a still earth (it did not rotate), as the center of the universe, with the planets (mercury, venus, mars, jupiter, and saturn) revolving around the sun, and sun, moon, and fixed stars revolving around the earth; his telescope observation data, later used by Kepler to conclude that planets move around the sun in ellipses rather than circles, and to thereby propose three laws of planetary motion; first draft slotted at #350 (Jun 2017);||M||Danish|
|=165||53||Engineer; noted for building a number of famous: tunnels, bridges, railways, etc., during the industrial revolution.||M||English|
|62||RGM:126|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:80) (Becker 160:33|6L) (Simmons 100:87) (GPE:103) (CR:5) Theoretical physicist; noted for his 1939 paper, with Harlan Snyder, which showed that Schwarzschild solution describes the final state of a spherically collapsing massive star; this was the first-time black holes became a central phenomenon of astrophysics; noted for being the head of the "Manhattan project", based on the 1933 nuclear chain reaction theory of Leo Szilard, which resulted in the 1945 "atomic bomb", that detonated on Hiroshima, resulting to bring about an end to WWII; first-slate: 165|#590 (Dec 2020).||M||American|
|Stoic philosopher; student of Zeno of Citium (see: Greek philosophy), mentor to Chrysippus (279-206BC); noted for developing, with the addition of this "tension" theory of matter, the basic the tenets of so-called "stoic physics"; IQ first-draft gauged at 165|#469||M||Greek|
|631.||165||Nikolay Chernyshevsky (127-66 BE) (1828-1889 ACM)||61||(CR:3) Materialistic monism philosopher, novelist, social utopianist, and characterized "nihilist";
Noted for his “The Anthropological Principle in Philosophy” (1860), which outlines his monistic chemical materialism philosophy, and his What is to be Done? (1863), which presents his philosophy in the form of a novel; influences: Hegel, Feuerbach, Charles Fourier; influenced: Dostoyevsky, Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin; first-slate: 165|#594 (Dec 2020).
|=165||(Cattell 1000:285) Protestant Christian; disciple of John Calvin; played a role in the reformation.||M||French|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:439) Philosopher and historian.||M||Scottish|
|=165||2.14||77||(Cattell 1000:143) (RGM:805|1,350+) Statesman, prime minister, novelist, and philosopher;
Views: “nature has given us two ears, but only one mouth”; “there are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics”; “action may not always bring happiness; but there is no happiness without action.”
|=165||(Cattell 1000:278) Trader, novelist, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy; author of Robinson Crusoe.||M||English|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:212) Statesman and politician.||M||English|
|1.99||83||(Gottlieb 1000:808) (Becker 139:118) (Scott 50:39) [CR:91] Natural philosopher; noted his 1858 to 1862 effort to produce a unified theory of everything, the gist of which is found in his First Principles (1862), wherein he sought to reconcile the subjects of religion, psychology, and sociology, with physics, chemistry, and biology, all themed on premise of evolution, equilibrium, and force transformations; known his Spencerian dilemma; first-slating: 165|#420 (c.2018).||M||English|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:251) Novelist, dramatist, playwright, magistrate; author of Tom Jones (1749) a Guardian (2013) 100 best novel (#5) (Ѻ); founder of London’s first police force.||M||English|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:260) Statesman and Napoleon-siding revolutionist.||M||French|
|92||(EPD:MF) Writer and philosopher; aka “Abu al-Tauhidi”; characterized, according to literary tradition, as one of the “three great Zanadiqa (or zindiqs)”, or anti-religion radicals, of Islam, along with al-Rawandi and al-Marri (Warraq, 1995; Hecht, 2004); noted for his his Borrowed Lights (al-Muqabasat), a philosophical book, wherein he refuted astrology; his work, according to Margoliouth, was considered “more dangerous” than al-Rawandi or al-Marri, because whereas these two proclaimed their unbelief openly, al-Tawhidi expressed his unbelief in innuendoes; his books were burned; first-slate: 165|#606 (Dec 2020).||M||Persian|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:423) Historian and statesman; friend and critic of Machiavelli.||M||Italian|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:59) Historian, orator, and statesman.||M||French|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:279) Statesman and general governor of India.||M||English|
|=180|#38, 190||74||(RGM:374|1,350+) (Shariff 10:9) Historiographer, historian, sociologist, demographer, and economist; first-slate: #610 (Dec 2020).||M||Arabian|
|(Becker 160:137|2L)||M||Austrian-born Swedish|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:381) [RGM:648|1,350+] Physician; discoverer of the small pox vaccination, an aim he had set for himself before age 20.||M||English|
|43||Murray 4000:10|B) Physician and anatomist;
Noted for his 1669 The General History of Insects: General Treatise on little Bloodless Animals, wherein he countered the prevailing Aristotelian notion that insects were imperfect animals that lacked internal anatomy; argued that all insects originated from eggs and their limbs grew and developed slowly; noted for his frog let in syringe experiment (pictured) wherein he showed that muscles contracted not from hydrologic pressure changes, but from nerve stimulation; influences: Descartes; first-slate: 165|#618 (Dec 2020).
