Top 2000 minds: 601-800

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In genius studies, top 2000 geniuses and minds: 601-800 refers to []

Geniuses | 601-800 | IQ:150-165

See also: Higher minds, 1-200, 201-400, 401-600, 601-800, 801-1,000, 1,001-1,200, 1,201-1,400, 1,401-1,600, 1,601-1,800, 1,801-2,000, Full list, Candidates

The following (see: IQ key) are intellects “601-800” of the top 2000 geniuses and minds:

# Person D A Overview G Country
601.
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165 Theodore Maiman
(28 BE-52 AE)
(1927-2007 ACM)
79
Ruby laser.jpg
Physicist; noted for his 1960 invention of the ruby laser, which he built based on the early 1958 maser work of Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow; first slated: 165|#469 (c.1919).
M American
602.
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165 Carl Jung

(1875-1961)

IQ O.png=185[1]

IQ B.png=160

[RGM:130|1,350+] (Stokes 100:67) (CR:82) Psychiatrist; noted, in psychodynamics, for his 1928 to 1960s work on an attempt to create a modified version of Freud's energy-dynamics based psychology. M Swiss
603.
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165 Anthony Shaftesbury, 1st Earl (1621-1683) IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:365) Politician; grandfather to deism moral philosopher Anthony Shaftesbury, 3rd Earl (1671-1713). M English
604.
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165 Sun Tzu

(c.540-496BC)

IQ B.png=165 [RGM:43|1,350+] (Becker 139:63|5L) Military leader and war theorist; purported author of the Art of War. M Chinese
605.
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165 Gustav Fechner

(1801-1887)

M German
606.
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165 Joseph Lister

(1827-1912)

IQ B.png=165 84 (Becker 160:63|4L) Surgeon; noted for his research into bacteriology and infection in wounds raised, which pioneered the art of antiseptic surgery. M English
607.
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165 Carl Scheele

(1742-1786)

43 M German-born Swedish
608.
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165 Friedrich Lange (1828-1875) (CR:29) Philosopher and sociologist;
“Democritus also mastered the whole extent of the science of his time, and that probably with greater independence and thoroughness than was the case with Aristotle; but we have no trace whatever of his having brought all these sciences under the yoke of his system.”
— Friedrich Lange (1875), The History of Materialism, Volume One (pg. 82)

characterized as neo-Kantian and against but sympathetic to materialism (Russell, 1925), and sociologist noted for his 1865 The History of Materialism and Critique of its Present Importance, wherein he recounts the history of materialism from Democritus and his atomic theory through Francis Bacon into Ludwig Buchner and his extreme materialism; influenced: John Tyndall and Friedrich Nietzsche, who read it "again and again"; first-slating: #500 (Nov 2020).

M German
609.
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165 Christopher Wren

(1632-1723)

IQ B.png=165 90 (Nelson 19:17) M English
610.
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165 Vladimir Vernadsky
(92-10 BE)
(1863-1945 ACM)
2.03 81
Biosphere.png
(CR:35) Geochemical mineralogist and grand-theory philosopher; after studying with Henri Chatelier (1889), and building on Eduard Suess’ 1875 “biosphere” (sphere of life) concept, published The Biosphere (1926), wherein he attempts to sell a highly-advanced in thinking living matter biosphere theory, in which he attempts to surmount the life / non-life issue, thermodynamically, by arguing that certain portions of the periodic table go into living matter, and that there is some type of unbridgeable gap between living matter and non-living matter, or something along these lines, but one that leads to insurmountable difficulties on theory, in modern retrospect; also introduced the term “noosphere”, later advanced by Pierre Teilhard.
M Russian
611.
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165
Servetus 75.png
Michael Servetus

(c.1510-1553)

(Cattell 1000:642) (HC11:6)[2] (CR:3) Theologian, physician, cartographer, and humanist; noted for his The Restoration of Christianity (1553) which rejected (Ѻ) trinity and the concept of predestination; influential to: Thomas Aikenhead; 112-candidate; first-slating: #500 (Nov 2020). M Spanish
612.
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165 Thomas Digges

(c.1546-1595)

M English
613.
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165
Chopin 75.png
Frederic Chopin

(1810-1849)

IQ O.png=150[3] M Polish
614.
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165
Francois Viete 75.png
Francois Viete

(1540-1603)

(Murray 4000:15|M) (Eells 100:22) (GME:23) (CR:5) Mathematician and astronomer;
“Torporley became Viete’s (GME:23) amanuensis, and it was almost certainly through Torporley that Harriot acquired his detailed knowledge of Viete’s mathematics.”
— Jacqueline Stedall (2003), The Great Invention of Algebra (pg. 4)

Noted for his 1591 Introduction to the Analytic Arts, wherein he introduced the first systematic algebraic notation, due to its innovative use of letters as parameters in equations; influenced: Gilles Roberval, Descartes, and Harriot; first-slating: 165|#580 per GME ranking IQ interpolation (Nov 2020).

M French
615. 165
No image 2.png
Nicholas of Autrecourt
(c.1299-1369)
70 (AT:8|D) (CR:3) Skeptical philosopher and theologian; noted for his defense of atomic theory, repudiation of Aristotle, and rejection of the Democritus-Epicurus view of the soul as a type of atom or atomic movement, instead considering soul to be composed of two immortal spirits called “intellect” and “sense”; argued, supposedly, that cause and effect did not exist; in 1347, all of his works were ordered to be "burned", and only two letters to a friend survive; first-slate: 165|#580 (Dec 2020). M French
616.
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165
Jobs 75.png
Steve Jobs
(1955-2011)
IQ O.png=160[4] M American
617.
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165 Walter Raleigh

(1552-1618)

IQ C.png=165 65 M English
618.
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165
Malpighi 75.png
Marcello Malpighi

(1628-1694)

(Simmons 100:39) M Italian
619.
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165
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Joseph Addison

(1672-1719)

IQ C.png=165 M English
472.
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170
Pyrrho 75.png
Pyrrho
(2315-2225 BE)
(c.360-270 BCM)
60
Pyrrhonism.png
(TL:10) Skeptic philosopher and “free thinker”; noted for disbelief in all beliefs philosophy; studied Democritus; admired by Epicurus; downgrade for the fact that his friends had to follow him around so that he wouldn't get hurt; first-slating: 170|#350 (Mar 2018); downgrade: 165|#620 (Apr 66AE).
M Greek
620.
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165
Chongzhi 75.png
Zu Chongzhi

(429-500)

(Oduenyi 100:51) Chinese astronomer, mathematician, politician, inventor; calculated pi to seven places a record beat until al-Kashi (c.1400) (Ѻ); in astronomy, he was able to make a calendar with this degree of accuracy since he had calculated the length of the tropical year (time between two successive occurrences of the vernal equinox) as 365.24281481 days (an error of only 50 seconds from its true value of 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds), and a nodal month for the moon of 27.21233 days (compare the modern value of 27.21222 days) (Ѻ); inventor of human-powered paddle wheel boats; a Hedkandi2 (Ѻ) top 1000 missing candidate (Apr 2020); previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 165|#507 (Nov 2020). M Chinese
621.
Wavy.png
165
Trevithick 75.png
Richard Trevithick

(1771-1833)

M English
622.
Wavy.png
165
Frege 75.png
Gottlob Frege

(1848-1925)

76 (Becker 139:52|6L) (Stokes 100:76) M German
623.
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165
Sadi 75.png
Marquis Sade
(215-141 BE)
(1740-1814 ACM)
2.26 74 M French
624.
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165
Brahe 75.png
Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601)
Brahe model.gif
[RGM:136|1,350+] (Murray 4000:7|A) (Simmons 100:22) (Becker 160:78|3L) (CR:31) Astronomer; noted for his 1588 On the Most Recent Phenomena of the Aetherial World, based on the comet of 1577, wherein he attempts to make a hybrid out of the heliocentric Copernican and geocentric Ptolemaic models, which had a still earth (it did not rotate), as the center of the universe, with the planets (mercury, venus, mars, jupiter, and saturn) revolving around the sun, and sun, moon, and fixed stars revolving around the earth; his telescope observation data, later used by Kepler to conclude that planets move around the sun in ellipses rather than circles, and to thereby propose three laws of planetary motion; first draft slotted at #350 (Jun 2017);
M Danish
625.
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165 Isambard Brunel
(1806-1859)
IQ C.png=165 53 Engineer; noted for building a number of famous: tunnels, bridges, railways, etc., during the industrial revolution. M English
626. 165
Robert Oppenheimer 75.png
Robert Oppenheimer
(1904-1967)
62
Oppenheimer-Snyder black hole formation (1939).jpg
(RGM:126|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:80) (Becker 160:33|6L) (Simmons 100:87) (GPE:103) (CR:5) Theoretical physicist; noted for his 1939 paper, with Harlan Snyder, which showed that Schwarzschild solution describes the final state of a spherically collapsing massive star; this was the first-time black holes became a central phenomenon of astrophysics[5]; noted for being the head of the "Manhattan project", based on the 1933 nuclear chain reaction theory of Leo Szilard, which resulted in the 1945 "atomic bomb", that detonated on Hiroshima, resulting to bring about an end to WWII; first-slate: 165|#590 (Dec 2020).
M American
627.
Wavy.png
165
Cleanthes 75.png
Cleanthes

(c.330-230BC)

Stoic philosopher; student of Zeno of Citium (see: Greek philosophy), mentor to Chrysippus (279-206BC); noted for developing, with the addition of this "tension" theory of matter, the basic the tenets of so-called "stoic physics"; IQ first-draft gauged at 165|#469 M Greek
628.
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165
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Sappho

(c.630-570BC)

IQ B.png=165 Lyrical poet; F Greek
629.
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165
Handel 75.png
George Handel

(1685-1759)

IQ C.png=170

IQ O.png=135[3]

74 M German
630.
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165
Ennius 75.png
Ennius

(239-169BC)

M Roman
631. 165
Nikolay Chernyshevsky 75.png
Nikolay Chernyshevsky (127-66 BE) (1828-1889 ACM) 61 (CR:3) Materialistic monism philosopher, novelist, social utopianist, and characterized "nihilist";
“Chernyshevsky maintains that, from a scientific point of view, man is a chemical compound, albeit a highly complex one, and thus is subject to the same laws and necessities as govern all chemical processes.”
— Author (1965), Russian Philosophy, Volume Two: the Nihilists (pg. 14)

Noted for his “The Anthropological Principle in Philosophy” (1860), which outlines his monistic chemical materialism philosophy, and his What is to be Done? (1863), which presents his philosophy in the form of a novel; influences: Hegel, Feuerbach, Charles Fourier; influenced: Dostoyevsky, Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin; first-slate: 165|#594 (Dec 2020).

