Top 2000 minds: 401-600

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In genius studies, top 2000 geniuses and minds: 401-600 refers to []

Geniuses | 401-600 | IQ:165-170

See also: Higher minds, 1-200, 201-400, 401-600, 601-800, 801-1,000, 1,001-1,200, 1,201-1,400, 1,401-1,600, 1,601-1,800, 1,801-2,000, Full list, Candidates

The following (see: IQ key) are intellects “401-600” of the top 2000 geniuses and minds:

# IQ R (real).jpg Person IQ E.jpg D A Overview G Country
170 Cavendish75.png Henry Cavendish
(Becker 160:56|4L) M English
170 Raphael 75.png Raphael
IQ CB.png=170

IQ C.png=170
IQ B.png=170

(Nelson 19:6) M Italian
170 Posidonius 75.png Posidonius
M Greek
170 Stahl 75.png Georg Stahl
(296-221 BE)
(1659-1734 ACM)
2.30 74 (PR:8683|65AE / chemist:116) (GCE:#) (CR:33) (LH:4) (TL:37) Chemist, physician, and philosopher; noted for his 1703 "phlogiston" model of combustion, and for his 1708 theory about the "soul" animating non-living matter. M German
170 James 75.png William James
(Becker 139:27|11L) M American
170 Sagan 75.png Carl Sagan
(21 BE-41 AE)
(1934-1996) ACM)
IQ O.png=173[1] 2.74 62
Star stuff (Sagan).jpg
(RGM:5|1,350+) (PR:1,712|65AE / astronomer:14) (Becker 160:154|2L) (FA:207) (TL:33) Astronomer and philosopher;
“I am a collection of water, calcium, and organic molecules called Carl Sagan. You are a collection of almost identical molecules with a different collective label.”
— Carl Sagan (1980), Cosmos, Episode 5; compare Wilhelm Ostwald (1926)

noted for his PBS series Cosmos, co-written with his wife Ann Duryan, wherein he defines a human as “star-stuff”; used the term "cosmic perspective" for the advanced perspective; Isaac Asimov (1980) conceded that Sagan and Marvin Minsky (an IQ:200+ missing candidate (Ѻ)) were smarter than he; IQ estimates at 130-175 (Ѻ); a frequent (Ѻ)(Ѻ) unanswered Quora query.

M American
170 Rabelais 75.png Francois Rabelais
(c.466-401 BE)
(c.1489-1553 ACM)
2.66 64 (Cattell 1000:121) (PR:705|65AE / writer:89) (Hugo 14:12) (FA:51) (TL:19) Writer, physician, humanist, satirist, Greek scholar, aka “Democritus reborn” (Bellay, c.1550), “secular sage” (Hecht, 2004) noted for his 1532 The Life of Gargantua and Pantagruel (AB:21) tells the story of two giants who make fun of religion. M French
170 Martin Klaproth 75.png Martin Klaproth


(Murray 4000:19|C) (GCE:#) German apothecary chemist;
“Wherefore no name can be found for a new fossil [element] which indicates its peculiar and characteristic properties (in which position I find myself at present), I think it is best to choose such a denomination as means nothing of itself and thus can give no rise to any erroneous ideas. In consequence of this, as I did in the case of Uranium, I shall borrow the name for this metallic substance from mythology, and in particular from the Titans, the first sons of the earth. I therefore call this metallic genus ‘titanium’.”
— Martin Klaproth (1795), Analytical Essays Towards Promoting the Chemical Knowledge of Mineral Substances (Ѻ)

Noted early formulator of analytical chemistry; independent inventor of gravimetric analysis; noted for discoveries on elemental composition of minerals, e.g. he discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789); co-discovered titanium (1792), strontium (1793), cerium (1803), chromium (1797); confirmed previous discoveries of tellurium (1789) and beryllium (1789); first-slating: #395 (Nov 2020).

M German
170 Hutton 75.png James Hutton


M Scottish
170 Porphyry 75.png Porphyry


(Cattell 1000:906) (CR:8) Philosopher, a student of Plotinus, and the one who edited and published his The Enneads, noted for reporting that the Greek letter theta (Θ) was, in its archaic form, written as a cross within a circle (⊕, ⊗) and later as a line or point within a circle (Θ, ʘ), derived from the Egyptians used an X within a circle as a symbol of the soul, and that the value of nine ‘9’, in the Greek numbering system, was code for it being a symbol for the Ennead [nine gods], the nine major deities of the Heliopolis creation myth of Heliopolis; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 170|#359 (Nov 2020). M Roman
170 Howard Hughes 75 2.png Howard Hughes


71 Land air speed record-holder; airlines entrepreneur, film mogul, medical research investor;
“For the first time in my life, I’m free. No one will ever again tell me what to do.”
— Howard Hughes (1922), “Age 17 comment to Rubert, when boarding the train to Houston, after being told his mother had died on the operating table”, Los Angeles[2]

His age 14 dissection of a 1919 Stuz Bearcat, the then fastest car in the world, to see how it “worked”, was an inspiration[3] behind the operational framework of Hmolpedia, i.e. to take chemical thermodynamics apart, to see how it works; at age 19, after the death of his father and mother (age 17), therein becoming the wealthiest teenager in the world, he wrote his own will that established a medical research laboratory, today known as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute; his peculiar dietary habits are a frequent topic in "genius and diet"[4] discussions; a top 20 drug addicted genius (2020)[5]; the book Howard Hughes: His Life and Madness[6], supposedly, is a top 15 book everyone should read (Musk, 2018); first-slating: 160-180 (c.2015).

M American
170 Caesar 75.png Julius Caesar


IQ B.png=170 M Roman
170 Mozart 75.png Wolfgang Mozart


IQ O.png=170[7]

IQ CB.png=163
IQ C.png=165
IQ B.png=160

(Norlinger 22:16) M Austrian
170 Landau 75.png Lev Landau
(47 BE-13 AE)
(1908-1968 ACM)
M Russian
170 Mettrie 75.png Julien Mettrie
(246-204 BE)
(1709-1751 ACM)
4.05 42 (PR:3,211|65AE / philosopher:180) (FA:88) (TL:105) Philosopher and physician; M French
170 Fairburn 75.png William Fairburn
(79-8 BE)
(1876-1947 ACM)
2.39 71 (HCP:24) (SN:23) (TL:69|#159) Naval architect, marine engineer, chemical engineer, industrial executive, and human chemistry pioneer, noted for his 1915 Human Chemistry booklet, wherein people are defined as chemicals whose reactions to each other are explained via physical chemistry, specifically match chemistry. M English-born American
170 Asimov 75.png Isaac Asimov
(35 BE-37 AE)
(1920-1992 ACM)
IQ SS.png=180

IQ O.png=160[8], 165[9], 175[10], 215

Hari Seldon.png
(RGM:156|1,350+) (FA:109) (CR:63) Biochemist turned science fiction writer;
“Hari Seldon devised psychohistory by modeling it upon the kinetic theory of gases. Each atom or molecule in a gas moves randomly so that we can’t know the position or velocity of any one of them. Nevertheless, using statistics, we can work out the rules governing their overall behavior with great precision. In the same way, Seldon intended to work out the overall behavior of human societies even though the solutions would not apply to the behavior of individual human beings.”
— Isaac Asimov (1986), “Explanation by character Janov Pelorat”

Noted for his 1942 to 1993 Foundation Series, wherein he outlines a theory he calls psychohistory, through the guise of a character Hari Seldon, a type of physical science based conceptualization of history; for his 1956 science fiction short story The Last Question, on the issue of the fate of humanity in the context of the heat death of the universe; and for his outspoken atheism-advocation; originally slated: 165|#245 (Jan 2016); upgraded to 170|#358 (c.2019).