|=165||Cattell 1000:46) (RGM:498|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:182) (Bloom 100:6|Wisdom) (CR:8) Poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, literary critic, and biographer; noted for his 1755 Dictionary of the English Language, wherein he innovated the method of illustrating word usage by literary quotation; was the status quo reference for a century, until Noah Webster's An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828), completion of the Oxford English Dictionary (1928).||M||English|
|(RGM:645|#1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:112) (GEcE:#) (CR:#) Political economist; after reading Smith’s An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations (1776), he went on to develop his “Ricardian Model” of international trade economics, presented in his On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1871); influential to Henry Buckle; 112-candidate; first-slating:#540 (Nov 2020).||M||English|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:723) [RGM:613|1,350+] Theologian and poet, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal; an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England.||M||English|
|661.||165||Athanase Dupre (147-86 BE) (1808-1869 ACM)||61||Francois Massieu; pictured his “table of equivalents” (pg. 402) of simple bodies, calculated by the attraction in contact, union forces, and heat capacities, 22 chemical substances his work on soap film tensions was cited by Gibbs (1876); first-slate: 165|#621 (Dec 2020).||M||French|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:290) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] Economist; believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade.||M||Scottish|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:287) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] Politician, journalist, and revolutionist.||M||Italian|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:472) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] Historian.||M||Scottish|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:378) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] Literary critic.||M||French|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:27) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Historical novelist, playwright, poet, and historian; author of Ivanhoe (1820).||M||Scottish|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:361) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Satirist, playwright, poet; long-time owner of London Theatre Royal.||M||Irish|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:400) (CR:14) Political, economic, and social theorist; his utopian socialism influenced: John Mill, Pierre Proudhon, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Thorstein Veblen; his secretary was Auguste Comte; some claim he coined the term “social physics” (Sweigewood, 2000).||M||French|
(CR:60) (SPE:24|2014) Writer, and philosopher, and former child prodigy;
noted for his 1991 Lila: An Inquiry into Morals, wherein he reflects on the so-called “Pirsig paradox”, namely when did C, H, N, and O, etc., start ‘struggling to survive’ to form me?”; also reflecting on William Sidis, and digs into the questions of life, and morals, in the context of a person being a collection of atoms governed by physics and chemistry, in the context of the second law of thermodynamics, and evolution defined by Darwin; first-slating: 165|#521 (Mar 2019).
|=165||(Cattell 1000:183) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Politician, orator, and lawyer.||M||American|
|(CR:5) Philosopher, engineer, mathematician, and theologian;
Noted for his Magnetic Philosophy, a book penned to refute the theories of William Gilbert (1600), from the Aristotelian view, but wherein he made an important observation of electrical repulsion, namely that an electrically charged body can attract non-electrified objects, also that two charged objects repelled each other; classified as a “Jesuit naturalist”, along with Athanasius Kircher and Gaspar Schott; 112-candidate; first-slating: #550 (Nov 2020).
|77||(RGM:97|1,350+) Novelist, poet, and playwright;
noted for his science fiction novel From the Earth to the Moon (Ѻ) and his sequel Around the Moon (1870), which influenced Hermann Oberth; for his Extraordinary Voyages series of adventure novels, including: Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1872); ranked (Ѻ) as second or third Robert Heinlein, along with Herbert Wells, as greatest sci-fi writer; a top 1000 suggested candidate, in respect to great playwrights, by oye777 (8 Jan 2019); 112-candidate; first-slating: #550 (Nov 2020).
|=199||[RGM:496|1,350+] (Becker 139:65|5L) (Norlinger 22:32) (GME:30) Mathematics prodigy and autodidact;
“An equation for me has no meaning unless it expresses a thought of god.” — Srinivasa Ramanujan (c.1910), Publication; cited in: The Man Who Knew Infinity  G.H. Hardy ranking of him in the same league as Gauss, Euler, Cauchy, Newton, and Archimedes; Littlewood, supposedly, compared him as being somewhere between Newton and Jacobi; Stephen Wolfram (2016) gives some detailed commentary (Ѻ) on him; influential (Ѻ) to Abdus Salam; classified: “overrated as a mathematician” (Ѻ) [see: overrated geniuses]; down-graded from 175|#277 to #550 per “The Man who Knew Infinity” (2015) film (Nov 2020).
|RGM:328|1,500+] (Collins 20:8) French sculptor;
“To any artist, worthy of the name, all in nature is beautiful, because his eyes, fearlessly accepting all exterior truth, read there, as in an open book, all the inner truth.” — Auguste Rodin (c.1900) Noted for: The Thinker (1902), The Kiss (1882), Monument to Balzac (1898) (Ѻ), and The Gates of Hell (1917); Ruth Butler’s Rodin: the Shape of Genius (1996) recounts the “myths that have grown up around him”; first-slating: 165|#506 (Jan 2019).