M Russian
632.
Wavy.png
165
Beaumarchais 75.png
Pierre Beaumarchais

(1732-1799)

IQ C.png=165 M French
633.
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165 Theodore Beza

(1519-1605)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:285) Protestant Christian; disciple of John Calvin; played a role in the reformation. M French
634.
Wavy.png
165
Bronte 75.png
Charlotte Bronte

(1816-1855)

IQ C.png=165 F English
635.
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165 Gilbert Burnet

(1643-1715)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:439) Philosopher and historian. M Scottish
636.
Steady.png
165
Disraeli 75.png
Benjamin Disraeli
(151-74 BE)
(1804-1881 ACM)
IQ C.png=165 2.14 77 (Cattell 1000:143) (RGM:805|1,350+) Statesman, prime minister, novelist, and philosopher;
“We often hear, from the early companions of a man of genius, that at school he appeared heavy and unpromising. Rousseau imagined that the childhood of some men is accompanied by this seeming and deceitful dullness, which is the sign of a profound genius; and Roger Ascham has placed among the ‘best natures for learning, the sad-natured and hard-witted child’; that is, the thoughtful, or the melancholic, and the slow.”
— Isaac Disraeli (1867), Literary Character of Men of Genius: the History of Men of Genius Drawn from Their Own Feelings and Confessions (pg. 43)

Views: “nature has given us two ears, but only one mouth”; “there are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics”; “action may not always bring happiness; but there is no happiness without action.”

M English
637.
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165 Daniel DeFoe

(c.1660-1731)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:278) Trader, novelist, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy; author of Robinson Crusoe. M English
638.
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165 George Canning

(1770-1827)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:212) Statesman and politician. M English
639.
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165
Spencer 75.png
Herbert Spencer
(1820-1903)
1.99 83 (Gottlieb 1000:808) (Becker 139:118) (Scott 50:39) [CR:91] Natural philosopher; noted his 1858 to 1862 effort to produce a unified theory of everything, the gist of which is found in his First Principles (1862), wherein he sought to reconcile the subjects of religion, psychology, and sociology, with physics, chemistry, and biology, all themed on premise of evolution, equilibrium, and force transformations; known his Spencerian dilemma; first-slating: 165|#420 (c.2018). M English
640.
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165 Henry Fielding

(1707-1754)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:251) Novelist, dramatist, playwright, magistrate; author of Tom Jones (1749) a Guardian (2013) 100 best novel (#5) (Ѻ); founder of London’s first police force. M English
641.
Down.png
165
Schubert 75.png
Franz Schubert

(1797-1828)

IQ O.png=160[3] M Austrian
642.
Wavy.png
165
Verdi 75.png
Giuseppe Verdi

(1813-1901)

IQ B.png=150

IQ O.png=160[3]

M Italian
643.
Down.png
165 Joseph Fouche
(1759-1820)
IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:260) Statesman and Napoleon-siding revolutionist. M French
644. 165
Al-Tawhadi 75.png
Al-Tawhidi
(955-940 BE)
(923-1015 ACM)
92 (EPD:MF) Writer and philosopher; aka “Abu al-Tauhidi”; characterized, according to literary tradition, as one of the “three great Zanadiqa (or zindiqs)”, or anti-religion radicals, of Islam, along with al-Rawandi and al-Marri (Warraq, 1995; Hecht, 2004)[6][7]; noted for his his Borrowed Lights (al-Muqabasat), a philosophical book, wherein he refuted astrology; his work, according to Margoliouth, was considered “more dangerous” than al-Rawandi or al-Marri, because whereas these two proclaimed their unbelief openly, al-Tawhidi expressed his unbelief in innuendoes; his books were burned; first-slate: 165|#606 (Dec 2020). M Persian
645.
Down.png
165 Francesco Guicciardini

(1483-1540)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:423) Historian and statesman; friend and critic of Machiavelli. M Italian
646.
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165 Francois Guizot

(1787-1874)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:59) Historian, orator, and statesman. M French
647.
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165 Warren Hastings
(1732-1818)
IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:279) Statesman and general governor of India. M English
648. 165
Ibn Khaldun 75.png
Ibn Khaldun
(1332-1406)
IQ SK.png=180|#38[8], 190[9] 74 (RGM:374|1,350+) (Shariff 10:9)[10] Historiographer, historian, sociologist, demographer, and economist; first-slate: #610 (Dec 2020). M Arabian
649.
Wavy.png
165
Ford 75.png
Henry Ford

(1863-1947)

M American
650.
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165 Ludwig Holberg

(1684-1754)

IQ C.png=165 M Norwegian
651.
Wavy.png
165
Mendelssohn 75.png
Moses Mendelssohn

(1729-1786)

M German
652.
Wavy.png
165
Felix Mendelssohn 75.png
Felix Mendelssohn

(1809-1847)

M German
653.
Wavy.png
165
Meitner 75.png
Lise Meitner

(1878-1968)

(Becker 160:137|2L) M Austrian-born Swedish
654.
Up.png
165
Callimachus

(c.470-400BC)

M Greek
655.
Down.png
165
Schwarzkopf 75.png
Norman Schwarzkopf

(1934-2012)

IQ O.png=168[11], 170[12] M American
656.
Wavy.png
165
Jenner 75.png
Edward Jenner

(1749-1823)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:381) [RGM:648|1,350+] Physician; discoverer of the small pox vaccination, an aim he had set for himself before age 20. M English
657. 165
Jan Swammerdam 75.png
Jan Swammerdam
(1637-1680)
43
Swammerdam muscle contraction experiment.png
(Murray 4000:10|B) Physician and anatomist;
“It was Hooke, not Malpighi, Swammerdam, Leeuwenhoek, or Nehemiah Grew, who revealed the mysteries of the microscope.”
— Stephen Inwood (2002), The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 65)

Noted for his 1669 The General History of Insects: General Treatise on little Bloodless Animals, wherein he countered the prevailing Aristotelian notion that insects were imperfect animals that lacked internal anatomy; argued that all insects originated from eggs and their limbs grew and developed slowly; noted for his frog let in syringe experiment (pictured) wherein he showed that muscles contracted not from hydrologic pressure changes, but from nerve stimulation; influences: Descartes; first-slate: 165|#618 (Dec 2020).

M Dutch
658.
Steady.png
165
Samuel Johnson 75.png
Samuel Johnson
(1709-1784)
IQ C.png=165
Dictionary of the English Language.png
(Cattell 1000:46) (RGM:498|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:182) (Bloom 100:6|Wisdom) (CR:8) Poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, literary critic, and biographer; noted for his 1755 Dictionary of the English Language, wherein he innovated the method of illustrating word usage by literary quotation; was the status quo reference for a century, until Noah Webster's An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828), completion of the Oxford English Dictionary (1928).
M English
659.
Wavy.png
165
David Ricardo 75.png
David Ricardo

(1772-1823)

(RGM:645|#1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:112) (GEcE:#) (CR:#) Political economist; after reading Smith’s An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations (1776), he went on to develop his “Ricardian Model” of international trade economics, presented in his On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1871); influential to Henry Buckle; 112-candidate; first-slating:#540 (Nov 2020). M English
660.
Wavy.png
165 John Newman
(1801-1890)
IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:723) [RGM:613|1,350+] Theologian and poet, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal; an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England. M English
661. 165
Athanase Dupre 75.png
Athanase Dupre (147-86 BE) (1808-1869 ACM) 61
Dupre chemical attraction table (1869).png
Mathematician, physicist, chemist, and thermodynamicist; noted for some 40 papers published on thermodynamics, from 1658 to 1668, culminating in the book Mechanical Theory of Heat (1669), described by Maxwell (1876) as “very ingenious”, wherein, citing Clausius, he talks about molecular attractions experiments he did with his “young and learned colleague” Francois Massieu; pictured his “table of equivalents” (pg. 402) of simple bodies, calculated by the attraction in contact, union forces, and heat capacities, 22 chemical substances his work on soap film tensions was cited by Gibbs (1876); first-slate: 165|#621 (Dec 2020).
M French
662.
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165 John Law

(1671-1729)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:290) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] Economist; believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade. M Scottish
663. 165
Stanley Miller 75.png
Stanley Miller
(1830-2007)
77
Miller experiment (1952).png
(CR:7) Chemist; Chemist; noted for his attendance, in the Fall of 1951, of a seminary wherein Harold Urey presented his theory, based in part on the earlier ideas of Alexander Oparin (1924), that the early earth’s atmosphere was highly reducing gas mixture of methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen, and suggested that with such an atmosphere it might be possible to synthesize organic compounds that in turn could have provided the raw materials needed for the emergence of life, concluding with the fact that few experiments had been done to mimic prebiotic organic synthesis; in Sep 1952, Miller, then a graduate student at the University of Chicago, who had spent a year, under Edward Teller, working on how the element were synthesized in stars, approached Urey about doing a prebiotic synthesis experiment in a reducing gas mixture; Urey at first resisted the idea, stating that graduate students should only do experiments that had a reasonable chance of success, suggesting instead that he should work on determining the amount of the element thallium in meteorites; but Miller was persistent about the prebiotic synthesis experiment, and Urey let him do it under the condition that if results were not found in one year, he should abandon it; Miller did the experiment in Dec 1952, synthesizing aspartic acid, glycine, alpha-alanine, beta-alanine, and alpha amino m-butyric acid; publishing his results in Science on 13 Feb 1953, thereafter known as the famous Miller-Urey experiment (or Miller experiment), being continuously cited as experimental evidence for the molecular origin of life; first-slate: 165|#622 (Dec 2020).
M American
664.
Down.png
165 Giuseppe Mazzini
(1805-1872)
IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:287) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] Politician, journalist, and revolutionist. M Italian
665.
Down.png
165 William Robertson