M American
170 Spengler 75.png Oswald Spengler


IQ EM.png=170 M German
170 Aquinas 75.png Thomas Aquinas
(730-681 BE)
(1225-1274 ACM)
IQ B.png=165 3.47 49 (Cattell 1000:384) (RGM:119|1,350+) (PR:101|65AE / philosopher:16) (Murray 4000:6|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:8) (Becker 139:9|16L) (Stokes 100:22) (Listal 100:11) (Durant 10:5) (GPhE:#) (TL:58|#182) Theologian and philosopher, M Italian
170 Durkheim 75.png Emile Durkheim


[RGM:211|1,350+] (Stokes 100:92) (Scott 50:9) (HCR:22) (CR:37) M French
170 Plotinus 75.png Plotinus
(1750-1685 BE)
(205-270 ACM)
2.62 65 (Cattell 1000:773) (RGM:551|1,350+) (PR:616|65AE / philosopher:51) (Murray 4000:19|WP) (Cardano 12:↑D) (Becker 139:43|7L) (Stokes 100:18) (GPhE:#) (TL:33) Anti-atomicist philosopher, M Greek-Egyptian born Italian
170 Shaftesbury 75.png Anthony Shaftesbury
(284-242 BE)
(1671-1713 ACM)
4.05 42 (PR:12,067|65AE / politician:3,890) (TL:6) Deism themed, "anti-religious" perceived, moral philosopher, and politician; M English
170 Lao-Tzu 75.png Lao-Tzu


[not real?]

IQ B.png=173 (Becker 139:37|8L) M Chinese
170 Origen 75.png Origen
(1770-1701 BE)
(185-254 ACM)
M Alexandrian
170 Shannon 75.png Claude Shannon
(39 BE-46 AE)
(1916-2001 ACM)
IQ O.png=180[11] Downgrade from 175|#229| to 170|#425 (Feb 66AE). M American
170 Daniel Bernoulli 75.png Daniel Bernoulli


(PEC10:10)[12] M Dutch-born Swiss
170 Tennyson 75.png Alfred Tennyson


IQ C.png=165 M English
170 Henry Chatelier 75.png Henry Chatelier
Chatelier principle (Brunning, 2017).jpg
(CR:35) Physical chemist;
“Every system in chemical equilibrium, under influence of a change of every single one of the factors of equilibrium, undergoes a transformation in such direction that, if this transformation took place alone, it would produce a change in the opposite direction of the factor in question. The factors of equilibrium are temperature, pressure, and electromotive force, corresponding to three forms of energy: heat, electricity, and mechanical energy.”
— Henry Chatelier (1884), “Experimental and Theoretical Research on Chemical Equilibria”

Noted for his 1884 “Experimental and Theoretical Research on Chemical Equilibria”, wherein he stated introduced his adjusting equilibria theorem, aka Chatelier principle (above); in 1889, did the first French translation of Gibbs’ Equilibrium (1876) and Vernadsky was his student; Lotka (1925) used Chatelier’s principle to explain the physics of animal interactions; Julius Davidson (1919) used it to explain human pairings in mate selection equilibria; Vladimir Vernadsky (1926) used it in his “thermodynamic envelops” model of the biosphere; Lawrence Henderson used it in his “Sociology 23” course (1938-1942), Paul Samuelson (1947) used it to explain economic equilibria.

M French
170 Robert Noyce 75.png Robert Noyce


Physicist; in 1959, building on Jack Kilby’s 1958 hybrid integrated circuit, made of germanium, he invented the monolithic integrated circuit, made of silicon, aka the modern microchip, which he said (Ѻ) he invented out of "laziness"; co-founder of Fairchild semi-conductor (1957) and Intel (1968); known as the “Mayor of Silicon Valley”; 112-candidate; first-slating:#765 (Nov 2020). M American
170 Bernard Fontenelle 75.png Bernard Fontenelle


(Cattell 1000:539) (CR:7) Lawyer, scientist, philosopher;

“Women react differently: a French woman who sees herself betrayed by her husband will kill his mistress; an Italian will kill her husband; a Spaniard will kill both; and a German will kill herself.” — Bernard Fontenelle (c.1730), Publication (Ѻ) noted for his A Conversation on the Plurality of the World (1686), The Origin of Fables (1724), and Of the Island of Borneo (1686), wherein he defended Copernicanism, critiqued miracles, satirized religions, and presented some of the first discussion of the Bible as myth; influenced: Julien la Mettrie, Baron d’Holbach (Ѻ), Voltaire (Ѻ), Napoleon Bonaparte, and John Avery; 112-candidate; first-slating:#375 (Nov 2020).

M French
170 No image 2.png Jordanus Nemorarius (c.1250-1310) (CR:4) Mathematician and physicist; was the first to state, supposedly, the idea of both “vertical pressure” and “lateral pressure” (see: mean girls model) in a liquid, e.g. at different depths (Tartaglia, 1545); was the first to the weight of an object resting on an inclined plane, the forerunner to Stevin’s 1586 “parallelogram of forces” model; is conjectured by Duhem (1905) to have introduces infinitesimal considerations into statics in his discussion of "virtual" displacements of objects in equilibrium; 112-candidate; first-slating:#375 (Nov 2020). M Italian or French
170 Aryabhata 75.jpg
[RGM:273|1,350+] (Odueny 100:61) (GMG:18) (GME:#) (GAE:#) (CR:5) Mathematician, astronomer, and physicist;
“Just as a person travelling on a boat sees that the trees on the bank are moving, people on the earth feel the sun is moving.
— Aryabhata (c.520), Publication (Ѻ); cited by Kishore Dash (2019) in The Story of Econophysics (pg. 2)

employed 62,832/20,000 (= 3.1416) for π; speculated, supposedly, that π (pi) is irrational, as later conjectured by Leonhard Euler, and proved by Johann Lambert (Ѻ); stated that the earth rotates on its axis; classified as a physicist for his explicit mention of the relativity of motion; is said to have been the first to employ a zero symbol concept, and that his later countryman Brahmagupta was to use a zero symbol and the first to show that subtracting a number from itself results in zero (Ѻ); a “24 smartest person ever” genius (Ratner, 2016) (Ѻ); first-slating: 170|#375 (Apr 2020).

M Indian
170 Vayer 75.png Francois Vayer


M French
170 Chandrasekhar 75.png Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar


2.02 84 (Becker 160:138|2L) M Indian-born American
170 Elizabeth I 75.png Elizabeth I


IQ B.png=180 F English
170 Penfield 75.png Wilder Penfield


M American-born Canadian
170 Luther 75.png Martin Luther


IQ C.png=170

IQ W.png=157

M German
170 John Quincy Adams 75.png John Quincy Adams


IQ C.png=175 M American
170 Calvin 75.png John Calvin


IQ C.png=175

IQ W.png=165

M French
170 Pierre Curie 75.png Pierre Curie


(RGM:385|1,350+) (Murray 4000:10|P) (GPE:56) (CR:4) Physicist;
“As to the question whether mankind benefits from knowing the secrets of nature, whether it is ready to profit from it, or whether this knowledge will not be harmful for it. I am one of those who believe, with Nobel, that mankind will derive more good than harm from the new discoveries.”
— Pierre Curie (1905), “Radioactive Substances, Especially Radium”, Jun 6

Noted for pioneering work in: crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity, and radioactivity; first-slating: #425 (Nov 2020).

M French
440. 170 Charles Fourier 75.png Charles Fourier
(183-118 BE)
(1772-1837 ACM)
2.62 65
Fourierism (1850).png
(SN:35) (EPD:F9) (TL:46) Philosopher;
“Attractions are proportional to destines. Passion draws humanity into association just as gravity draws celestial bodies into orbital systems.”
— Charles Fourier (c.1808), Publication

Noted for his 1808 Theory of the Four Movements and the General Destinies, which has been characterized as a Social Principia (Kaufmann, 1874), among other volumes, wherein he outlines his so-called “theory of the passions”, in terms of work and forces; coined the term feminism; spawned the growth of over seven Fourierism-based utopian communities in the US, e.g. Lake Zurich, Illinois, founded by Fourierist Seth Paine (1836)[13], and Utopia, Ohio; eponym of Fourierism, defined as a “systematic set of economic, political, and social beliefs”; characterized a “Newton of the moral sciences” (Ulam, 1976); influences: Montesquieu and Descartes; influenced: Nikolay Chernyshevsky; pictured is an 1850 political satire showing (Ѻ) Americans William Garrison (IQ:145|#861) and Horace Greeley adding bags of “abolition” and “Fourierism” to their Hurly Burly pot; first-slate: 170|#425 (Dec 2020).