|(Cattell 1000:570) (CR:3) German jurist, political philosopher, economist and historian; noted for his revisions of the natural law theories of Thomas Hobbes and Hugo Grotius; generally being part of the movement or switch from the "divine right of kings to rule" to "rule by natural law". He also had to had to defend himself against charges, by the church, of heresy; influenced: Christian Thomasius, Jean Rousseau, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and Thomas Jefferson; 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020).||M||German|
|677.||165||Thabit Ibn Qurra
|65||Mathematician, astronomer, physician, philosopher, and translator; aka "Thabit"; noted as one of the first reformers of Ptolemaic astronomy; discovered an equation for determining the amicable numbers; his revision of Hunayn ibn Ishaq’s Arabic translation of Euclid’s Elements became the standard for all later Arabic versions of Elements; determined the length of the sidereal year, according to Copernicus, as 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 12 seconds (an error of 2 seconds); first-slate: 165|#634 (Dec 2020).||M||Arabian|
|86||Murray 4000:14|A) Astronomer and philosopher, aka the “Hershel of the spectroscope” (Proctor, 1905) (Ѻ); noted for his 1864 application of spectroscopy -- which Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, in 1858, had first applied to the sun (determining it was mostly hydrogen) -- to things other than the sun, which he did, working with chemist William Miller, by attaching a spectroscope to the end of a telescope, and pointing it to the Cat’s Eye Nebula, a planetary nebula in the northern constellation of Draco, and thereby determining its elemental spectrum (pictured); noted for his 1865 determination that Sirius is red-shifting, i.e. that its spectral lines were shifted towards the red side of the spectrum, meaning that it is travelling at a speed of 135 miles per second away from the earth; was the first to differentiate between “nebula”, or clouds of gas, and “stars”; first-slate: 165|#636 (Dec 2020).||M||English|
|=165||47||(Cattell 1000:190) Renaissance humanist; after being influenced by the writings of Erasmus, became the leader of the reformation in Switzerland.||M||Swiss|
|=165||(Cattell 1000:362) (Murray 4000:20|WM) Composer of the romantic opera.||M||German|
(44 BE-22 AE)
|AE), the first person to "see" an atom with his own eyes, specifically he saw a tungsten W (Z=74) atoms using his newly invented "field ion microscope"; the BE/AE dating system, employed in Hmolpedia, is based on his achievement; first-slating: 160|#510 (Oct 2020).||M||German-born American|
|CR:18) Historian and monk; noted for being one of the first to connect John the Baptist with the Aquarius constellation; recounted the “warm sparrow” anecdote Christianity adoption in England; his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (1731) gained him the epitaph as the “father of English history”; first-slating: 160|#431 (Mar 2018).||M||English|
|(Cattell 1000:151) (CR:6) Philosopher, epistemologist, psychologist, and mind philosopher; a section of his 1749 Treatise on Nature, was later utilize in Baron d’Holbach’s 1770 System of Nature; 112-name candidate list; first slating: 160|#556 (Nov 2020).||M||French|
|[RGM:281|1,350+] (GBG:3) Social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman;
A top 150 genius (Singh, 2016) (Ѻ); Quora gauged (2015) (Ѻ), speculatively, with George Carver, at the possible intellectual level of Newton, given social impediments.
||160||Hildegard of Bingen
| [GMG:14] Abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, religious mystic, visionary, and polymath; a smartest woman ever (IQ:150+) candidate (Ѻ) (Fuller, 2014); her model of the cosmos is shown adjacent (Harrison, 1981) (pg. 14); first-slating: IQ:160 (c.2015).||F||German|
|67||[RGM:165|1,500+] (Murray 4000:18|M) (GME:19) (Eells 100:15) (CR:16) Mathematician, engineer, and physicist; noted for his rigorously proved theorems of calculus, work in mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics; Maxwell read his Differential Calculus at age 16; G.H. Harding (c.1913) ranked him in the same league as: Gauss, Euler, Newton, Archimedes, and Ramanujan; first-slating: 160|#431 (Feb 2018).||M||French|
|(FA:43) (CR:13) Physician, philosopher, religious skeptic; aka the “great new Averroist of Padua” (Girolamo Cardano, c.1514); noted for his c.1515 discussions about the soul, given to his students who pressed him to give a “straight answer”, in the wake of Pope Leo X issued decree that condemned any teaching that asserted that the soul was mortal; is associated, along with Averroes, with the three impostors argument; categorized as having been charged with atheism and or have been “secret atheist”, along with Machiavelli, Bodin, Arentino, Montaingne, Charron, and Gassendi; 112-candidate; first-slating:#560 (Nov 2020).||M||Italian|
|80||Murray 4000:19|M) (Eells 100:21) (GME:24) (CR:5) Mathematician; noted for his 1202 Book of Abacus: Calculations, wherein he used the Hindu-Arabic numerical system, which allowed for easier calculations, over the then-standard Roman numerals, because it used a place-value system; in the same book he introduced the Fibonacci numbers, which he used to calculate the growth of rabbit populations; first-slating: 160|#645 per GME ranking IQ interpolation (Nov 2020).||M||Italian|
|(CR:2) Physician, philosopher, and brain anatomist; noted for his 1664 Anatomy of the Brain (Cerebri anatome), illustrated by Christopher Wren, wherein the word “neurology” was coined; his Two Discourses Concerning the Soul of Brutes, starting with the Lucretius and Pierre Gassendi, outlined a theory of a corporeal fiery soul extended throughout the bodies of animals and humans, while simultaneous insisting on the existence of a second higher rational soul in humans; teacher of Hooke; 112-candidate; first-slating:#325 (Nov 2020).||M||English|
|692.||160||Thierry of Chartres
|50||(AT:4|D) Philosopher; thought that physics of atoms made sense; characterized as a "second revival sympathizer of atomic theory (Pullman, 1998); wrote a commentary on Boethius' De Trinitate; attempted to re-interpret Genesis in terms of four element theory; first-slate: 160|#647 (Dec 2020).||M||French|
|(Becker 139:71|5L) (Stokes 100:51)||F||English|
||160||Bernard Mandeville (1670-1733)||M||Dutch-born English|
noted his 1957 thermodynamics table for biochemical reactions, containing free energy of formation values ΔGfº for about 100 species of “biochemical reactions, able to make predictions on reactions that had not yet occurred” (Alberty, 2003); 112-name candidate list; first slating: 160|#564 (Nov 2020).