(1721-1793)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:472) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] Historian. M Scottish
666.
Down.png
165 Charles Sainte-Beuve

(1804-1869)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:378) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] Literary critic. M French
667.
Wavy.png
165
Walter Scott 75.png
Walter Scott

(1771-1832)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:27) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Historical novelist, playwright, poet, and historian; author of Ivanhoe (1820). M Scottish
668.
Down.png
165 Richard Sheridan

(1751-1816)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:361) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Satirist, playwright, poet; long-time owner of London Theatre Royal. M Irish
669.
Up.png
165
Henri Saint-Simon 75.png
Henri Saint-Simon

(1760-1825)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:400) (CR:14) Political, economic, and social theorist; his utopian socialism influenced: John Mill, Pierre Proudhon, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Thorstein Veblen; his secretary was Auguste Comte; some claim he coined the term “social physics” (Sweigewood, 2000). M French
670.
Up.png

Up.png

165
Pirsig 75.png
Robert Pirsig

(27 BE-62 AE) (1928-2017 ACM)

IQ O.png=170 1.85 89
Pirsig paradox.jpg

(CR:60) (SPE:24|2014) Writer, and philosopher, and former child prodigy;

“Patterns of culture do not operate in accordance with the laws of physics. How are you going to prove in terms of the laws of physics that a certain attitude exists within a culture? What is an attitude in terms of the laws of molecular interaction?”
— Robert Pirsig (1991), Lila: an Inquiry into Morals (pg. 53)

noted for his 1991 Lila: An Inquiry into Morals, wherein he reflects on the so-called “Pirsig paradox”, namely when did C, H, N, and O, etc., start ‘struggling to survive’ to form me?”; also reflecting on William Sidis, and digs into the questions of life, and morals, in the context of a person being a collection of atoms governed by physics and chemistry, in the context of the second law of thermodynamics, and evolution defined by Darwin; first-slating: 165|#521 (Mar 2019).

M American
671.
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165 Daniel Webster

(1782-1852)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:183) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Politician, orator, and lawyer. M American
672.
Wavy.png
165
Cabeo 75.png
Niccolo Cabeo
(1585-1650)
(CR:5) Philosopher, engineer, mathematician, and theologian;
“If you seek to be able to know, from the school of the philosophers, why fire should induce heat, so that you do not seek refuge in an occult force or faculty, likewise, from this book you should be able to understand no less clearly why the magnet attracts iron, and why it turns itself to the pole, without another occult quality being thrust upon you.”
— Niccolo Cabeo (1629), Magnetic Philosophy

Noted for his Magnetic Philosophy, a book penned to refute the theories of William Gilbert (1600), from the Aristotelian view, but wherein he made an important observation of electrical repulsion, namely that an electrically charged body can attract non-electrified objects, also that two charged objects repelled each other; classified as a “Jesuit naturalist”, along with Athanasius Kircher and Gaspar Schott; 112-candidate; first-slating: #550 (Nov 2020).

M Italian
673.
Wavy.png
165
Jules Verne 75.png
Jules Verne

(1828-1905)

77 (RGM:97|1,350+) Novelist, poet, and playwright;
“Science, my lad, is made up of mistakes, but they are mistakes which it is useful to make, because they lead little by little to the truth.”
— Jules Verne (1864), A Journey to the Center of the Earth
“We may brave human laws, but we cannot resist natural ones.”
— Jules Verne (1870), 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (§2.15: Accident or Incident)

noted for his science fiction novel From the Earth to the Moon (Ѻ) and his sequel Around the Moon (1870), which influenced Hermann Oberth; for his Extraordinary Voyages series of adventure novels, including: Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1872); ranked (Ѻ) as second or third Robert Heinlein, along with Herbert Wells, as greatest sci-fi writer; a top 1000 suggested candidate, in respect to great playwrights, by oye777 (8 Jan 2019); 112-candidate; first-slating: #550 (Nov 2020).

M French
674.
Wavy.png
165
Ramanujan 75.png
Srinivasa Ramanujan
(1887-1920)
IQ CP.png=199

IQ O.png=195[2] IQ O.png=185[13]
IQ O.png=135-140[14]

[RGM:496|1,350+] (Becker 139:65|5L) (Norlinger 22:32) (GME:30) Mathematics prodigy and autodidact;

“An equation for me has no meaning unless it expresses a thought of god.” — Srinivasa Ramanujan (c.1910), Publication; cited in: The Man Who Knew Infinity [15] G.H. Hardy ranking of him in the same league as Gauss, Euler, Cauchy, Newton, and Archimedes; Littlewood, supposedly, compared him as being somewhere between Newton and Jacobi; Stephen Wolfram (2016) gives some detailed commentary (Ѻ) on him; influential (Ѻ) to Abdus Salam; classified: “overrated as a mathematician” (Ѻ) [see: overrated geniuses]; down-graded from 175|#277 to #550 per “The Man who Knew Infinity” (2015) film (Nov 2020).

M Indian
675.
Up.png
165
Rodin 75.png
Auguste Rodin

(1840-1917)

Rodin sculptures.png
[RGM:328|1,500+] (Collins 20:8) French sculptor;

“To any artist, worthy of the name, all in nature is beautiful, because his eyes, fearlessly accepting all exterior truth, read there, as in an open book, all the inner truth.” — Auguste Rodin (c.1900) Noted for: The Thinker (1902), The Kiss (1882), Monument to Balzac (1898) (Ѻ), and The Gates of Hell (1917); Ruth Butler’s Rodin: the Shape of Genius (1996) recounts the “myths that have grown up around him”; first-slating: 165|#506 (Jan 2019).

M French
676.
Wavy.png
165
Pufendorf 75.png
Samuel Pufendorf
(1632-1694)
(Cattell 1000:570) (CR:3) German jurist, political philosopher, economist and historian; noted for his revisions of the natural law theories of Thomas Hobbes and Hugo Grotius; generally being part of the movement or switch from the "divine right of kings to rule" to "rule by natural law". He also had to had to defend himself against charges, by the church, of heresy; influenced: Christian Thomasius, Jean Rousseau, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and Thomas Jefferson; 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020). M German
677. 165
Thabit Ibn Qurra 75.png
Thabit Ibn Qurra
(826-901)
65 Mathematician, astronomer, physician, philosopher, and translator; aka "Thabit"; noted as one of the first reformers of Ptolemaic astronomy; discovered an equation for determining the amicable numbers; his revision of Hunayn ibn Ishaq’s Arabic translation of Euclid’s Elements became the standard for all later Arabic versions of Elements[16]; determined the length of the sidereal year, according to Copernicus[17], as 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 12 seconds (an error of 2 seconds); first-slate: 165|#634 (Dec 2020). M Arabian
678.
Wavy.png
165
Johann Winckelmann 75.png
Johann Winckelmann

(1717-1768)

IQ C.png=165 M German
679. 165
William Huggins 75.png
William Huggins
(1824-1910)
86
Cat's Eye Nebula (spectrum).png
(Murray 4000:14|A) Astronomer and philosopher, aka the “Hershel of the spectroscope” (Proctor, 1905) (Ѻ); noted for his 1864 application of spectroscopy -- which Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, in 1858, had first applied to the sun (determining it was mostly hydrogen) -- to things other than the sun, which he did, working with chemist William Miller, by attaching a spectroscope to the end of a telescope, and pointing it to the Cat’s Eye Nebula, a planetary nebula in the northern constellation of Draco, and thereby determining its elemental spectrum (pictured); noted for his 1865 determination that Sirius is red-shifting, i.e. that its spectral lines were shifted towards the red side of the spectrum, meaning that it is travelling at a speed of 135 miles per second away from the earth; was the first to differentiate between “nebula”, or clouds of gas, and “stars”; first-slate: 165|#636 (Dec 2020).
M English
680.
Wavy.png
165
Zwingli 75.png
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531)
IQ C.png=165 47 (Cattell 1000:190) Renaissance humanist; after being influenced by the writings of Erasmus, became the leader of the reformation in Switzerland. M Swiss
681.
Down.png
165 Carl Weber

(1786-1826)

IQ C.png=165 (Cattell 1000:362) (Murray 4000:20|WM) Composer of the romantic opera. M German
IQ 165 up.png
682.
Up.png
160
Erwin Muller 75.png
Erwin Muller
(44 BE-22 AE)
(1911-1977 ACM)
Muller seeing atoms 2.png
(GPE:100) (CR:6) Physicist; noted for being, on 11 Oct 1955 (11 Oct 0 AE), the first person to "see" an atom with his own eyes, specifically he saw a tungsten W (Z=74) atoms using his newly invented "field ion microscope"; the BE/AE dating system, employed in Hmolpedia, is based on his achievement; first-slating: 160|#510 (Oct 2020).
M German-born American
683.
Up.png
160
Bede 75.png
Bede

(672-735)

Bede (John the Baptist with the Aquarius).png
(Cattell 1000:878) [RGM:615|1,500+] (GHE:6) (CR:18) Historian and monk; noted for being one of the first to connect John the Baptist with the Aquarius constellation; recounted the “warm sparrow” anecdote Christianity adoption in England; his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (1731) gained him the epitaph as the “father of English history”; first-slating: 160|#431 (Mar 2018).
M English
684.
Up.png
160 Etienne Condillac 75.png Etienne Condillac
(241-175 BE)
(1714-1780 ACM)
(Cattell 1000:151) (CR:6) Philosopher, epistemologist, psychologist, and mind philosopher; a section of his 1749 Treatise on Nature, was later utilize in Baron d’Holbach’s 1770 System of Nature; 112-name candidate list; first slating: 160|#556 (Nov 2020). M French
685.
Wavy.png
160
Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) .png
Frederick Douglass
(1818-1895)
[RGM:281|1,350+] (GBG:3) Social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman;
“Douglass was beyond all comparison the ablest man whom the black race ever produced in our country, either among pure black or the class of mixed blood.”
— James Pond (1900), Eccentricities of Genius (pg. 29)

A top 150 genius (Singh, 2016) (Ѻ); Quora gauged (2015) (Ѻ), speculatively, with George Carver, at the possible intellectual level of Newton, given social impediments.