M French
170 Chatterton 75.png Thomas Chatterton
IQ C.png=180 10.00 17 (Cattell 1000:291) (Norlinger 22:14) Child prodigy poet;

Happy (if mortals can be) is the man; who, not by priest but reason, rules his span: reason, to its possessor a sure guide; reason, a thorn in Revelation’s side.” — Thomas Chatterton (c.1768), “The Defense” (line 23) (Ѻ) A “neglected genius” touted as the “second Shakespeare” (Ѻ); committed suicide age 17; down-grade from 180|#192 to 170|#333 (Feb 2018).

M English
170 Rochefoucauld 75.png Francois Rochefoucauld


(Cattell 1000:621) [RGM:2200|1,350+] (CR:5) Writer and philosopher;

True love is like ghosts, which everybody talks about and few have seen.” — Francois Rochefoucauld (c.1865), Maxims noted for booklet Maxims, characterized as a dense collection of 504 sharp one-line philosophies, curated, tested, and developed in the French salons.; name-dropped by Nietzsche, frequently; first-slating: 170|#350 (Nov 2018).

M French
170 Burroughs 75.png John Burroughs


M American
170 William Pitt (the Elder) 75.png William Pitt (the Elder)


IQ B.png=180

IQ C.png=155

M English
170 Keynes 75.png John Keynes


(Stokes 100:68) Economist, philosopher, statesman, mathematician; M English
170 William Hamilton 75.png William Hamilton


IQ C.png=170 Metaphysical philosopher: M Scottish
170 Babbage 75.png Charles Babbage


(Becker 160:87|3L) M English
170 Jacques Charles 75.png Jacques Charles


(CR:6) Physicist, chemist, mathematician, and inventor; noted for his Montgolfier-stimulated 1783 “manned” hydrogen balloon test; and for his 1787 experiment where he filled five balloons to the same volume with different gases, and then raised the temperature of the balloons to 80ºC and noticed that they all increased in volume by the same amount; he thus found the following relation:

Charles law.png known as Charles law; 112-candidate; first-slating: #390 (Nov 2020).

M French
170 No image 2.png Nicolaas Hartsoeker


M Dutch
170 Ockham 75.png William of Ockham
(RGM:289|1,350+) (Becker 139:68|5L) (Stokes 100:24) (AT:7|D) aka "Occam" M English
451. 170 Nicole Oresme 75.png Nicole Oresme
62 (Siegfried 10:8) (H11:5)[14] (PEC7:2)[15] Natural philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, and theologian; in his The Book of the Heaven and the World, a Latin to French translation of Aristotle’s On the Heavens (De Caelo), he added critical commentary and original thought, such as, supposedly, the possibility of a plurality of worlds, each sphere having it’s own center of gravity, a void beyond the heavens, and theorized about forces moving sphere’s on tables; studied “arts” with Jean Buridan; discussed the “dropping a ball on a moving ship experiment”, as did Hypatia, Bruno, Nicolaus Cusanus, Jean Buridan, and Galileo, which was finally done by Gassendi (c.1635); characterized as the “forerunner of Copernicus” (Durham, 1910)[16]; first-slating: 170|#435 (Dec 2020). M French
170 Atterbury 75.png Francis Atterbury


IQ C.png=170 Writer, politician, and bishop; M English
170 Qin Shi Huang 75.png Qin Shi Huang


IQ B.png=175 Founder of the Qin dynasty and the first emperor of a unified China. M Chinese
170 Becher 75.png Johann Becher


M German
170 Calderon 75.jpg Pedro Calderon


IQ C.png=170 Dramatist, poet, writer M Spanish
170 Diogenes 75.png Diogenes
Diogenes with lantern.jpg
[RGM:749|1,350+] (Becker 139:100|3L) (Stokes 100:12) (Perry 80:2|Li) (ACR:26) (CR:14), aka "Diogenes of Sinope", Cynic philosopher; teacher of Crates, who was teacher to Zeno of Citium (IQ:170|#286); first-slating: 170|#350 (Mar 2018).
“I am looking for an honest man (or real human).”
— Diogenes (c.340BC), response when queried as to why he was walking around in daylight with a lantern

His lantern quote cited (Ѻ) by character Jedburgh in the 2010 Mel Gibson film Edge of Darkness, in respect to there being so much corruption rampant, cops to business men to governors.

M Greek
170 Thomas Chalmers 75.jpg Thomas Chalmers


IQ C.png=170 Theologian and political economist; M Scottish
170 Ovid 75.png Ovid


M Roman
170 Sennert 75.png Daniel Sennert


M German
170 Twain 75.png Mark Twain


IQ O.png=135-145[17] M English
170 George FitzGerald 75.png George FitzGerald


Physicist, natural philosopher, experimentalist; was one of the top four “Maxwellians”, along with Oliver Lodge, his friend, Oliver Heaviside, and Heinrich Hertz, who revised, extended, and clarified Maxwell’s electromagnetic field theory; in 1883, following from Maxwell's equations, was the first to suggest a device for producing rapidly oscillating electric currents to generate electromagnetic waves, a phenomenon shown to exist experimentally by Heinrich Hertz in 1888; in 1889, he made the first published statement of the “length contraction hypothesis”, which later became a core part of Einstein’s special theory of relativity; first-slating: #401 (Nov 2020). M Irish
170 Lodge 75.png Oliver Lodge


(GPE:111) (CR:13) Physicist, electrical engineer, and philosopher; is credited by Lorentz, supposedly, with the first published description of the length contraction hypothesis, in 1893; though in fact Lodge's friend George Francis FitzGerald had first suggested the idea in print in 1889; in 1893, he realized the possibility of using Hertzian waves for the transmission and reception of telegraphic messages, and the following year described a device to do so, a concept later realized by Guglielmo Marconi (1896); noted for his involvement in the 1902-1904 “what is entropy debate”, for at some point (Ѻ) having performed laboratory experiments, with William Crookes, in attempts to provide evidence of survival of consciousness after physical death (reaction end), a belief deriving from his theory that some type of electromagnetic field like ether existed in which the spirit world was embedded, thus satisfying his spiritual Christian belief system; 112-candidate; first-slating: #401 (Nov 2020). M English
170 Razi 75.png Al-Razi


2.39 71 M Persian
170 Benjamin Thompson 75.png Benjamin Thompson
(202-141 BE)
(1753-1814 ACM)
2.79 61
Canon boring experiment.png
(Cattell 1000:571) (PR:6,269|65AE / physicist:146) (GPE:#) (EPD:F2) (TL:45) Physicist; noted for his 1798 cannon-boring experiments (compare: ice rubbing experiment, 1799), which provided data for the first calculation of the mechanical equivalent of heat, and which laid question to the then-established caloric theory, as discussed in his famous “An Inquiry Concerning the Source of Heat which is Excited by Friction”; after disproving Antoine Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, he then married his wife (Lavoisier having been guillotined in 1794); 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 170|#402 (Nov 2020).
M American-born English
170 Dewey 75.png John Dewey


IQ EM.png=170 1.85 92 (Becker 139:34|9L) M American
170 Pliny the elder 75.png Pliny the elder