|(Gottlieb 1000:605) (SIG:19) (GPE:99) (CR:6) Physicist and electrical engineer; noted for his discovery of electromagnetic induction (1832), independent of Faraday (1831); his genius ability was ranked, by Alfred Mayer (1880), as “a little below that of Faraday”; first-slating: 160|#534 (Nov 2019).||M||American|
|68||(Cattell 1000:12) (RGM:276|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:180) (Time 100:58) (Perry 80:33) (TL:6) Statesman, social philosopher, and thinker,||M||Irish-born British|
|61||RGM:495|1,350+) (Murray 4000:6|MD) (Gottlieb 1000:250) (Simmons 100:64) (Becker 160:90) Physician and scientist; noted for pioneering work in hematology, immunology and antimicrobial chemotherapy; in 1885, he pioneered the use of methylene blue to stain bacteria (pictured); in 1909, he found a cure for syphilis; noted for his theory that cells have a kind of "receptor" that binds to the harmful substances, according to which the receiving elements are knocked off of the cell and become antibodies; first-slate: 160|#655 (Dec 2020).||M||German|
|=160||73||(Murray 4000:20|WM) (GMG:16) Composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period; on his opera "Iphigénie en Tauride" (Iphigenia in Tauris) (1779) (Ѻ), a drama is ultimately based on the play Iphigenia in Tauris by the ancient Greek dramatist Euripides which deals with stories concerning the family of Agamemnon in the aftermath of the Trojan War, Schiller (1801) commented, in a letter to his friend Körner, "Never has so pure and lovely a music affected me, it is a world of harmony which presses directly to the soul and dissolves in sweet exalted melancholy"; Wagner called him "the great Gluck"; first-slate: 160|#655 (Dec 2020).||M||Bavarian|
|CR:11) Chemist; noted for his 1675 Course on Chemistry, wherein he was the first to propose the “organic chemistry” (animal/vegetable kingdom) and “inorganic chemistry” (mineral kingdom) division (Thorpe, 1874); noted for his so-called "geometric atomism" (Farber, 1961), wherein to explain neutralization that takes place when an acid and a base react, he conceived, based on contemporary atomism and Descartes (c.1640), a geometrically-locking acid-base model of corpuscles, according to which the barb or spike of an acid corpuscle fit into the grove of a base or alkali; was one of the earliest conceptions of “molecule” (Ѻ) or two corpuscles joined, and a remote precursor to the chemical bond (see: history of the chemical bond).||M||French|
|63||Ѻ), goats, and horses, when these animals developed immunity, they derived the antibodies from their serum; in 1901, he won the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his serum therapies against diphtheria; first-slate: 160|#659 (Dec 2020).||M||German|
|50||Becker 160:93|3L) (Simmons 100:53) (CR:5); geologist and polar explorer;
Noted for his 1910 supercontinent theory (Pangaea), stated originally by Robert Hooke (1697), and ruminated on by Alexander Humboldt (c.1800); for his continental drift theory; in 1912 went on expedition to find evidence of fossil plant overlap between fitting continents.
|(Becker 139:126|3L)||F||Russian-born American|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Sultan; presided over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's economic, military and political power.||M||Turkish|
|67||(Murray 4000:9|11) Astronomer;
Noted for two 1934 papers, with Fritz Zwicky, wherein they coined the term supernova, hypothesized neutron stars, and explained cosmic rays; noted for his 1944 work on the resolution into stars at the center of the Andromeda Galaxy, M31, and its two elliptical companions, M32 and NGC 205; noted for his 1952 calculation of the size of the universe, based on two types of Cepheid variable stars, which was double that made by Hubble in 1929; first-slate: 160|#664 (Dec 2020).
|=160||[RGM:281|1,350+] (Becker 139:122|3L) Independence movement leader.||M||Indian|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:225) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Dramatist and tragedy poet.||M||Italian|
|RGM:150|1,350+] Painter; noted for: The Birth of Venus, e.g. as illustrated in the Lucretius article, Sistine Chapel works, etc.; first-slating: 160|#440 (Feb 2018) per crude artistic geniuses rankings.||M||Italian|
|2.25||71||(Cattell 1000:568) (PR:46,590|65AE / philosopher:1,022) (FA:68) (TL:36) Philosopher;||M||English|
|=155||[RGM:1158|1,350+] Politician and US president; used Darwinian evolution logic as a logic platform in his presidency.||M||American|
|=160||Cattell 1000:149) [RGM:517|1,350+] (CR:6) Dramatist, critic, and philosopher; in his “Rettung des Hier. Cardanus” (1754), he defended Cardano from the charge of atheism (Ѻ); approved of by Buchner; the fifth book from the bottom of the 2006 sculpture “Walk of Ideas” (right), with Goethe at the base and Grass at the summit.||M||German|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:254) [RGM:24|1,350+] (CR:3) Theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar; known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity; noted for work on Anaximander.||M||German|
Noted for his 1911 invention of the cloud chamber, a version of which used to discover the positron, observed by Carl Anderson (1932).; first-slate: 160|#675 (Dec 2020).