M American
686.
Wavy.png
160
Bingen 75.png
Hildegard of Bingen

(1098-1179)

[RGM:462|1,350+] (HC11:4)[18] [GMG:14] Abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, religious mystic, visionary, and polymath; a smartest woman ever (IQ:150+) candidate (Ѻ) (Fuller, 2014); her model of the cosmos is shown adjacent (Harrison, 1981) (pg. 14); first-slating: IQ:160 (c.2015).
F German
687.
Up.png
160
Cauchy 75.png
Augustin Cauchy

(1789-1857)

67 [RGM:165|1,500+] (Murray 4000:18|M) (GME:19) (Eells 100:15) (CR:16) Mathematician, engineer, and physicist; noted for his rigorously proved theorems of calculus, work in mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics; Maxwell read his Differential Calculus at age 16; G.H. Harding (c.1913) ranked him in the same league as: Gauss, Euler, Newton, Archimedes, and Ramanujan; first-slating: 160|#431 (Feb 2018). M French
688.
Wavy.png
160
Foucault 75.png
Jean Foucault

(1819-1868)

Foucault pendulum.png
Physicist; noted for his 1851 200-foot clockwise swinging pendulum experiment "proved" Copernicus’ 1514 assertion that the earth rotates once on its axis ever 24 hours; also noted for making early measurement of the speed of light, discovered eddy currents, and naming the gyroscope; first-slating: 160|#495 (May 2018).
M French
689.
Up.png
160
Pietro Pomponazzi 75.png
Pietro Pomponazzi

(1462-1524)

(FA:43) (CR:13) Physician, philosopher, religious skeptic; aka the “great new Averroist of Padua” (Girolamo Cardano, c.1514); noted for his c.1515 discussions about the soul, given to his students who pressed him to give a “straight answer”, in the wake of Pope Leo X issued decree that condemned any teaching that asserted that the soul was mortal; is associated, along with Averroes, with the three impostors argument; categorized as having been charged with atheism and or have been “secret atheist”, along with Machiavelli, Bodin, Arentino, Montaingne, Charron, and Gassendi; 112-candidate; first-slating:#560 (Nov 2020). M Italian
690.
Wavy.png
160
Leonardo Fibonacci 75.png
Leonardo Fibonacci

(1170-1250)

80
Fibonacci spiral .png
(Murray 4000:19|M) (Eells 100:21) (GME:24) (CR:5) Mathematician; noted for his 1202 Book of Abacus: Calculations, wherein he used the Hindu-Arabic numerical system, which allowed for easier calculations, over the then-standard Roman numerals, because it used a place-value system; in the same book he introduced the Fibonacci numbers, which he used to calculate the growth of rabbit populations; first-slating: 160|#645 per GME ranking IQ interpolation (Nov 2020).
M Italian
691.
Wavy.png
160
Thomas Willis 75.png
Thomas Willis
(1621-1675)
(CR:2) Physician, philosopher, and brain anatomist; noted for his 1664 Anatomy of the Brain (Cerebri anatome), illustrated by Christopher Wren, wherein the word “neurology” was coined; his Two Discourses Concerning the Soul of Brutes, starting with the Lucretius and Pierre Gassendi, outlined a theory of a corporeal fiery soul extended throughout the bodies of animals and humans, while simultaneous insisting on the existence of a second higher rational soul in humans; teacher of Hooke; 112-candidate; first-slating:#325 (Nov 2020). M English
692. 160
No image 2.png
Thierry of Chartres
(c.1100-1150)
50 (AT:4|D) Philosopher; thought that physics of atoms made sense[19]; characterized as a "second revival sympathizer of atomic theory (Pullman, 1998)[20]; wrote a commentary on Boethius' De Trinitate; attempted to re-interpret Genesis in terms of four element theory; first-slate: 160|#647 (Dec 2020). M French
693.
Wavy.png
160
Wollstonecraft 75.png
Mary Wollstonecraft

(1759-1797)

(Becker 139:71|5L) (Stokes 100:51) F English
694.
Wavy.png
160
Godwin 75.png
William Godwin

(1756-1836)

M English
695.
Wavy.png
160
Mandeville 75.png
Bernard Mandeville (1670-1733)
Fable of the Bees (Mandeville, 1705).png
(GEcE:#) (CR:5) Physician, philosopher, political economist, and satirist; generally known for his 1705 Fable of the Bees; term ‘Mandevillean’ (Ѻ) associates with his ideas; influenced: Holbach, Locke, Swift, and Hayek; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 160|#562 (Nov 2020).
M Dutch-born English
696.
Wavy.png
160
Skinner 75.png
Burrhus Skinner

(1904-1990)

(Simmons 100:97) M American
697.
Wavy.png
160
Jacquard 75.png
Joseph Jacquard
(203-121 BE)
(1752-1834 ACM)
(EPD:F10) M French
698.
Wavy.png
160
No image 2.png
Keith Burton

(1922-1996)

74
Burton free energy tables 1.jpg
(CR:15) Electrical engineer and theoretical physicist;
“Of the impossibility of saying anything without saying everything.”
— Keith Burton (c.1960), answer to why he stopped publishing after his thermodynamic table

noted his 1957 thermodynamics table for biochemical reactions, containing free energy of formation values ΔGfº for about 100 species of “biochemical reactions, able to make predictions on reactions that had not yet occurred” (Alberty, 2003); 112-name candidate list; first slating: 160|#564 (Nov 2020).

M English
699.
Wavy.png
160
Woolf 75.png
Virginia Woolf

(1882-1941)

F English
700.
Up.png
160
Joseph Henry 75.png
Joseph Henry
(164-88 BE)
(1791-1867 ACM)
(Gottlieb 1000:605) (SIG:19) (GPE:99) (CR:6) Physicist and electrical engineer; noted for his discovery of electromagnetic induction (1832), independent of Faraday (1831); his genius ability was ranked, by Alfred Mayer (1880), as “a little below that of Faraday”; first-slating: 160|#534 (Nov 2019). M American
701.
Up.png
160
Edmund Burke 75 2.png
Edmund Burke
(226-158 BE)
(1729-1797 ACM)
68 (Cattell 1000:12) (RGM:276|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:180) (Time 100:58) (Perry 80:33) (TL:6) Statesman, social philosopher, and thinker, M Irish-born British
701. 160
Paul Ehrlich 75.png
Paul Ehrlich
(1854-1915)
61
Methylene blue bacteria.png
(RGM:495|1,350+) (Murray 4000:6|MD) (Gottlieb 1000:250) (Simmons 100:64) (Becker 160:90) Physician and scientist; noted for pioneering work in hematology, immunology and antimicrobial chemotherapy; in 1885, he pioneered the use of methylene blue to stain bacteria (pictured); in 1909, he found a cure for syphilis; noted for his theory that cells have a kind of "receptor" that binds to the harmful substances, according to which the receiving elements are knocked off of the cell and become antibodies; first-slate: 160|#655 (Dec 2020).
M German
702. 160
Christoph Gluck 75.png
Christoph Gluck
(1714-1787)
IQ O.png=160[21] 73 (Murray 4000:20|WM) (GMG:16)[22] Composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period; on his opera "Iphigénie en Tauride" (Iphigenia in Tauris) (1779) (Ѻ), a drama is ultimately based on the play Iphigenia in Tauris by the ancient Greek dramatist Euripides which deals with stories concerning the family of Agamemnon in the aftermath of the Trojan War, Schiller (1801) commented, in a letter to his friend Körner, "Never has so pure and lovely a music affected me, it is a world of harmony which presses directly to the soul and dissolves in sweet exalted melancholy"; Wagner called him "the great Gluck"; first-slate: 160|#655 (Dec 2020). M Bavarian
703.
Wavy.png
160
Lovelace 75.png
Ada Lovelace
(1815-1852)
F English
704.
Wavy.png
160
Lemery 75.png
Nicolas Lemery

(1645-1715)

Lemery model.png
(Faber 114:10) (GCE:#) (CR:11) Chemist; noted for his 1675 Course on Chemistry, wherein he was the first to propose the “organic chemistry” (animal/vegetable kingdom) and “inorganic chemistry” (mineral kingdom) division (Thorpe, 1874); noted for his so-called "geometric atomism" (Farber, 1961), wherein to explain neutralization that takes place when an acid and a base react, he conceived, based on contemporary atomism and Descartes (c.1640), a geometrically-locking acid-base model of corpuscles, according to which the barb or spike of an acid corpuscle fit into the grove of a base or alkali; was one of the earliest conceptions of “molecule” (Ѻ) or two corpuscles joined, and a remote precursor to the chemical bond (see: history of the chemical bond).
M French
705.
Down.png

Down.png

160
Wieland 75.png
Christoph Wieland

(1733-1813)

IQ C.png=170 M German
706. 160
Emil Behring 75.png
Emil Behring
(1854-1917)
63
Specific immunity.jpg
(Murray 4000:11|M) (Gottlieb 1000:220) Physiologist; noted for his 1890 report, with Kitasato Shibasaburo, that they had developed "antitoxins" (or antibodies) against both diphtheria and tetanus, specifically by injecting diphtheria and tetanus toxins into guinea pigs (Ѻ), goats, and horses, when these animals developed immunity, they derived the antibodies from their serum; in 1901, he won the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his serum therapies against diphtheria; first-slate: 160|#659 (Dec 2020).
M German
707.
Up.png
160
Wegener 75.png
Alfred Wegener
(1880-1930)
50
Pangea.png
(Becker 160:93|3L) (Simmons 100:53) (CR:5); geologist and polar explorer;
“I don’t choose my masters and friends according to limelight. Galileo, Semmelweis (Ѻ), Wegener, Darwin, Belousov (Ѻ), McClintock, and Margulis were not always in the limelight.”
— Erland Lagerroth (2011), “My Way of Discover” (Ѻ)

Noted for his 1910 supercontinent theory (Pangaea), stated originally by Robert Hooke (1697), and ruminated on by Alexander Humboldt (c.1800); for his continental drift theory; in 1912 went on expedition to find evidence of fossil plant overlap between fitting continents.