M Roman
467. 170 Henri Becquerel 75.png Henri Becquerel
(103-47 BE)
(1852-1908 ACM)
56 (RGM:481|1,350+) (Becker 160:128|2L) (Oduenyi 100:41) (Kanowitz 50:34) (SIG:17) (GPE:#) (CR:5) Engineer and physicist; noted for his May 1896 experimental discovery, in the wake of Rontgen’s Jan 1896 discovery of X-rays, that uranium emits penetrating radiation, aka he discovered “radioactivity”; first-slate: #450 (Dec 2020) M French
468. 170 Andreas Vesalius 75.png Andreas Vesalius
47 (RGM:647|1,350+) (Murray 4000:15|M) (Gottlieb 1000:234) (Becker 160:36) (Oduenyi 100:71) (Simmons 100:21) (CR:6) Physician and anatomist;
“At this point, however, I have no intention whatever of criticizing the false teachings of Galen, who is easily first among the professors of dissection, for I certainly do not wish to start off by gaining a reputation for impiety toward him, the author of all good things, or by seeming insubordinate to his authority. For I am well aware how upset the practitioners (unlike the followers of Aristotle) invariably become nowadays, when they discover in the course of a single dissection that Galen has departed on two hundred or more occasions from the true description of the harmony, function, and action of the human parts, and how grimly they examine the dissected portions as they strive with all the zeal at their command to defend him. Yet even they, drawn by their love of truth, are gradually calming down and placing more faith in their own not ineffective eyes and reason than in Galen’s writings.”
— Andreas Vesalius (1543), On the Fabric of the Human Body (Book I, iv)

Debunked many of the assumed medical views of Aristotle and Galen; noted for his 1543 On the Fabric of the Human Body, derived from his Paduan lectures, wherein he employed the new technique of printing with refined woodcut engravings, to produce superior anatomic illustrations; considered the founder of modern anatomy; some defined the simultaneous 1543 publication of Vesalius’ Fabric and Copernicus Revolutions, as the start of modern science (Gribbin, 2002); first-slate: 170|#450 (Dec 2020).

M Flemish
469. 170 Wilhelm Rontgen 75.png Wilhelm Rontgen
77 (Becker 160:64|4L) Mechanical engineer and physicist; noted for his 1895 production and detection of electromagnetic radiation in the 10nm to 10 pm range, aka X-rays, commonly used now for: X-ray crystallography, mammography, cat scan, and airport security; first-slate: 170|#450 (Dec 2020). M German
170 Doppler 75.png Christian Doppler
(Becker 160:116|3L) M Austrian
170 Cuvier 75.png Georges Cuvier


IQ C.png=175 M French
170 Bentley 75.png Richard Bentley


IQ C.png=170 M English
170 Galen 75.png Galen


(Cardano 12:11) (Becker 160:75|3L) M Greek
170 Ray 75.png John Ray


M English
170 Thomas Malthus 75.png Thomas Malthus


(Cattell 1000:868) (Gottlieb 1000:306) (GEcE:#) (CR:4) Scholar, free thinker, and cleric; noted for his “Malthusian model”, as advanced in his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), according to which all "life forms", including humans, have a propensity to exponential population growth when resources are abundant but that actual growth is limited by available resources (Ѻ); supposedly, a top four ranked classical economist, along with David Ricardo, Adam Smith, and James Mill; influential to Charles Darwin and Henry Buckle; 112-candidate; first-slating:#410 (Nov 2020). M English
170 George Scott 75.png George Scott


Will of the rock.png
(SN:30) [CR:53] Physical organic chemist and philosopher;

“To a materialist no thing is real but atoms in a void and we are but ‘molecular people’ controlled by the actions of natural physicochemical law.” — George Scott (1985), Atoms of the Living Flame (pg. 181) Noted for his 1960s to early 1970s efforts to make a two cultures department at the University of South Dakota, which attempted to reconcile Burrhus Skinner’ behaviorism, with Clarence Darrow’s determinism models in respect to crime and punishment, in the context of Zeno of Citium and humans viewed atomically or as “molecular people”, intermixed with some ideas of Ilya Prigogine, whose lectures he attended, which resulted in his 1985 book Atoms of the Living Flame: an Odyssey into Ethics and the Physical Chemistry of Free Will; influential to Thims in the development of human chemical thermodynamics; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 170|#410 (Nov 2020).

M American
170 Benjamin Constant 75.jpg Benjamin Constant


IQ C.png=170 Political activist and writer on political theory and religion; M Swiss-born French
170 Oswald Avery 75.png Oswald Avery


Physician and genetics researcher;

“In 1944, Avery did the experiment proving that DNA was how traits are inherited.” — Craig Venter (2017), “100 Greatest Living Business Minds”, Forbes Proved, via experiment, that it is DNA, and not protein, that transmits heredity; characterized as the most-deserving scientist to not have received the Nobel Prize (Tiselius, 2007); 112-candidate; first-slating:#411 (Nov 2020).

M Canadian-born American
170 Klein 75.png Felix Klein


M German
170 Thomasius t75.png Christian Thomasius


[RGM:419|1,350+] Philosopher and jurist; in his The Foundation of the Law of Nature and Nations (1705), he opposed Aristotelianism, Lutheranism, the divine right of Kings and Roman Law, instead promoting a non-theological, natural foundation for ethics in the style of Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1694), a Hobbes + Grotius synthesizer; he also derived some type of “special physics” utilizing a numerical scaled "calculus of passions"; first-slating: 170|#355 (Apr 2018). M German
170 Washington Irving


IQ C.png=170 76 Short-story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat; M American
170 August Kotzebue


IQ C.png=170 57 Dramatist, writer, and Russian consul; M German
170 Feuerbach 75.png Ludwig Feuerbach


IQ EM.png=180 M German
170 Henry Longfellow


IQ C.png=170 75 Poet and educator; M American
170 Marat 75.png Jean-Paul Marat


IQ C.png=170 M French
170 Drebbel 75.png Cornelis Drebbel
(383-321 BE)
(1572-1634 ACM)
M Dutch
170 Napier 75.png John Napier


IQ C.png=170
Napier bones.png
(Cattell 1000:172) (Nelson 19:13) (Eells 100:18) (CR:9) Mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and land owner; generally know as the “inventor of the logarithms” (c.1594), which he described in his A Description of Logarithm Tables (1614); also invented "Napier bones", pictured, which allowed faster multiplications.
M English
170 Pietro Metastasio


IQ C.png=170 Poet and librettist, considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti; M Italian
170 Novalis 75.png Novalis


M German
492. 170 Thomas Morgan 75.png Thomas Morgan
(89-10 BE)
(1866-1945 ACM)
Fly genetics.jpg
(Murray 4000:5|B) (Becker 160:135) (Simmons 100:62) (CR:8) was an American zoologist, entomologist, and geneticist, with focus on morphology; noted for his 1911 to 1915 ‘fly room’ experiments, at Columbia University, wherein he established, via cross-breeding experiments, the so-called Mendel-Morgan chromosomal theory of heredity; first-slate: 170|#472 (Dec 2020).
M American
170 Penn 75.png William Penn
IQ C.png=170 M English-born American
170 Verbiest 75.png Ferdinand Verbiest


M Flemish
170 Jean Racine 75.png Jean Racine
(316-256 BE)
(1639-1699 ACM)
IQ C.png=170 2.88 59 (Cattell 1000:74) (PR:1,554|65AE / writer:171) (Gottlieb 1000:389) (LH:1) Writer and tragedian dramatist playwright; M French
496. 170 Leo Szilard 75.png Leo Szilard
Fission chain reaction.png
(Becker 160:141|2L) (CR:65) Physicist; noted for his 1922 “On the Decrease in Entropy in a Thermodynamic System by the Intervention of Intelligent Beings”, wherein he gave one of the first “exorcisms” of Maxwell’s demons; and for his 1933 nuclear chain reaction theory (pictured), which, following an “urgent” 1939 letter to Einstein, resulted in the “Manhattan project”, which made the first employed atomic bomb; first-slate: 170|#475 (Dec 2020).
M Hungarian-born American
170 Harlow Shapley 75.png Harlow Shapley
Shapley model (1959).png
(FA:171) (CR:3) Astronomer and philosopher;

“The universe began with a collection of hydrogen atoms, and neither it nor life was in need of any divine intercession. ‘In the beginning was the Word’, and I might venture that the word was ‘hydrogen gas’. As to the question where the hydrogen came from, that is metaphysics.” — Harlow Shapley (1959), “Lecture”, truncated summary by Craig Helge (2004) Dubbed the "modern Copernicus" by his colleagues, noted for his 1917 determination of the center of the galaxy, his 1920s deduction that the sun lies near the central plane of the Milky Way Galaxy and not at the center but some 30,000 light-years away, and for his 1953 “liquid water belt” theory, aka the habitable zone; and for his 1959 lectures on science and religion, wherein said that religion would evolve into a “scientific religion”; 112-candidate; first-slating:#475 (Nov 2020).