|(RGM:274|1,350+) (Murray 4000:20|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:167) (Bloom 100:27) (CR:5) Playwright and theater director;
known as the “father of realism”; noted for works including: A Doll’s House, Emperor and Galilean, which he called his masterpiece, and Peer Gynt; influenced: George Shaw, Oscar Wilde, Arthur Miller, James Joyce, Eugene O’Neill, and Miroslav Krleza; first-slating: 160|#675 (Nov 2020).
|[GCMG:13] Composer, virtuoso pianist, and conductor of the late Romantic period.||M||Russian|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:436) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Bishop and scholar; friend Grotius; general editor of the King James Bible.||M||English|
|(CR:2) Physicist, electrical engineer, and thermodynamicist; after getting his PhD under Planck, he pioneered semiconductor technology, inventing things such as the Schottky diode, Schottky barrier; then penned his 1929 Thermodynamics: The Theory of the Circular Processes of Physical and Chemical Changes and Equilibria, wherein he not only introduced the “G” symbol for the isothermal, isobaric chemical potential, aka Gibbs energy:
which is the chemical potential of society, introduced thing such as: the “Schottky anomaly”, a peak of heat capacity, and “Schottky system” (Muschik, 1990); previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 160|#588 (Nov 2020).
|=160||(Cattell 1000:109) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Writer, politician, diplomat, and historian; founder of French romanticism in literature; influential to Victor Hugo.||M||French|
||160||Virgil of Salzburg
|CR:8) Astronomer and abbot;
Noted for his teaching of the “antipodal humans” theory, namely that the earth was round, had an “antipode” point, as professed by Pythagoras, Aristotle, Eratosthenes, Macrobius, and Bede, and that there were other people at these antipodes; the church condemned him has a heretic and to be burned, per reason that these other antipodal people would not be descendants of Adam and Eve, and therefore not saved by Christ; was an inspiration to Johannes Kepler; ranked as a great scientific martyr, alongside Galileo and Aristotle (Holbach, 1770); first-slating: 160|#490 (Feb 2018).
|69||Eddington); noted as designer behind three large telescopes: 40-inch, 60-inch, and the 100-inch Hooker telescope (ASME 270:66), the latter of which used by Hubble (1923) to prove that the Andromeda nebula extends beyond the Milky Way; by Hubble and Humason (1929) to confirm that the universe is expanding; by Zwicky (1930s) to find evidence of dark matter; and by Baade (1940s) to the discovery of two types of Cepheid variable stars, which doubled the size of the known ; first-slate: 160|#681 (Dec 2020).||M||American|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:245) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Marble sculptor.||M||Italian|
|(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:3) Theologian, philosopher, and law scholar; ranked with Duns Scotus (1266-1308), Thomas Aquinas, and William of Ockham, as most important/influential middle ages philosopher-theologians; complete works: 27-volume (Latin); cited by Guericke, Leibniz, Grotius, Pufendorf, Holbach, Schopenhauer, and Heidegger; first-slating: 165|#425 (Mar 2018); down-graded ↓per Guericke’s citation of him discussing astronomy in terms of Peter 5-7 and the “day of judgment” (Jan 2019).||M||Spanish|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:492) Statesman, diplomat, man of letters;
“However frivolous a company may be, still, while you are among them, do not show them, by your inattention, that you think them so; but rather take their tone, and conform in some degree to their weakness, instead of manifesting your contempt for them. There is nothing that people bear more impatiently, or forgive less, than contempt; and an injury is much sooner forgotten than an insult. If, therefore, you would rather please than offend, rather be well than ill spoken of, rather be loved than hated; remember to have that constant attention about you which flatters every man's little vanity; and the want of which, by mortifying his pride, never fails to excite his resentment, or at least his ill will.” — Philip Stanhope (c.1750), Publication Known an acclaimed wit of his time; his Letters to His Son on the Art of Becoming a Man of the World and a Gentleman (1774) are characterized as “teaching the morals of a whòre , and the manners of a dancing-master" (Samuel Johnson, c.1780).
|=160||(Cattell 1000:333) Philosopher and Anglican clergyman; was a Boyle anti-atheism lecturer for two years.||M||English|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:120) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Tragedian playwright; ranked with Moliere and Racine.||M||French|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:463) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Poet; his “On Friendship” (1783), similar to Empedocles, states that politics between courtiers and patriots is akin to the effervescence that arises when salt and lemon juice are mixed (see: chemistry poetry).||M||English|
|=160||68||(Cattell 1000:144) (Gottlieb 1000:366) Playwright, poet, and dramatist; ranked, in 17th century poetry, with John Dunne and John Milton, ranked with Shakespeare and Ben Jonson as greatest playwright (Ѻ); influential to Thomas Macaulay.||M||English|
|(Cattell 1000:72) [RGM:300|1,350+] (FA:14) (GHE:7) (CR:10+) Historian and general;||M||Greek|
|(CR:7) Scientist, philosopher, and religio-mythology scholar;
noted for his work on the antipode model of the earth, wherein, supposedly, predicted that when Columbus crossed the “northern quadrant” of his world map, that he would not reach the orient, but would reach a new land, i.e. America (Ѻ); first-slating: 160|#501 (Mar 2018).