M German
708.
Wavy.png
160
Murdock 75.png
Dorothy Murdock

(1960-2015)

55 F American
709.
Wavy.png
160
Rand 75.png
Ayn Rand

(1905-1982)

(Becker 139:126|3L) F Russian-born American
710.
Up.png
160
Tertullian 75.png
Tertullian

(c.155-240AD)

M Roman
711.
Wavy.png
160
Xenophon 75.png
Xenophon

(c.430-354BC)

M Greek
712.
Down.png
160 Suleyman

(1494-1566)

IQ B.png=160 (Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Sultan; presided over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's economic, military and political power. M Turkish
713. 160
Walter Baade 75.png
Walter Baade
(1893-1960)
67 (Murray 4000:9|11) Astronomer;
“With all reserve we advance the view that a super-nova represents the transition of an ordinary star into a neutron star, consisting mainly of neutrons. Such a star may possess a very small radius and an extremely high density.”
— Baade and Zwicky (1934), “Cosmic Rays from Super-Novae”

Noted for two 1934 papers, with Fritz Zwicky, wherein they coined the term supernova, hypothesized neutron stars, and explained cosmic rays; noted for his 1944 work on the resolution into stars at the center of the Andromeda Galaxy, M31, and its two elliptical companions, M32 and NGC 205; noted for his 1952 calculation of the size of the universe, based on two types of Cepheid variable stars, which was double that made by Hubble in 1929; first-slate: 160|#664 (Dec 2020).

M German-born American
714.
Up.png
160 Gandhi 75.png Gandhi
(86-7 BE)
(1869-1948 ACM)
IQ B.png=160 [RGM:281|1,350+] (Becker 139:122|3L) Independence movement leader. M Indian
715.
Down.png
160 Vittorio Alfieri

(1749-1803)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:225) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Dramatist and tragedy poet. M Italian
716.
Wavy.png
160
Botticelli 75.png
Sandro Botticelli

(1445-1510)

Birth of Venius.jpg
[RGM:150|1,350+] Painter; noted for: The Birth of Venus, e.g. as illustrated in the Lucretius article, Sistine Chapel works, etc.; first-slating: 160|#440 (Feb 2018) per crude artistic geniuses rankings.
M Italian
717.
Down.png
160
Cudworth 75.png
Ralph Cudworth
(411-338 BE)
(1617-1688 ACM)
2.25 71 (Cattell 1000:568) (PR:46,590|65AE / philosopher:1,022) (FA:68) (TL:36) Philosopher; M English
718.
Wavy.png
160
Wilson 75.png
Woodrow Wilson

(1856–1924)

IQ S.png=155 [RGM:1158|1,350+] Politician and US president; used Darwinian evolution logic as a logic platform in his presidency. M American
719.
Wavy.png
160
Lessing 75.png
Gotthold Lessing

(1729-1781)

IQ C.png=160
Walk of ideas 1.jpg
(Cattell 1000:149) [RGM:517|1,350+] (CR:6) Dramatist, critic, and philosopher; in his “Rettung des Hier. Cardanus” (1754), he defended Cardano from the charge of atheism (Ѻ); approved of by Buchner; the fifth book from the bottom of the 2006 sculpture “Walk of Ideas” (right), with Goethe at the base and Grass at the summit.
M German
720.
Up.png
160
Khayyam 75.png
Omar Khayyam

(1048-1131)

M Persian
721.
Up.png
160
Schleiermacher 75.png
Friedrich Schleiermacher

(1768-1834)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:254) [RGM:24|1,350+] (CR:3) Theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar; known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity; noted for work on Anaximander. M German
722.
Down.png
160 Charles Etienne

(1778-1845)

IQ C.png=160 M Playwright
723.
Wavy.png
160
Tchaikovsky 75.png
Peter Tchaikovsky

(1840-1893)

[RGM:85|1,350+] [GCMG:12] M Russian
724.
Up.png
160
Alvarez 75.png
Luis Alvarez

(1911-1988)

Alveraez hypothesis.png
(CR:9) Experimental physicist; noted for his 1960s discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the "technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"; and his 1980 "asteroid impact extinction theory", aka “Alvarez hypothesis” (Ѻ), co-developed with his son Walter Alvarez, according to which, based on measurements of iridium in a layer of the earth’s crust, the extinction of the dinosaurs 65-million years ago was caused by an asteroid strike (Ѻ); a FamousScientists.org top 100 scientist (Ѻ); Alvarez is noted among mislabeled geniuses and IQ tests” for having gone on to become a genius despite having failed (Ѻ)(Ѻ) to qualify for Terman’s 1921 IQ study, having had a tested IQ below 135; first-slating: 160|#533 (Feb 2019).
M American
725. 160
Charles Wilson 75.png
Charles Wilson
(1869-1959)
90
Cloud chamber.png
Physicist and meteorologist;
“The laws of physics should be simple enough that a barmaid can grasp them.”
— Charles Wilson (c.1911), attributed

Noted for his 1911 invention of the cloud chamber, a version of which used to discover the positron, observed by Carl Anderson (1932).[23]; first-slate: 160|#675 (Dec 2020).

M Scottish
726.
Wavy.png
160
Henrik Ibsen 75.png
Henrik Ibsen
(1828-1906)
(RGM:274|1,350+) (Murray 4000:20|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:167) (Bloom 100:27) (CR:5) Playwright and theater director;
“Home life ceases to be free and beautiful as soon as it is founded on borrowing and debt.”
— Henrik Ibsen (1879), A Doll’s House (act 1) (Ѻ)
“The majority never has right on its side. Never I say! That is one of the social lies that a free, thinking man is bound to rebel against. Who makes up the majority in any given country? Is it the wise men or the fools? I think we must agree that the fools are in a terrible overwhelming majority, all the wide world over. But, damn it, it can surely never be right that the stupid should rule over the clever!”
— Henrick Ibsen (1882), An Enemy of the People (act 4)

known as the “father of realism”; noted for works including: A Doll’s House, Emperor and Galilean, which he called his masterpiece, and Peer Gynt; influenced: George Shaw, Oscar Wilde, Arthur Miller, James Joyce, Eugene O’Neill, and Miroslav Krleza; first-slating: 160|#675 (Nov 2020).

M Norwegian
727.
Wavy.png
160
Rachmaninov 75.png
Sergei Rachmaninov

(1873-1943)

[GCMG:13] Composer, virtuoso pianist, and conductor of the late Romantic period. M Russian
728.
Wavy.png
160
Berlioz 75.png
Hector Berlioz

(1803-1869)

M French
729.
Down.png
160 Lancelot Andrewes

(1555-1626)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:436) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Bishop and scholar; friend Grotius; general editor of the King James Bible. M English
730.
Up.png

Up.png

160
Schottky 75.png
Walter Schottky

(1886-1976)

(CR:2) Physicist, electrical engineer, and thermodynamicist; after getting his PhD under Planck, he pioneered semiconductor technology, inventing things such as the Schottky diode, Schottky barrier; then penned his 1929 Thermodynamics: The Theory of the Circular Processes of Physical and Chemical Changes and Equilibria, wherein he not only introduced the “G” symbol for the isothermal, isobaric chemical potential, aka Gibbs energy:

Schottky chemical potential formula.png which is the chemical potential of society, introduced thing such as: the “Schottky anomaly”, a peak of heat capacity, and “Schottky system” (Muschik, 1990); previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 160|#588 (Nov 2020).

M American
731.
Down.png
160 Francois Chateaubriand

(1768-1848)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:109) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Writer, politician, diplomat, and historian; founder of French romanticism in literature; influential to Victor Hugo. M French
732.
Up.png

Up.png

160
Virgil of Salzburg.png
Virgil of Salzburg

(c.700-784)

Antipode theory.png
(CR:8) Astronomer and abbot;
“Prevent Vergil from spreading the reprehensible idea that there is ‘another world and other men beneath the earth, or even the sun and moon’.”
— Pope Zachary (c.730), “Letter to Saint Boniface”

Noted for his teaching of the “antipodal humans” theory, namely that the earth was round, had an “antipode” point, as professed by Pythagoras, Aristotle, Eratosthenes, Macrobius, and Bede, and that there were other people at these antipodes; the church condemned him has a heretic and to be burned, per reason that these other antipodal people would not be descendants of Adam and Eve, and therefore not saved by Christ; was an inspiration to Johannes Kepler; ranked as a great scientific martyr, alongside Galileo and Aristotle (Holbach, 1770); first-slating: 160|#490 (Feb 2018).