M American
170 Jack Kilby 75.png Jack Kilby


Kilby Inventions.png
Electrical engineer; noted for his 1958 hybrid integrated circuit, made of germanium (forerunner to Robert Noyce’s 1959 monolithic integrated circuit, made of silicon, aka the modern microchip); co-inventor of the handheld calculator, called “Cal Tech” (1967); 112-candidate; first-slating:#425 at 50 slots below Noyce (Nov 2020).
M American
170 Montgolfier 75.png Joseph Montgolfier


Montgolfier hot air balloon.png
(CR:4) Aeronautics engineer and paper manufacturer; in his early 20s, while observing laundry drying over a fire incidentally form pockets that billowed upwards, he began to contemplate the building of a hot air powered flying machine; in 1775, he built parachutes and did test jumps from his family house; in 1782, together with his brother Etienne Montgolfier, they built the a working hot air balloon; and in 1783, they made a hot air balloon that to carried a human; 112-candidate; first-slating: #425 (Nov 2020).
M French
170 Charron 75.png Pierre Charron


M French
170 Renan 75.png Ernest Renan

(132-63 BE) (1823-1892 ACM)

IQ C.png=170 (Cattell 1000:455) (PR:2,969|65AE / philosopher:168) (RMS:62) (TL:4) Semitic languages scholar; noted for his work on Averroes (1852) and his Life of Jesus (1864) which showed that the Bible was written over a long period of time. M French
170 Hollerith 75.png Herman Hollerith


Punch card machine.png
Businessman, inventor, and statistician; noted for his 1884 invention of the punch card based electromechanical tabulating machine to assist in summarizing information and, later, in accounting; in 1911, he joined with several other companies to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, which was renamed IBM (International Business Machines) in 1924.
M American
170 Hemingway 75.png Ernest Hemingway


M American
170 Reuchlin 75.png Johann Reuchlin


IQ C.png=170 67 (Cattell 1000:377) [RGM:57|1,350+] Humanist and Greek and Hebrew scholar. M German
170 Yeats 75.png William Yeats
[RGM:513|1,350+] (GLE:16) Poet; Andrew Robinson (2010) “missing Cox 300” genius (Ѻ); added at: 170|#411 (c.2019). M Irish
170 Georg Cantor 75.png Georg Cantor


(RGM:669|1,350+) (Murray 4000:8|M) (GME:16) (CR:5) Mathematician; noted for his 1880 “set theory”, which allowed mathematicians to deal better with things, such as people or ideas; influential to Yuri Tarnopolsky; first-slating: 170|#485 per GME ranking IQ interpolation (Nov 2020). M German
170 Strauss 75.png David Strauss


IQ C.png=170 66 (Cattell 1000:473) (RMS:35) (CR:5) Radical theologian, philosopher; aka the most famous of the Young Hegelians; influenced Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus", whose divine nature he denied, via pioneering the historical investigation of Jesus method (see: silent historians problem). M German
170 Prigogine 75.png Ilya Prigogine
(38 BE-48 AE)
(1917-2003 ACM)
1.97 86
Prigogine model.png
(TL:420) Chemist, thermodynamicist, and philosopher; known for is far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics theory of "dissipative structures", according to which, based on the model of Bernard cell formation, "order" forms after "chaos", at the point of the "bifurcation", where in human "choice" and free will emerge; it takes some years to realize that his theory is a religious-based "ontic opening" model; first; slating: IQ:170|#301 (c.2017).
M Russian-born Belgian
170 Epictetus 75.png Epictetus


M Greek
511. 170 Al-Jazari 75.png Al-Jazari
Jazari donkey-powered water wheel.jpg
(RGM:769|1,350+) Scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, mathematician, and artist; note for his c.1190 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, which describes 100 mechanical devices, 80 of which are trick vessels; noted for inventing a flushing toilet and an elephant water clock with animate figurines (automatons); adjacent is his donkey-powered water wheel[18]; first-slate: 170|#488 (Dec 2020).
M Arabian
170 Tyndall 75.png John Tyndall
(135-62 BE)
(1820-1893 ACM)
2.33 70 (PR:9,814|65AE / physicist:227) (FA:153) (TL:77|#146) Physicist and atheism-inclining materialism philosopher; famous 1874 “Materialism, Science, and Religion” BAAS Address. M Irish
170 Turgot 75.png Robert Turgot
(228-174 BE)
(1727-1781 ACM)
IQ C.png=170 (Cattell 1000:293) M French
170 Wiener 75.png Norbert Wiener


M American
170 Husserl 75.png Edmund Husserl


IQ EM.png=170 79 (Becker 139:28|11L) (Stokes 100:71) M German
170 Diego Velasquez


IQ C.png=170 61 (Cattell 1000:265) Painter; noted for his in his masterpiece Las Meninas (1656); his artwork became a model for 19th century realist and impressionist painters; influential to Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí and Francis Bacon who reinterpreted some of his most iconic images. M Spanish
170 Charles Dupuis 75.png Charles Dupuis


(RMS:22) (CR:21) Savant, a rhetoric professor, lawyer, mathematician, theologian, telegraph inventor, astronomer, and religio-mythologist;

“We think ourselves possessed, or, at least, we boast that we are so, of liberty of conscience on all subjects. Yet, how far are we from these exalted privileges in fact! There exists, I believe, throughout the whole Christian world, a law which makes it blasphemy to deny our doubt the divine inspiration of all the books of the Old and New Testaments, from Genesis to Revelation. Who would run the risk of translating Dupuis?” — John Adams (1825), “Letter to Thomas Jefferson”, Jan 23 noted for his multi-volume 1794 Universal Religion: Origin of All Cults, oft-cited, along with the parallel works of Constantin Volney (1791), as one of the first Christ myth theory works; 112-candidate; first-slating: #440 (Nov 2020).

M French
170 Borges 75.png Jorge Borges


IQ B.png=182 [RGM:433|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:483) (CR:4) Short story writer, essayist, poet, and translator;

“I have always imagined that paradise will be a kind of library.” — Jorge Borges (c.1960), Publication used Georg Cantor’s theory of infinite sets in some (Ѻ) of his literary works; despised Marxism; characterized himself as a “Spencerian anarchist”; downgrade ↓ from 180|#208 to 170|#440 per Gottlieb and RGM rankings, and general lack of CR influence (Apr 2020).