|61||Murray 4000:4|E) (CR:3) Humanist, mineralogist, and metallurgist; noted for his 1556 On the Nature of Minerals, a catalog on the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, which contains and illustration of the “pump problem”, and gave one of the first outlined definitions of "horsepower", namely: described a number of pumps, suction, ball and chain, and bucket; one elaborate installation, at Chemnitz, e.g., lifted water 660-feet in three stages with pumps of the ball-and-chain design, that was operated by 96 horses, working four hours and resting twelve, in teams of eight to a pump. considered to be an early founder of geology as a discipline, his work paving the way for further systematic study of the earth and of its rocks, minerals, and fossils; wrote the first book on physical geology, De Ortu et Causis Subterraneorum (1546), notable for its descriptions of wind and water as powerful geological forces, and for its explanation of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions as produced by subterranean vapors and gases heated by the Earth's internal heat. However, his greatest contribution to paleontology was his book De Natura Fossilium (On the Nature of Fossils), also published in 1546.; first-slate: 160|#691 (Dec 2020).||M||German|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:479) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Lawyer and politician.||M||French|
|=160||78||(Cattell 1000:489) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Philologist, jurist, and mythologist; with his younger brother Wilhelm he is popularly known as the elder of the Brothers Grimm and the editor of Grimm's Fairy Tales.||M||German|
|Philosopher and mathematician; characterized a “great genius” (Mettrie, 1747); tends to be ranked, along with Christian Thomasius [RGM:263|1,360+], and Moses Mendelssohn [RGM:944|1,360+], as precursors to Immanuel Kant [RGM:20|1,360+] and German empirical psychology; first-slating: 160|#505 (Apr 2016).||M||German|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:300) [RGM:513|1,350+] (Murray 4000:5|WM) (Gottlieb 1000:396) (GMG:26) Composer;
“There was no one near to confuse me, so I was forced to become original.” — Joseph Haydn (c.1790), Publication (Ѻ)
|=160||(Cattell 1000:486) Political radical and classical historian; author of the 12-volume A History of Greece: from the Earliest Period to the Close of the Generation Contemporary with Alexander the Great (1846–1856) and Analysis of the Influence of Nature.||M||English|
|752.||160||Adelard of Bath
|75||(AT:2|D) Natural philosopher; translating many important Arabic and Greek scientific works of astrology, astronomy, philosophy and mathematics into Latin; thought that physics of atoms made sense; described the clepsydra without naming it, attributing its seemingly 'magical behavior' to a natural 'affection' existing among the four elements that constituted the universe, an affection so powerful 'that as soon as one of them leaves its position, another immediately takes its place; nor is this again able to leave its position, until another which it regards with special affection is able to succeed it'; introduced Arabic numeral system to Europe; did the first Latin translation of Euclid’s Elements; first-slate; 160|#696 (Dec 2020).||M||English|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:392) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Catholic theologian.||M||Dutch|
|83||Murray 4000:9|B) (Nelson 19:14) Physiologist, chemist, botanist, and clergyman;
Noted for his early work on the physiology of plants, namely the flow and pressure of sap in them, which led him to enquire about the nature of air, in respect to the respiration of plants, resulting in his 1727 Vegetable Staticks, on gas chemistry related to plant physiology; based on Newton suggestion that “gross bodies and light” might be interconvertible, he suggested, supposedly, that plants might used light as a source of energy for growth, thus pre-figuring early ideas on photosynthesis (Dobbs, 1982); which led him to the flow of blood in humans (e.g. he was the first to measure blood pressure in humans).; first-slate: 160|#697 (Dec 2020).
|=160||(Cattell 1000:131) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Poet.||M||French|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:893) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Scott 50:22) (FA:99) (CR:10) Sociologist;
“Martineau was born to be a destroyer of slavery in whatever form, in whatever place.” — Florence Nightingale (c.1890) noted for making the first calls for a secular children's bible (see: children's atheism bible); the first real attempt at this made by Thims (2015).
|757.||160||Michel de L’Hopital
|=160||(Cattell 1000:421) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Statesman, humanist, jurist, lawyer; was called on by Catherine de Médicis to try to establish the peaceful coexistence of Catholics and Protestants; and attempted he, however, failed at.||M||French|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:114) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Statesman.||M||French|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:91) [RGM:404|1,350+] Painter.||M||Flemish|
|(Becker 139:72|5L) (Stokes 100:57)||M||French|
|85||(Murray 4000:9|T) (Gottlieb 1000:326) Inventor and steel manufacturer; after making his first fortune by “reverse engineering” a way to cheaply make bronze powder, used in gold paint manufacturing, using as series of six steam-powered machines for making bronze powder, which previously was done by hand; he used the money to invent and patent about 100 other things, most-notably the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel; first-slate: 160|#710 (Dec 2020).||M||English|
|(Cattell 1000:110) (Becker 139:86|4L) (CR:5) Scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician, characterized a “fine genius” (Bayle, c.1693) and “keenest thinker of the 12th century” (Chambers, 1897); first-slating: 160|#517 (Mar 2018).||M||French|
|=160||(Cattell 1000:771) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Politician, lawyer, and senator.||M||American|
|=160||80||(Cattell 1000:900) Statesman and historian.||M||French|
(28 BE-61 AE)
|1.82||88||(FET:45) (TL:76|#145) Physicist, philosopher, biophysicist;
Noted for his late 1960s to 2000s work on attempting to look at organisms, bacteria to man, from an elemental, physical, chemical, and thermodynamical point of view;