M Irish
733.
Wavy.png
160
Bunyan 75.png
John Bunyan

(1628-1688)

Bunyan tale.png
(Cattell 1000:488) (CR:5) Religious satirist and Puritan preacher; noted for his The Pilgrim’s Progress: from this World, to That Which is to Come, an everyday man named “Christian”, who begins his journey with knowledge of "original sin" and begins to travel through various "intellectually-forbidden" places; too hilarious to truncate.
M English
734. 160
George Hale 75.png
George Hale
(1868-1939)
69
100-inch Hooker telescope.png
(Murray 2000:14|A) Astronomer; noted for his 1908 proof, using the Zeeman effect with a modified Spectroheliograph, that sunspots are magnetic; noted for an Oct 1913 letter from Einstein, asking about whether astronomical observations could be done to test his hypothesis that gravity bends light, following which, in Nov, Hale replied that this could only be done during a total eclipse (a test later done on 29 May 1919 by Eddington); noted as designer behind three large telescopes: 40-inch, 60-inch, and the 100-inch Hooker telescope (ASME 270:66), the latter of which used by Hubble (1923) to prove that the Andromeda nebula extends beyond the Milky Way; by Hubble and Humason (1929) to confirm that the universe is expanding; by Zwicky (1930s) to find evidence of dark matter; and by Baade (1940s) to the discovery of two types of Cepheid variable stars, which doubled the size of the known ; first-slate: 160|#681 (Dec 2020).
M American
735.
Down.png

Down.png

160 Antonio Canova
(1757-1822)
IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:245) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Marble sculptor. M Italian
736.
Down.png
160
Suarez 75.png
Francisco Suarez

(1548-1617)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:3) Theologian, philosopher, and law scholar; ranked with Duns Scotus (1266-1308), Thomas Aquinas, and William of Ockham, as most important/influential middle ages philosopher-theologians; complete works: 27-volume (Latin); cited by Guericke, Leibniz, Grotius, Pufendorf, Holbach, Schopenhauer, and Heidegger; first-slating: 165|#425 (Mar 2018); down-graded ↓per Guericke’s citation of him discussing astronomy in terms of Peter 5-7 and the “day of judgment” (Jan 2019). M Spanish
737.
Down.png

Down.png

160 William Channing

(1780-1842)

IQ C.png=160 M American
738.
Wavy.png
160
Stanhope 75.png
Philip Stanhope

(1694-1773)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:492) Statesman, diplomat, man of letters;

“However frivolous a company may be, still, while you are among them, do not show them, by your inattention, that you think them so; but rather take their tone, and conform in some degree to their weakness, instead of manifesting your contempt for them. There is nothing that people bear more impatiently, or forgive less, than contempt; and an injury is much sooner forgotten than an insult. If, therefore, you would rather please than offend, rather be well than ill spoken of, rather be loved than hated; remember to have that constant attention about you which flatters every man's little vanity; and the want of which, by mortifying his pride, never fails to excite his resentment, or at least his ill will.” — Philip Stanhope (c.1750), Publication Known an acclaimed wit of his time; his Letters to His Son on the Art of Becoming a Man of the World and a Gentleman (1774) are characterized as “teaching the morals of a whòre , and the manners of a dancing-master" (Samuel Johnson, c.1780).

M English
739.
Down.png
160
Samuel Clarke 75.png
Samuel Clarke

(1675-1729)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:333) Philosopher and Anglican clergyman; was a Boyle anti-atheism lecturer for two years. M English
740.
Wavy.png
160 Pierre Corneille

(1606-1684)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:120) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Tragedian playwright; ranked with Moliere and Racine. M French
741.
Up.png

Up.png

160
William Cowper 75.png
William Cowper
(1731-1800)
IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:463) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Poet; his “On Friendship” (1783), similar to Empedocles, states that politics between courtiers and patriots is akin to the effervescence that arises when salt and lemon juice are mixed (see: chemistry poetry). M English
742. 160
Oparin 75.png
Alexander Oparin
(1894-1980)
86
Coacervate droplet formation.png
(CR:44) (LOP:6) Chemist; noted for his 1924 The Origin of Life, wherein he argued that compounds of nitrogen, carbon, hydrocarbons, and other oxygen-containing organic molecules fell from the cooling clouds, filling the oceans, and from these a complex aggregate called colloids formed, and eventually transformed into an organic body; noted for his 1936, argument, based on the 1931 ‘coazervate’ theory of H. Budenberg de Jong, that inorganic molecules, in an oxygenless atmosphere, could react via the action of sunlight, to produce a ‘primeval soup’ of organic molecules; which in turn could combine to create a ‘coacervate droplet’ (compare: cell-as-molecule); first-slate: |#688 (Dec 2020).
M Russian
743.
Wavy.png
160
Dryden 75.png
John Dryden

(1631-1700)

IQ C.png=160 68 (Cattell 1000:144) (Gottlieb 1000:366) Playwright, poet, and dramatist; ranked, in 17th century poetry, with John Dunne and John Milton, ranked with Shakespeare and Ben Jonson as greatest playwright (Ѻ); influential to Thomas Macaulay. M English
744.
Up.png
160
Thucydides 75.png
Thucydides

(460-395BC)

(Cattell 1000:72) [RGM:300|1,350+] (FA:14) (GHE:7) (CR:10+) Historian and general; M Greek
745.
Up.png
160
Macrobius 75.png
Macrobius
(1565-1525 BE)
(c.390-430 ACM)
(CR:7) Scientist, philosopher, and religio-mythology scholar;
Good laws are produced by bad actions.”
— Macrobius (c.420AD) (Ѻ)

noted for his work on the antipode model of the earth, wherein, supposedly, predicted that when Columbus crossed the “northern quadrant” of his world map, that he would not reach the orient, but would reach a new land, i.e. America (Ѻ); first-slating: 160|#501 (Mar 2018).

M Greco-Roman
746. 160
Georgius Agricola 75.png
Georgius Agricola
(1494-1555)
61
Pump problem.png
(Murray 4000:4|E) (CR:3) Humanist, mineralogist, and metallurgist; noted for his 1556 On the Nature of Minerals, a catalog on the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, which contains and illustration of the “pump problem”[24], and gave one of the first outlined definitions of "horsepower"[25], namely: described a number of pumps, suction, ball and chain, and bucket; one elaborate installation, at Chemnitz, e.g., lifted water 660-feet in three stages with pumps of the ball-and-chain design, that was operated by 96 horses, working four hours and resting twelve, in teams of eight to a pump. considered to be an early founder of geology as a discipline, his work paving the way for further systematic study of the earth and of its rocks, minerals, and fossils; wrote the first book on physical geology, De Ortu et Causis Subterraneorum (1546), notable for its descriptions of wind and water as powerful geological forces, and for its explanation of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions as produced by subterranean vapors and gases heated by the Earth's internal heat. However, his greatest contribution to paleontology was his book De Natura Fossilium (On the Nature of Fossils), also published in 1546.[26]; first-slate: 160|#691 (Dec 2020).
M German
747.
Down.png
160 Andre Dupin
(1783-1865)
IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:479) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Lawyer and politician. M French
748.
Wavy.png
160
Jacob Grimm 75.png
Jacob Grimm

(1785-1863)

IQ C.png=160 78 (Cattell 1000:489) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Philologist, jurist, and mythologist; with his younger brother Wilhelm he is popularly known as the elder of the Brothers Grimm and the editor of Grimm's Fairy Tales. M German
749.
Wavy.png
160
Christian Wolff 75.png
Christian Wolff

(1679-1754)

Philosopher and mathematician; characterized a “great genius” (Mettrie, 1747); tends to be ranked, along with Christian Thomasius [RGM:263|1,360+], and Moses Mendelssohn [RGM:944|1,360+], as precursors to Immanuel Kant [RGM:20|1,360+] and German empirical psychology; first-slating: 160|#505 (Apr 2016). M German
750.
Wavy.png
160
Haydn 75.png
Joseph Haydn

(1732-1809)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:300) [RGM:513|1,350+] (Murray 4000:5|WM) (Gottlieb 1000:396) (GMG:26) Composer;

“There was no one near to confuse me, so I was forced to become original.” — Joseph Haydn (c.1790), Publication (Ѻ)

M Austrian
751.

Down.png

160 George Grote

(1794-1871)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:486) Political radical and classical historian; author of the 12-volume A History of Greece: from the Earliest Period to the Close of the Generation Contemporary with Alexander the Great (1846–1856) and Analysis of the Influence of Nature. M English
752. 160
Adelard of Bath 75.png
Adelard of Bath
(1075-1150)
75 (AT:2|D) Natural philosopher; translating many important Arabic and Greek scientific works of astrology, astronomy, philosophy and mathematics into Latin; thought that physics of atoms made sense[19]; described the clepsydra without naming it, attributing its seemingly 'magical behavior' to a natural 'affection' existing among the four elements that constituted the universe, an affection so powerful 'that as soon as one of them leaves its position, another immediately takes its place; nor is this again able to leave its position, until another which it regards with special affection is able to succeed it'[27]; introduced Arabic numeral system to Europe; did the first Latin translation of Euclid’s Elements; first-slate; 160|#696 (Dec 2020). M English
753.

Down.png

160 Cornelis Jansen
(1585-1683)
IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:392) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Catholic theologian. M Dutch
754. 160
Stephen Hales 75.png
Stephen Hales
(1677-1761)
83
Hales plant physiology 1.png
(Murray 4000:9|B) (Nelson 19:14) Physiologist, chemist, botanist, and clergyman;
“Plants very probably draw through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air.”
— Stephen Hales (1727), Vegetable Statics

Noted for his early work on the physiology of plants, namely the flow and pressure of sap in them, which led him to enquire about the nature of air, in respect to the respiration of plants, resulting in his 1727 Vegetable Staticks, on gas chemistry related to plant physiology; based on Newton suggestion that “gross bodies and light” might be interconvertible, he suggested, supposedly, that plants might used light as a source of energy for growth, thus pre-figuring early ideas on photosynthesis (Dobbs, 1982); which led him to the flow of blood in humans (e.g. he was the first to measure blood pressure in humans).[28]; first-slate: 160|#697 (Dec 2020).

M English
755.

Down.png

160 Alphonse Lamartine
(1790-1869)
IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:131) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Poet. M French
756.
Up.png

Up.png

160
Martineau 75.png
Harriet Martineau

(1802-1876)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:893) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Scott 50:22) (FA:99) (CR:10) Sociologist;

Martineau was born to be a destroyer of slavery in whatever form, in whatever place.” — Florence Nightingale (c.1890) noted for making the first calls for a secular children's bible (see: children's atheism bible); the first real attempt at this made by Thims (2015).