M Argentine
170 Pierre Vergniaud


IQ C.png=170 (Cattell 1000:429) Lawyer, statesman, and revolutionist. M French
170 Maimonides 75.png Maimonides


[RGM:205|1,350+] (Becker 139:88|4L) (Washington 23|#) (AT:6|D) (CR:20) Physician-philosopher and theologian; noted for his c.1190 The Guide of the Perplexed, wherein he states that we should ignore accident-based atomic theory because it denies the existence of god. M Spanish-born Moroccan
170 Godel 75.png Kurt Godel


IQ O.png=180[19] 71 (Stokes 100:95) M Austrian-Hungarian born American
170 Abu al-Suli
IQ B.png=175 Poet, scholar, and chess player; non-notability downgrade 175|#298 to 170|#358 (Feb 2018). M Turkic
523. 170 Shen Kuo 75.png Shen Kuo
64 (HC11:3)[14] Physicist, astronomer, natural philosopher, and general polymath; noted for his 1088 Dream Pool Essays, wherein he described a suspended magnetic needle compass, which he used to determine true north, in terms of its magnetic declination towards the pole star; explained the operation of the camera obscura; made a new type of water inflow clock; developed a geological hypothesis of land formation, based on inland marine fossils, soil erosion, and silt deposits; first-slate: 170|#499 (Dec 2020). M Chinese
170 Chester Carlson 75.png Chester Carlson


Carlson photo copy machine.png
Physicist, inventor, and patent attorney; invented (Ѻ)(Ѻ) the xerox “dry way” photocopy method (1938), in his kitchen, while simultaneously going to law school, studying science books in the public library, and working his day job; Quora gauged (Wyze, 2015) (Ѻ) as top 10 intelligent mind of history; first-slating:#445 (Nov 2020).
M American
170 Tinsley 75.png Marion Tinsley


IQ B.png=182 68 Mathematician; known as the “greatest checkers player ever”; spent approximately 10,000 hours studying checkers while in graduate school; worked as lay preacher (↓) in the Disciples of Christ Church; non-notability downgrade 175|#294 to 170|#359 (Feb 2018). M American
526. 170 Khwarizmi 75.png Al Khwarizmi
IQ SK.png=185|#23[20] 70 (Cardano 12:8) (RGM:844|1,350+) (Becker 160:75|3L) (Shariff 10:6)[21] Persian mathematician and astronomer;
“Ibn al-Haytham [Alhazen] was certainly the world’s greatest physicist in the almost two millennia gap between Archimedes and Galileo. There were others, like Biruni, Al-Kindi, Khwarizmi (it's a long list) but none of the others did physics (theory and experiment) in way we understand the subject today.”
— Jim Al-Khalili (2019), Tweet (Ѻ), Jan 10

Noted for his 1830 The Science of Restoring and Balancing, which introduced the term and science of "algebra" (al-jabr); as director of the House of Wisdom in Bagdad, the then biggest city in the world, with a population of over one-million, he oversaw the translation of major Greek and Indian mathematical and astronomy works, including Brahmagupta, in to Arabic; his Latin name is Algorithmi, from whence the term “algorithm” derives; major works introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals and the concepts of algebra into Europe; ranked as a top four Islamic golden age (750-1258) genius, along with Alhazen, Avicenna, and Al-Biruni (Guessoum, 2010)[22]; first-slate: 170|#500 (Dec 2020).

M Persian
170 Friedrich Wolf
IQ C.png=175 (Cattell 1000:480) Classicist; known as founder of modern philology; downgrade 175|#286 to 170|#359 (Feb 2018). M German
170 Solon 75.png Solon


(Cattell 1000:391) (Washington 23|#) [RMS:2] Statesman, lawmaker, philosopher, and poet; one of the seven sages (Ѻ); credited with being the one who brought democracy to Athens; cited as starting the tradition of studying abroad method, by visiting the great college of Heliopolis; first-slating: 170|#403 (Apr 2018). M Greek
170 Noether 75.png Emmy Noether
(73-20 BE)
(1882-1935 ACM)
[RGM:1,011|1,350+] (Siegfried 10:1) (CR:7) Mathematical physicist;

“In the judgement of the most competent living mathematicians, Fraulein Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began.” — Albert Einstein (1935), “Letter to New York Times” (Ѻ) Noted for her 1907 work with Einstein and David Hilbert, her teacher, when special relativity was being made into general relativity, as a consultant to help solve the problem of how the conservation of energy integrates into relativity (Ѻ); and for her 1918 use of group theory to show that to every invariance or symmetry property of a physical law corresponds a conservation principle, and vice versa, aka Noether’s theorem, therein, supposedly, reconceptualized energy as an algebraic property in a system of operators, on invariance condition among many; first slating: 170|#416 (Jan 2019).

F German
170 Lycurgus 75.png Lycurgus


M Greek
170 Ben Jonson


IQ C.png=175 M English
170 No image 2.png Mozi


(Murray 4000:8|CP) (Becker 139:47|6L) Philosopher; noted for his “state of nature” (Ѻ) theory of society, precursory, in form, in some sense, to the latter logic of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Charles Montesquieu; advocated some sort of so-called “Mohist ethics”, according to which morality of an action, statement, teaching, policy, judgment, and so on, is determined by the consequences that it brings about, and its effect on the stability of the state; 112-candidate; first-slating: #450 (Nov 2020). M Chinese
170 Isodore 75.png Isidore of Seville
(1395-1319 BE)
(c.560-636 ACM)
Isodore four elements.png
[RGM:862|1,500+] (HC11:1)[23] (GMAG|#) (CR:6) Theologian and scholar;

“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.” — Isidore (c.620), Publication (Ѻ) his The Etymologies (Ѻ), building on Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, Cassiodorus, Servius, and Solinus, presented a collection of diverse etymologies, which became a widely-read books in the centuries to follow; in his The Reply of the World Stars, gave a circular image of “four elements”, each shown as an interlinked circle, within the larger circle; influenced: Dante Alighieri, Geoffrey Chaucer, and Petrarch; 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020).

M Spanish
170 Walt Whitman 75.png Walt Whitman


72 [RGM:343|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:318) (WorldCat 100:17) (CR:5) Poet, essayist, and humanist;

“There will soon be no more priests (see: Jean Meslier). Their work is done. They may wait awhile ... perhaps a generation or two ... dropping off by degrees.... A new order shall arise and they shall be the priests of man, and every man shall be his own priest. The churches built under their umbrage shall be the churches of men and women. Through the divinity of themselves shall the cosmos and the new breed of poets be interpreters of men and women and of all events and things. They shall find their inspiration in real objects today, symptoms of the past and future.... They shall not deign to defend immortality or god or the perfection of things or liberty or the exquisite beauty and reality of the soul. They shall arise in America and be responded to from the remainder of the earth.” — Walt Whitman (1855), Leaves of Grass (1st edition preface) “I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey-work of the stars.” — Walt Whitman (1861), ''Leaves of Grass''; cited by Harold Morowitz (1992) in ''Beginnings of Cellular Life'' (pg. iv) “America's poet ... He is America.” — Ezra Pound (c.1962), comment on Walt Whitman Influences: Volney, Ralph Emerson, Robert Ingersoll, Thomas Carlyle, Alfred Tennyson, John Burroughs, George Sand, William Shakespeare, Homer, Dante Alighieri (Ѻ); cited in Stephen Gould’s The Mismeasure of Man (pg. 124) (Ѻ) in respect to his brain weight; 112-candidate; first-slating: #450 (Nov 2020).

M American
170 Abdus Salam 75.png Abdus Salam


70 (CR:9) (GPE:#) Theoretical physicist; noted for his “On Parity Conservation and Neutrino Mass” (Ѻ), that questioned “parity conservation”, which was first dismissed Wolfgang Pauli, but then validated, when, in 1957, Tsung-Dao Lee and Chen-Ning Yang suggested experiments that showed that the weak interaction of radioactive decay could indeed violate parity conservation; after which shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to electroweak unification theory; pals with Paul Dirac; Quora-ranked (2005) (Ѻ) as the most-learned Pakistani ever. 112-candidate; first-slating: #450 (Nov 2020). M Indian-born Pakistani
170 Max Stirner 75.png Max Stirner


[RGM:217|1,350+] (CR:2) Philosopher;

“Stirner went so far in his notorious work, The One and His Property: the Ego and its Own, as to reject all moral ideas. Everything that in any way, whether it be external force, belief, or mere idea, places itself above the individual and his caprice, Stirner rejects as a hateful limitation of himself. What a pity that to this book – the extremest that we know anywhere – a second positive part was not added. It would have been easier than in the case of Schelling's philosophy; for out of the unlimited Ego I can again beget every kind of Idealism as my will and my idea. Stirner lays so much stress upon the will, in fact, that it appears as the root force of human nature. It may remind us of Schopenhauer.” — Friedrich Lange (1865), The History of Materialism noted for his 1844 The One and His Property where he classified Feuerbach’s The Essence of Christianity as “inconsistent atheism”; forerunner of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism; purported influence to Nietzsche; top 1000 nominee (2019) (Ѻ); 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020).