|=160||87||(Cattell 1000:357) Cleric, theologian and evangelist who was a leader of a revival movement within the Church of England known as Methodism.||M||English|
|=160||70||(Cattell 1000:504) Diplomat and statesman||M||English|
|3.04||51||[RGM:287|1,350+] (GMG:9) (PEC10:8) (CR:9) General noted for his moral, i.e. “moral force”, and romantic theory of warfare, who in his 1832 posthumously-published treatise On War, used the principle of friction to distinguish real war from the mechanical, Newtonian world; first-slating: 155|#605 (Oct 2019).||M||Prussian|
|RGM:335|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:315) Poet, artist, writer, and philosopher; noted for his "energy is eternal delight" stylized poetry; his 1788 “There is No Natural Religion” relief etching philosophical aphorisms; friends with Thomas Paine; some think (Ѻ) was “IQ was off the chart”; first-slating: 155|#183 (Feb 2018).||M||English|
|60||(SIG:21) (Murray 4000:12|T) Engineer and inventor, important in the development of the steel and telegraph industries; noted for his 1861 invention of the regenerative gas furnace and its application to open-hearth steelmaking; first-slate: 155|#723 (Dec 2020).||M||German-born English|
|65||rabbit hole" (a frequent trope when people come to Hmolpedia), Through the Looking Glass, and the poem Jabberwocky (see: "Regarding Definitions", Lotkean Jabberwocky); the number "42" is employed in his work four times; a Quora-posited (2018) possible (Ѻ) genius; first-slating: 155|#629 (Nov 2020).||M||English|
(Cattell 1000:216) [RGM:170|1,350+] Statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, economist; and American founding father (#8); as the first secretary of the treasury, he was main person behind the founding economic and financial structure of the United States; secular (Ѻ) in religious belief; is pictured adjacent with Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and George Washington, at the signing of the US Constitution (1787).
|2.54||61||(PR:4,616|65AE / astronomer:26) (Murray 4000:16|A) (Simmons 100:37) (GPE:#) (EPD:F2) (TL:105|#118) was an English mathematician, astronomer, physicist, and philosopher; first-slating: 155|#631 (Nov 2020).||M||English|
|=130-140, 170, 208, 300||94||[RGM:599|1,250+] (GEcE:#) (CR:5) Economist;||M||Economist|
|=155||52||(Cattell 1000:331) (CR:5) English novelist, poet, and German literature translator; in 1830-1831, while residing in Weimar, began to read and translate Goethe and Schiller; in his Vanity Fair: A Novel Without a Hero (1953), Thackeray name-drops Elective Affinities, a period wherein the work had not yet been translated in to English.||M||Indian-born English|
|=135+, 140+||53||[RGM:1040|1,350+] (Stokes 100:65) (CR:59) (EPD:F15) Philosopher and political thinker;
Noted for leading the Bolshevik Revolution, helped create the Soviet Union, and launched the communist era, notable for his 1894 popularized the term “dialectical materialism”, being an extension in some way of Engels’ term “scientific materialism” and Marx’s conception of “historical materialism”, itself a mixture of Adam Smith’s theories and Epicurean philosophy; he, supposedly, blended all this together with criticism of the “energetics school” of Ernst Mach and Wilhelm Ostwald, who he argued either departed from dialectical materialism or casually neglected it, referring to the work of Abel Rey, who divided the physics schools into three groups: the energeticist, the neo-mechanicist, and the critical; he supposedly also denunciated “energeticism”, arguing after Ludwig Boltzmann that motion cannot exist without matter, and rejected Ostwald’s ontological proposition that energy rather than matter is the universal coordinage; added at 155|#630 per EPD rankings, CR, and RGM (Nov 2020).
|85||(Douglas 11:2) Mathematician, computer scientist, and naval officer; noted for pioneering the idea that programming languages could be in English rather than machine code; later became the lead developer behind COBAL; later introduced testing standards for languages such as FORTRAN; first-slate: 155|#730 (Dec 2020).||F||American|
|73||Noted for his 1876 proof, via the study of sea urchins, that fertilization is due to the fusion of an egg and a sperm; noted for his 1885 conjecture that “nuclein” (later called nucleic acid), discovered in 1869 by Friedrich Miescher, is the substance responsible for not only fertilization but also the transmission of hereditary characteristics; first-slate: 155|#730 (Dec 2020).||M||German|
|80||Cattell 1000:496) (Murray 4000:10|M) Barber surgeon, anatomist, forensic pathologist, obstetrician, and neurosurgeon; one of the first to apply the “experimental method”, by treating one group of wounded soldiers with “boiling elder oil and cauterization”, the traditional method, and other group with egg yok, oil of rises and turpentine”, a new technique, and returning to the battlefield to see which worked better; his 1564 Treatise on Surgery, details many of his surgical inventions and ideas, e.g. that phantom limb pains occur in the “brain” not in the location of the remnants of the limb; pioneered the invention of prosthetics; first-slate: 155|#731 (Dec 2020).||M||French|
|35||(Cattell 1000:957) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (EPD:MF|8) Rebellion leader; first-slating, generally per his legendary persona (Ѻ), at: IQ:155|#603 (Oct 2019).||M||Scottish|
“Sabah would introduce his designated assassins into his garden, some four or six or ten at a time, having first made them drink a certain potion, which cast them into deep sleep, and then causing them to be lifted and carried in. So, when they awoke, they found themselves in the garden, a place so charming they believe that it was [Islamic] paradise in truth, and the beautiful voluptuous maidens dallied with them to their heart’s content, so thy had what all men most desire above all else.” — Marco Polo (c.1300), Publication Pioneered an early form of “behaviorism”, wherein he drugged warriors, and awoke them in a seeming magical garden, walled on all sides, which he had built, supposedly Rudkhan Castle in the Alborz mountain range, Iran, filled with food, drink, and the most beautiful women in the land, thereby somehow, after drugging them again and waking them up outside the garden, convincing them that this was the afterlife, using this as a tool to make them kill assigned targets; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 155|#634 (Nov 2020).