F English
757.

Down.png

Down.png

160 Michel de L’Hopital

(1505-1573)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:421) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Statesman, humanist, jurist, lawyer; was called on by Catherine de Médicis to try to establish the peaceful coexistence of Catholics and Protestants; and attempted he, however, failed at. M French
758.

Down.png

160 Jules Mazarin

(1602-1661)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:114) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Statesman. M French
759.
Wavy.png
160 Thoreau 75.png Henry Thoreau
(13893 BE))
(1817-1862 ACM)
44 M American
760.
Wavy.png
160 Peter Rubens

(1577-1640)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:91) [RGM:404|1,350+] Painter. M Flemish
761.
Wavy.png
160
Demosthenes 75.png
Demosthenes

(384-322BC)

M Greek
762.
Wavy.png
160
Diodorus

(c.90-20BC)

M Greek
763.
Up.png
160
Al-Kindi 75.png
Al-Kindi

(c.800-873)

IQ SK.png=190|#15[2] (Cardano 12:9) M Arabian
764.
Up.png
160
Al-Biruni 75.png
Abu Al-Biruni

(973-1048)

M Iranian-born Afghanistan
765.

Down.png

160
Bergson 75.png
Henri Bergson

(1858-1941)

(Becker 139:72|5L) (Stokes 100:57) M French
766.
Wavy.png
160
Sand 75.png
George Sand

(1804-1876)

IQ C.png=160

IQ O.png=150[29]

(Norlinger 22:22) F French
767.
Wavy.png
160
Sevigne 75.png
Madame Sevigne

(1626-1696)

IQ C.png=160 F French
768. 160
Henry Bessemer 75.png
Henry Bessemer
(1813-1898)
85 (Murray 4000:9|T) (Gottlieb 1000:326) Inventor and steel manufacturer; after making his first fortune by “reverse engineering” a way to cheaply make bronze powder, used in gold paint manufacturing, using as series of six steam-powered machines for making bronze powder, which previously was done by hand; he used the money to invent and patent about 100 other things, most-notably the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel; first-slate: 160|#710 (Dec 2020). M English
769.
Up.png
160
Agrippa 75.png
Cornelius Agrippa
(1486-1535)
M German
770. 160
Giovanni Cassini 75.png
Giovanni Cassini
(1625-1712)
87
Saturn (rings).png
(Cattell 1000:769) (Murray 4000:9|A) (Chao 10:7) (SN 11:7) Astronomer and engineer; noted for discovery of the four satellites of Saturn: Iapetus, Dione, Tethys, and Rhea; discovered the division of the rings of Saturn (1675); first to observe differential rotation with Jupiter’s atmosphere (c.1690); he also co-discovered, with Hooke, the great red spot on Jupiter; first-slate: 160|#711 (Dec 2020).
M Italian-born French
771.
Wavy.png
160
Erich Fromm 75.png
Erich Fromm
(1900-1980)
M German-born American
772.
Wavy.png
160
Abelard 75.png
Peter Abelard

(1079-1142)

(Cattell 1000:110) (Becker 139:86|4L) (CR:5) Scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician, characterized a “fine genius” (Bayle, c.1693) and “keenest thinker of the 12th century” (Chambers, 1897); first-slating: 160|#517 (Mar 2018). M French
773.

Down.png

160 Charles Sumner

(1811-1874)

IQ C.png=160 (Cattell 1000:771) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Politician, lawyer, and senator. M American
774.
Up.png

Up.png

160
Cleopatra 75.png
Cleopatra

(69-30BC)

IQ O.png=180[30] F Egyptian
775.

Down.png

160 Louis Thiers

(1797-1877)

IQ C.png=160 80 (Cattell 1000:900) Statesman and historian. M French
776.
Wavy.png
160 Harold Morowitz 75.png Harold Morowitz
(28 BE-61 AE)
(1927-2016 ACM)
1.82 88 (FET:45) (TL:76|#145) Physicist, philosopher, biophysicist;
“The [Teilhardian two energies problem] can be formalized in the following way: if the change in Gibbs free energy of a system is split up in its component parts, the change may be written as: ΔG = ΔH – TΔS, where S is the ‘informational part’ of the thermodynamic state of the system, it is as if the Gibbs energy part could be split up into a ‘material’ and a ‘mental’ component. Teilhard was closer to the solution then he knew. The entropy term has a mental component. Teilhard sometimes speaks of this as spiritual energy, and other times as mental. At this point, he could have called the measure ‘noetic’ energy, rather than ‘spiritual’ energy.”
— Harold Morowitz (2002), ''The Emergence of Everything'' (pgs. 176-79)

Noted for his late 1960s to 2000s work on attempting to look at organisms, bacteria to man, from an elemental, physical, chemical, and thermodynamical point of view;

M American
777.

Down.png

160 John Wesley

(1703-1791)

IQ C.png=160 87 (Cattell 1000:357) Cleric, theologian and evangelist who was a leader of a revival movement within the Church of England known as Methodism. M English
778.

Down.png

160 George Villiers

(aka Clarendon)

(1800-1870)

IQ C.png=160 70 (Cattell 1000:504) Diplomat and statesman M English
IQ 160 up.png
779.
Up.png
155
Carl Clausewitz 75.png
Carl Clausewitz
(1780-1831)
3.04 51 [RGM:287|1,350+] (GMG:9) (PEC10:8)[10] (CR:9) General noted for his moral, i.e. “moral force”, and romantic theory of warfare, who in his 1832 posthumously-published treatise On War, used the principle of friction to distinguish real war from the mechanical, Newtonian world; first-slating: 155|#605 (Oct 2019). M Prussian
780.
Up.png
155
Clapeyron 75.png
Emile Clapeyron
(156-91 BE)
(1799-1864 ACM)
Clapeyron graph.png
(CR:63) Mining engineer and physicist; his “Memoir on the Motive Power of Heat”, brought Sadi Carnot’s 1824 paper Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire into the public light, and with the very important use of the Watt indicator diagram, employed to update graphically Carnot’s arguments; 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 155|#627 (Nov 2020).
M French
781.
Up.png
155
Lippershey 75.png
Hans Lippershey

(1570-1619)

Galileo telescope.png
(GAE:#) (CR:3) Spectacle maker; credited (Ѻ) as the inventor of the telescope or “Dutch perspective glass”, which he tried to patient in 1608; on 7 Jan 1610, news of this devise reached the ears of Galileo, who built a new improved 30 power telescope (shown adjacent), and pointed it towards Jupiter, and found three small, bright stars near the planet (Ѻ), and published The Starry Messenger, outlining his findings; first-slating: 150|#490 (Nov 2017); upgrade to 155|#627 (Nov, 2020).
M German-born Dutch
782.
Wavy.png
155
Blake 75.png
William Blake
(198-128 BE)
(1757-1827 ACM)
TNNR Series a Plate 8 (V) (Blake, 1788).png
[RGM:335|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:315) Poet, artist, writer, and philosopher; noted for his "energy is eternal delight" stylized poetry; his 1788 “There is No Natural Religion” relief etching philosophical aphorisms[31]; friends with Thomas Paine; some think (Ѻ) was “IQ was off the chart”; first-slating: 155|#183 (Feb 2018).
M English
Up.png

783.

155
Carl Siemens 75.png
Carl Siemens
(132-72 BE)
(1823-1883 ACM)
60 (SIG:21) (Murray 4000:12|T) Engineer and inventor, important in the development of the steel and telegraph industries; noted for his 1861 invention of the regenerative gas furnace and its application to open-hearth steelmaking; first-slate: 155|#723 (Dec 2020). M German-born English
784.
Up.png
155
Lewis Carroll 75.png
Lewis Carroll
(1832-1898)
65
Down the rabbit hole.png
[RGM:434|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:845) (CR:3) Writer, mathematician, photographer; noted for world-famous children’s fiction, e.g. Alice in Wonderland, where Alice falls down the "rabbit hole" (a frequent trope when people come to Hmolpedia), Through the Looking Glass, and the poem Jabberwocky (see: "Regarding Definitions", Lotkean Jabberwocky); the number "42" is employed in his work four times; a Quora-posited (2018) possible (Ѻ) genius; first-slating: 155|#629 (Nov 2020).
M English
785.
Wavy.png
155
Alexander Hamilton 75.jpg
Alexander Hamilton
(1756-1804)
IQ C.png=155 3.22 48
Hamilton at declaration 1000px.jpg

(Cattell 1000:216) [RGM:170|1,350+] Statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, economist; and American founding father (#8); as the first secretary of the treasury, he was main person behind the founding economic and financial structure of the United States; secular (Ѻ) in religious belief; is pictured adjacent with Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and George Washington, at the signing of the US Constitution (1787).