M German
170 No image 2.png John Herapath


(CR:7) Physicist;

“Hooke's kinetic theory of heat and matter was then forgotten for many years, until the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli rediscovered the kinetic theory of gases in 1738. Bernoulli's work was in turn ignored until the idea was revived by two uninfluential English amateurs, John Herapath and John Waterston, in 1820 and 1845. Only with the work of James Joule in the 1840s, and Rudolf Clausius and James Maxwell in the 1860s, did the kinetic theory of heat and matter achieve general acceptance.” — Stephen Inwood (2001), The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 276) noted for his 1820 “On the Causes, Laws and Phenomena of Heat, Gases, Gravitation”, on the kinetic theory of gases, wherein he argued that motion stops at absolute zero of temperature, a precursor to the third law of thermodynamics; 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020).

M English
170 Benz 75.png Karl Benz


Benz automobile.png
[RGM:122|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:140) (CR:2) Engineer; noted for his 1885 construction of the world’s first reliable internal combustion engine automobile (pictured); 112-candidate; first-slating: #450 (Nov 2020).
M German
170 Edmund Spenser


IQ C.png=175 M English
170 Porta 75.png Giovanni Porta


(EP:6) (CR:17) Mathematician, chemist, physicist, and general polymath; noted for his 1586 invention of a telescope, able to see things miles away, and for his 1601 steam engine constructions, based on the earlier models of Hero (50AD); previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 170|#451 (Nov 2020). M Italian
170 Hugues Lamennais


IQ C.png=175 M French
170 Robert Southey


IQ C.png=175 M English
IQ 170 up.png
165 Quesnay 75.png Francois Quesnay
(261-181 BE)
(1694-1774 ACM)
M French
165 No image 2.png Thomas Newcomen


Newcomen engine.png
[RGM:812|1,350+] (Becker 160:105|3L) (EP:26) (GEE:#) (CR:29) Engineer, who built on the Papin engine (1690) and Savery engine (1698), guided by help from Robert Hooke, to make his 1712 Newcomen engine, the first marketable steam engine; by 1732, there were, supposedly, more than 100 Newcomen engines in Britain and Europe, and 2,000 Newcomen engines by 1800, and the "industrial revolution" was underway; 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 165|#454 (Nov 2020).
M English
165 Irving Fisher 75.png Irving Fisher


Fisher HTVT.png
(GEcE:#) [CR:55] Physical economist; noted for his 1892 PhD dissertation “Mathematical Investigations in the Theory of Value and Prices”, under engineer Willard Gibbs and economist William Sumner at Yale, in which he developed a mechanical analogy between economics and physics, invoking force and distance to be analogous to price and number of goods, respectively; contained the first-known prototype of a "human thermodynamics variables table", wherein he specifically defines a human as a particle (see: human particle); Samuelson described it as the best of all doctoral dissertations in economics; previous Hmolpedia 2020-listed candidate (112-names); first slating: 165|#454 (Nov 2020).
M American
165 Giovanni Boccaccio 75.png Giovanni Boccaccio


(Cattell 1000:147) (RGM:439|1,350+) (Murray 4000:15|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:321) (CR:5) Writer, poet, and renaissance humanist; ranked as one of the greatest European prose writers; he and Coluccio Salutati were friends and disciples of Petrarch, and together were under a conviction that a concentrated force existed in the classical works of buried past, and therein launched Italian “humanism” (Ѻ); first-slating: #520 (~200 slots below Petrarch (#329)) (Nov 2020). M Italian
165 Moliere 75.png Moliere
(333-282 BE)
(1622-1673 ACM)
IQ C.png=160 3.14 51 (Cattell 1000:39) (RGM:547|1,350+) (PR:138|65AE / writer:14) (Murray 4000:8|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:175) (Bloom 100:26) (LH:3) Playwright and comedic actor; said to be ranked with Pierre Corneille and Racine; upgraded ↑ from 160|#479 to 165|#387 (Feb 2017). M French
165 No image 2.png Foe Kio
Existence philosopher;
“There is nothing to seek, nor anything to put one’s hopes on, except the nothingness and the vacuum that is the principle of all things. Our parents came forth from this vacuum and they returned there after death.”
— Foe Kiao (c.25BC), Publication

Discussed by Pierre Bayle (Ѻ) in his Historical Dictionary, Volume 5 (Ѻ)(Ѻ); categorized, in Chinese philosophy, with Mencius and Confucius. (Ѻ); conjectured to be related to the Ahab philosophy of Herman Melville (Herman, 2014); added at 165|#4## (Oct 2020).

M Chinese
165 Heine 75.png Heinrich Heine


IQ C.png=165 M German
165 Bruyere 75.png Jean Bruyere
(310-259 BE)
(1645-1696 ACM)
3.06 51 (Cattell 1000:562) (RGM:177|1,350+) (PR:7624|65AE / writer:728) (TL:7) Philosopher, moralist, and satirist,
“It’s motive alone that gives character to the actions of men.”
— Jean Bruyere (c.1690), Publication (Ѻ)

Characterized a “sensible writer” (Meslier, 1727); first-slating: 165|#410 (Apr 2018).

M French
551. 165 Fritz Zwicky 75.png Fritz Zwicky
Dark matter (Zwicky, 1933).png
(TH 30:22) Astronomer; noted for his 1933 discovery of “dark matter” (or "dunkle (kalt) Materie"), which he derived, using the virial theorem, while studying Hubble’s observations of the Coma Cluster of galaxies, wherein he noted the anomalous behavior that according to their “visible mass”, single galaxies were moving too fast for the cluster to remain bound together; his 1934 work, together with Walter Baade, introduced the term “supernova”, according to which supernovae were the transition of normal stars in to neutron stars, as well as the origin of cosmic rays; first-slate: 165|#524 (Dec 2020).
M Swiss-born American
165 Bulwer 75.png Edward Bulwer
IQ C.png=155 M English
553. 165 Daniel Fahrenheit 75.png Daniel Fahrenheit
50 (Gottlieb 1000:261) (Becker 160:106|3L) (CR:10) Physicist; Noted for his circa 1720 invention of the mercury thermometer; first-slate: #525 (Dec 2020). M Polish-born German
165 Malthus 75.png Thomas Malthus


M English
165 No image 2.png Philodemus


(CR:6) Epicurean philosopher;

“Democritus, a man who was not only the most learned man about nature of all the ancients but no less industrious than any other inquirer, says that music is more recent, and indemnifies its cause, saying that it was not singled out by necessity, but arose as a result of plenty.” — Philodemus (c.45BC), On Music; Herculaneum papyrus 1497 (col. CCCVI 29-39) Student of Demetrius, teacher of Virgil (Ѻ), characterized as “very learned” (Cicero, 55BC) (Ѻ); noted for his 45BC On Piety, wherein he attempts to defend the model of “atomic gods”, i.e. gods made of atoms, in respect to immortality beliefs and common theism beliefs, author of 35 books of varied subjects; 112-candidate; first-slating:#475 (Nov 2020).