|58||(Murray 4000:2|AL) (CR:2) Poet and religious doubter; wrote about sexual passion, homosexuality, masturbation, among other taboo topics, and was considered a genius poet; one day, as the anecdote goes, he was at his mosque listening to the Iman reading out verse one of surah 109: “Say, O! you unbelievers …”, to which Nuwas yelled out “Here I am!”, after which he was exiled and imprisoned, dying shortly thereafter; influenced: Kahlil Gibran; first-slate: 155|#734 (Dec 2020).||M||Iranian|
||155||Zeno of Elea
|(Becker 139:62|5L) (Stokes 100:6)||M||Greek-Italian|
(28 BE-37 AE)
Noted for his 1973 Anti-Chance: a Reply to Monad’s Chance and Necessity, penned in reaction to Jacques Monod’s 1970 Chance and Necessity, wherein he presented a deterministic, i.e. anti-chance, view of things; first-slate: 155|#735 (Dec 2020).
Presently, there are 139-names in the 165+ (to previous divide) range.
Presently, there are 97-names in the 160+ (to previous divide) range.
Next | Previous
- Alan Watt’s Tribute to Carl Jung (2013) – PersonalityCafe.com.
- Kermit, Sperging. (2019). “Greatest Geniuses: Top 100”, Real Geniuses, Reddit, Feb.
- Not Enough Artists (2013) – Hmolpedia Forum.
- Yates, Bill. (2011). “IQ of Steve Jobs”, BrainPosts, Blogspot, Oct 25.
- Bekenstein, Jacob D. (1980). “Black-hole Thermodynamics” (pdf), Physics Today (pgs. 24-31), Jan.
- Warraq, Ibn. (1995). Why I Am Not a Muslim (pgs. 259-60). Prometheus.
- Hecht, Jennifer. (2004). Doubt: a History (pg. 231). Publisher.
- Kermit, Sperging. (2019). “Greatest Geniuses: Top 100”, Real Geniuses, Reddit, Feb.
- Kermit, Sperging. (2019). “Greatest Geniuses List: Top 20”, Real Geniuses, Reddit, Jan.
- Philoepisteme. (2018). “10 Candidates: Already Written About” (post: #15), Hmolpedia 2020 Forum, Jul 14.
- Blackwell, James. (1991). “In the Eye of the Storm: the Making of a General, and the War He Won” (Ѻ), New York Times, Sep 5.
- H. Norman Schwarzkopf – Oxford Reference.
- Ratner, Paul. (2016). “24 of the smartest people who ever lived: the smartest humans in history are ranked” (Ѻ), BigThink.com, Sep 18.
- What was Ramanujan’s IQ? (2017) – Quora.
- Turner, Genius. (2017). “How to Become a Genius at Something” (Ѻ), Final Species Code, blog, Oct 2.
- Thabit Ibn Qurra – MacTutor.
- Thabit ibn Qurra – FamousScientists.org.
- Hedkandi. (2019). “11 Missing Top 1000 Candidates” (Ѻ), Message to Libb Thims, Sep 25.
- Stenger, Victor J. (2013). God and the Atom: from Democritus to the Higgs Boson: the Story of a Triumphant Idea (pgs. 49, 55). Prometheus Books.
- Pullman, Bernard. (1998). The Atom in the History of Human Thought (Thierry of Chartres, pg. 98). Oxford.
- Le Penseur. (2017). “IQs of Composers”, Hmolpedia thread, Nov 27.
- Human free energy (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Particle – Hmolpedia 2020
- Pump problem – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Horsepower – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Georgius Agricola – UCMP.Berkeley.edu.
- Clepsydra – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Nelson, Thomas. (1848). Memorials of Early Genius and Achievements in the Pursuit of Knowledge (Hales, pgs. 267-. Publisher.
- Genius IQs – Free-IQTest.net
- Ratner, Paul. (2016). “24 of the smartest people who ever lived: the smartest humans in history are ranked” (Ѻ), BigThink.com, Sep 18.
- There is No Natural Religion – Wikipedia.
- Friedman IQ 208: according to a 2010 YouTube post (by spinnerZulu) who heard it on a radio show (in Libb Thims IQ:200+ genius folder).
- Estimate IQ of these great economists: Paul Krugman, Joseph Stiglitz, and Milton Friedman (2014) – EconJobRumors.com.
- What is the IQ of Vladimir Lenin? (2019) – Quora.
- (a) Medvedev, Zhores. (1982). “Nikolai Wladimirovich Timofeeff-Ressovsky”, ''Genetics'', 100:1-5.
(b) Perutz, Max. (1987). “Schrodinger’s What is Life? and Molecular Biology”; in: Schrodinger: Centenary Celebration of a Polymath (§19:234-51, quote, pg. 248). Cambridge.
- Islamic atheism – Hmolpedia 2020.