M American
786.
Up.png
155
Arthur Eddington 75.png
Arthur Eddington
(73-11 BE)
(1882-1944 ACM)
2.54 61 (PR:4,616|65AE / astronomer:26) (Murray 4000:16|A) (Simmons 100:37) (GPE:#) (EPD:F2) (TL:105|#118) was an English mathematician, astronomer, physicist, and philosopher; first-slating: 155|#631 (Nov 2020). M English
787.
Wavy.png
155
Milton Friedman 75.png
Milton Friedman

(1912-2006)

IQ O.png=130-140, 170, 208[32], 300[33] 94 [RGM:599|1,250+] (GEcE:#) (CR:5) Economist; M Economist
788.
Wavy.png
155
Thackeray 75.png
William Thackeray

(1811-1863)

IQ C.png=155 52 (Cattell 1000:331) (CR:5) English novelist, poet, and German literature translator; in 1830-1831, while residing in Weimar, began to read and translate Goethe and Schiller; in his Vanity Fair: A Novel Without a Hero (1953), Thackeray name-drops Elective Affinities, a period wherein the work had not yet been translated in to English. M Indian-born English
790.
Wavy.png
155
Lenin 75.png
Vladimir Lenin
(85-31 BE)
(1870-1924 ACM)
IQ O.png=135+, 140+[34] 53 [RGM:1040|1,350+] (Stokes 100:65) (CR:59) (EPD:F15) Philosopher and political thinker;
“At the time of Lenin’s death, he was considered to be the greatest of geniuses, and his brain was expected to be unique.”
— Zhores Medvedev (1982), “Nikolai Wladimirovich Timofeeff-Ressovsky” [35]

Noted for leading the Bolshevik Revolution, helped create the Soviet Union, and launched the communist era, notable for his 1894 popularized the term “dialectical materialism”, being an extension in some way of Engels’ term “scientific materialism” and Marx’s conception of “historical materialism”, itself a mixture of Adam Smith’s theories and Epicurean philosophy; he, supposedly, blended all this together with criticism of the “energetics school” of Ernst Mach and Wilhelm Ostwald, who he argued either departed from dialectical materialism or casually neglected it, referring to the work of Abel Rey, who divided the physics schools into three groups: the energeticist, the neo-mechanicist, and the critical; he supposedly also denunciated “energeticism”, arguing after Ludwig Boltzmann that motion cannot exist without matter, and rejected Ostwald’s ontological proposition that energy rather than matter is the universal coordinage; added at 155|#630 per EPD rankings, CR, and RGM (Nov 2020).

M Russian
791. 155
Grace Hopper 75.png
Grace Hopper
(1906-1992)
85 (Douglas 11:2) Mathematician, computer scientist, and naval officer; noted for pioneering the idea that programming languages could be in English rather than machine code; later became the lead developer behind COBAL; later introduced testing standards for languages such as FORTRAN; first-slate: 155|#730 (Dec 2020). F American
792. 155
Oscar Hertwig 75.png
Oscar Hertwig
(1849-1922)
73 Noted for his 1876 proof, via the study of sea urchins, that fertilization is due to the fusion of an egg and a sperm; noted for his 1885 conjecture that “nuclein” (later called nucleic acid), discovered in 1869 by Friedrich Miescher, is the substance responsible for not only fertilization but also the transmission of hereditary characteristics; first-slate: 155|#730 (Dec 2020). M German
793.
Wavy.png
155
Cervantes 75.png
Miguel Cervantes
(1547-1616)
IQ C.png=155 68 (Hugo 14:13) M Spanish
794. 155
Ambroise Pare 75.png
Ambroise Pare
(c.1510-1590)
80
Pare prosthetics .png
(Cattell 1000:496) (Murray 4000:10|M) Barber surgeon, anatomist, forensic pathologist, obstetrician, and neurosurgeon; one of the first to apply the “experimental method”, by treating one group of wounded soldiers with “boiling elder oil and cauterization”, the traditional method, and other group with egg yok, oil of rises and turpentine”, a new technique, and returning to the battlefield to see which worked better; his 1564 Treatise on Surgery, details many of his surgical inventions and ideas, e.g. that phantom limb pains occur in the “brain” not in the location of the remnants of the limb; pioneered the invention of prosthetics; first-slate: 155|#731 (Dec 2020).
M French
795.
Up.png
155
William Wallace 75.png
William Wallace
(c.1270-1305)
35 (Cattell 1000:957) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (EPD:MF|8) Rebellion leader; first-slating, generally per his legendary persona (Ѻ), at: IQ:155|#603 (Oct 2019). M Scottish
796.
Wavy.png
155
Hasan Sabah 75.png
Hasan Sabah

(c.1050-1124)

Sabah garden.png
Military leader and inventor of "assassins";

“Sabah would introduce his designated assassins into his garden, some four or six or ten at a time, having first made them drink a certain potion, which cast them into deep sleep, and then causing them to be lifted and carried in. So, when they awoke, they found themselves in the garden, a place so charming they believe that it was [Islamic] paradise in truth, and the beautiful voluptuous maidens dallied with them to their heart’s content, so thy had what all men most desire above all else.” — Marco Polo (c.1300), Publication Pioneered an early form of “behaviorism”, wherein he drugged warriors, and awoke them in a seeming magical garden, walled on all sides, which he had built, supposedly Rudkhan Castle in the Alborz mountain range, Iran, filled with food, drink, and the most beautiful women in the land, thereby somehow, after drugging them again and waking them up outside the garden, convincing them that this was the afterlife, using this as a tool to make them kill assigned targets; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 155|#634 (Nov 2020).

M Iranian
797.

Steady.png

155
John Kennedy 75.png
John Kennedy

(1917–1963)

IQ S.png=160 46 M American
798. 155
Abu Nuwas 75.png
Abu Nuwas
(756-814)
58 (Murray 4000:2|AL) (CR:2) Poet and religious doubter; wrote about sexual passion, homosexuality, masturbation, among other taboo topics, and was considered a genius poet; one day, as the anecdote goes, he was at his mosque listening to the Iman reading out verse one of surah 109: “Say, O! you unbelievers …”, to which Nuwas yelled out “Here I am!”, after which he was exiled and imprisoned, dying shortly thereafter[36]; influenced: Kahlil Gibran; first-slate: 155|#734 (Dec 2020). M Iranian
799.
Up.png
155
Zeno of Elea
(495-435BC)
(Becker 139:62|5L) (Stokes 100:6) M Greek-Italian
800. 155
Ernest Schoffeniels 75.png
Ernest Schoffeniels
(28 BE-37 AE)
(1927-1992 ACM)
65
Schoffeniels (books).jpg
(CR:16) Physiologist, ecologist, and philosopher;
“We must relegate the panoply of classic concepts as accessories and re-think biological facts from the viewpoint of thermodynamics.”
— Ernest Schoffeniels (1973), Anti-Chance (pg. xi)

Noted for his 1973 Anti-Chance: a Reply to Monad’s Chance and Necessity, penned in reaction to Jacques Monod’s 1970 Chance and Necessity, wherein he presented a deterministic, i.e. anti-chance, view of things; first-slate: 155|#735 (Dec 2020).

M Belgian

Divides

165 divide

Presently, there are 139-names in the 165+ (to previous divide) range.

160 divide

Presently, there are 97-names in the 160+ (to previous divide) range.

End matter

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References

  1. Alan Watt’s Tribute to Carl Jung (2013) – PersonalityCafe.com.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Kermit, Sperging. (2019). “Greatest Geniuses: Top 100”, Real Geniuses, Reddit, Feb.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Not Enough Artists (2013) – Hmolpedia Forum.
  4. Yates, Bill. (2011). “IQ of Steve Jobs”, BrainPosts, Blogspot, Oct 25.
  5. Bekenstein, Jacob D. (1980). “Black-hole Thermodynamics” (pdf), Physics Today (pgs. 24-31), Jan.
  6. Warraq, Ibn. (1995). Why I Am Not a Muslim (pgs. 259-60). Prometheus.
  7. Hecht, Jennifer. (2004). Doubt: a History (pg. 231). Publisher.
  8. Kermit, Sperging. (2019). “Greatest Geniuses: Top 100”, Real Geniuses, Reddit, Feb.
  9. Kermit, Sperging. (2019). “Greatest Geniuses List: Top 20”, Real Geniuses, Reddit, Jan.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Philoepisteme. (2018). “10 Candidates: Already Written About” (post: #15), Hmolpedia 2020 Forum, Jul 14.
  11. Blackwell, James. (1991). “In the Eye of the Storm: the Making of a General, and the War He Won” (Ѻ), New York Times, Sep 5.
  12. H. Norman Schwarzkopf – Oxford Reference.
  13. Ratner, Paul. (2016). “24 of the smartest people who ever lived: the smartest humans in history are ranked” (Ѻ), BigThink.com, Sep 18.
  14. What was Ramanujan’s IQ? (2017) – Quora.
  15. Turner, Genius. (2017). “How to Become a Genius at Something” (Ѻ), Final Species Code, blog, Oct 2.
  16. Thabit Ibn Qurra – MacTutor.
  17. Thabit ibn Qurra – FamousScientists.org.
  18. Hedkandi. (2019). “11 Missing Top 1000 Candidates” (Ѻ), Message to Libb Thims, Sep 25.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Stenger, Victor J. (2013). God and the Atom: from Democritus to the Higgs Boson: the Story of a Triumphant Idea (pgs. 49, 55). Prometheus Books.
  20. Pullman, Bernard. (1998). The Atom in the History of Human Thought (Thierry of Chartres, pg. 98). Oxford.
  21. Le Penseur. (2017). “IQs of Composers”, Hmolpedia thread, Nov 27.
  22. Human free energy (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  23. Particle – Hmolpedia 2020
  24. Pump problem – Hmolpedia 2020.
  25. Horsepower – Hmolpedia 2020.
  26. Georgius Agricola – UCMP.Berkeley.edu.
  27. Clepsydra – Hmolpedia 2020.
  28. Nelson, Thomas. (1848). Memorials of Early Genius and Achievements in the Pursuit of Knowledge (Hales, pgs. 267-. Publisher.
  29. Genius IQs – Free-IQTest.net
  30. Ratner, Paul. (2016). “24 of the smartest people who ever lived: the smartest humans in history are ranked” (Ѻ), BigThink.com, Sep 18.
  31. There is No Natural Religion – Wikipedia.
  32. Friedman IQ 208: according to a 2010 YouTube post (by spinnerZulu) who heard it on a radio show (in Libb Thims IQ:200+ genius folder).
  33. Estimate IQ of these great economists: Paul Krugman, Joseph Stiglitz, and Milton Friedman (2014) – EconJobRumors.com.
  34. What is the IQ of Vladimir Lenin? (2019) – Quora.
  35. (a) Medvedev, Zhores. (1982). “Nikolai Wladimirovich Timofeeff-Ressovsky”, ''Genetics'', 100:1-5.
    (b) Perutz, Max. (1987). “Schrodinger’s What is Life? and Molecular Biology”; in: Schrodinger: Centenary Celebration of a Polymath (§19:234-51, quote, pg. 248). Cambridge.
  36. Islamic atheism – Hmolpedia 2020.
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