M Greco-Roman
165 Mendel 75.png Gregor Mendel


(Becker 160:18|8L) (Simmons 100:60) M Austrian
165 Vitruvius 75.png Vitruvius


(Cardano 12:12) M Roman
165 Heidegger 75.png Martin Heidegger


(Becker 139:24|12L) (Stokes 100:72) M German
559. 165 Paul Aebersold 75.png Paul Aebersold (1910-1967) 57
Aebersold isotope study.png
(CR:13) Physicist and biophysicist;
“Among stable elements, there are now known 284 stable species of atoms or isotopes. We are composed of stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, and so forth. In terms of physics, you are not just a batch of atoms, but a batch of ‘stable isotopes’! Theoretically, we still have a small percentage of the same atoms in us that we had when we were born, but actually this percentage must be extremely small. In a year, most of the atoms in us now—at least 98 percent of them—will have been replaced by other atoms that we take in via air, food, and drink.”
— Paul Aebersold (1949), “Atomic Energy Benefits: Radioisotopes”

Noted for his 1939 to 1949 work, wherein he injected radioisotopes to humans, to study the flow or “turnover rate” of atoms in humans; first-slate: 160|#530 (Dec 2020).

M American
165 Hunter 75.png John Hunter
IQ C.png=160 M Scottish
165 Etienne Hilaire 75.png Etienne Hilaire


(Cattell 1000:481) (EvT:9|21+) (CR:9) Naturalist;

“It is quite certain that there was a moment when life did not exist on our planet, and another moment when it appeared. It is the passage between these two states that forms the great problem of natural philosophy today.” — Geoffroy Hilaire (c.1836), Publication noted for his 1795-1833 views on the origin and form change of animals; characterized as a "deism-based materialistic evolutionary determinism" theory of species origins (Hecht, 2003); noted for his 1830 confrontation with creationist Georges Cuvier; Goethe’s last writings (c.1831) were said to have been devoted to defending Saint-Hilaire; Charles Darwin (1859) said the three main precursors to his evolution theory were: Goethe, Erasmus Darwin, and Hilaire; 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 165|#464 (Nov 2020).

M French
562. 165 Johannes Wislicenus
(120-53 BE)
(1835-1902 ACM)
Kolbe periodic table.png
(CR:25) (FA:140) Chemist and free thinker;
“That must go!”
— Johannes Wislicenus (1885), “Comment on Wisdom of Solomon (11:30) quote above the chemistry lecture hall periodic table”, University of Leipzig

noted for 1885 directive: "that must disappear!", to his University of Leipzig tour guide, upon talking over the chair of chemistry, from Hermann Kolbe, in reference to the Wisdom of Solomon (11:20) (Ѻ) Bible quote: "god has arranged all things by measure and number and weight”, displayed prominently the classroom periodic table (Mendeleyev periodic table, 1869); one of the key “god disabused from science” moments in history; later, at the time of his official obsequies, university tensions over “religious questions” (Farber, 1961) had become so heated and tumultuous, that Ostwald was asked to be “relieved” of his lecture duties, and in 1906 was suspended officially, after which he was forced to become an exchange professor in the US, a fruitful period where in he gave his famous MIT “Affinity Lecture” (1905), therein illuminating to the English-speaking world affinity and free energy connection between the social theories of Goethe to the chemical thermodynamics of Gibbs; gave his Ingersoll Lecture “Individuality and Immortality”, formed the Monastic League (1910) with Haeckel, and gave his famous “Monastic Sunday Sermons”, one of the first overt physical science framed atheist teaching sermons since the Greeks (role model to Thims’ 2015 “Monday School Atheism” class turned “Atheism for Kids” YouTube lecture); first-slate: 165|#532 (Dec 2020).

M German
165 Dickens 75.png Charles Dickens
IQ CB.png=165

IQ C.png=180 IQ B.png=150

58 M English
165 Kekule 75.png August Kekule


(Simmons 100:43) M German
165 Watts 75.png Alan Watts
(40 BE-18 AE)
(1915-1973 ACM)
IQ O.png=125[24] 2.85 58 (RGM:990|1,350+) (PR:11,888|65AE / philosopher:425) (Perry 80:71) (TL:24) Philosopher; M English-born American
165 Battani 75.png Al-Battani


M Arabian
165 Chaucer 75.png Geoffrey Chaucer
(612-555 BE)
(1343-1400 ACM)
57 (Cattell 1000:170) (RGM:226|1,350+) (PR:1563|65AE / writer:173) (Gottlieb 1000:62) (Bloom 100:10) (CR:6) (LH:1) (TL:7) Writer and poet; noted for his The Canterbury Tales, his magnum opus, which tells 24 stories, the last of which is the Parson's Tale, is cited in the film Se7en (1995); slotted at #320 based on RGM (Jun 2017). M English
165 Ingenhousz 75.png Jan Ingenhousz
Ingenhousz photosynthesis.png
Physician, physiologist, biologist, and chemist; noted for his 1779 discovery of photosynthesis and for his 1789 heat conduction in wires experiments; adjacent photo is a 2017 Google Doodle (Ѻ) commemorating his 287th birthday; 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 165|#469 (Nov 2020).
M Dutch
165 Camus 75.png Albert Camus
(42 BE-5 AE)
(1913-1960 ACM)
IQ EM.png=155 46 [RGM:227|1,350+] (Becker 139:54|6L) (Stokes 100:74) (EPD:F1) M French
570. 165 Emil Fischer 75.png Emil Fischer
Fischer lock and key model.png
(Becker 160:129) (Simmons 100:46) Organic chemist; student of Adolf Baeyer; noted for his 1894 “lock and key’ bonding theory, according to which proposed that both the enzyme (the key) and the substrate (the lock) possess specific complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another; first-slate: 165|#539 (Dec 2020).
M German
165 Sartre 75.png Jean-Paul Sartre
(50 BE-25 AE)
(1905-1980 ACM)
IQ EM.png=155 74 [RGM:418|1,350+] (Becker 139:13|15L) (Stokes 100:73) (EPD:F2) M French
165 Max Born 75.png Max Born
(73 BE-15 AE)
(1882-1970 ACM)
(RGM:453|1,350+) (Simmons 100:32) (TL:27) (CR:26) Physicist; noted for his 1920 thermodynamic square method of deriving the Maxwell relations; for his 1930s built quantum mechanics work, wherein, building on Werner Heisenberg’s initial work around 1925, he was apply to apply Niels Borh’s theory of the atom to suit more complicated atoms and molecules, beyond hydrogen; and he also proved that Schrodinger's wave equation could be interpreted as giving statistical (rather than exact) predictions of variables; candidate (P10:1)[12]; first-slated: IQ:150 (Nov 2020). M German
165 Marconi 75.png Guglielmo Marconi


IQ B.png=155 63 (Becker 160:136|2L) M Italian
165 Grosseteste 75.png Robert Grosseteste


[RGM:764|1,500+] (Siegfried 10:9) (MAG:23) (CR:6) Scholastic philosopher, statesman, and theologian, generally noted as an early formulator of the scientific method, particularly in respect to controlled experiment; influenced: Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, and Johannes Kepler; slated: 165|#450 (c.2019). M English
165 Anaximenes 75.png Anaximenes


M Greek
165 Frederick the Great 75.png Frederick the Great


M Prussian
165 Samuelson 75.jpg Paul Samuelson
(40 BE-54 AE)
(1915-2009 ACM)
1.76 94 (GEcE:#) (TL:144|#74) Economist and physicist; first-slating: 165|#577 (Nov 2020). M American
165 Friedrich Engels 75.png Friedrich Engels


Marx and Engels take an IQ test (1979).png
[RGM:944|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:415) (Stokes 100:64) (FA:104) (CR:51) Social scientist;

“One day we shall certainly ‘reduce’ thought experimentally to molecular and chemical motions in the brain.” — Friedrich Engels (1882), Dialectics of Nature Famous for being chief cohort of Marx in their development of political economics; noted for his 1878 Anti-Duhring, wherein he invoked water metaphors when he likened the revolutionary transformation of a society (see: social phase) to the qualitative phase transformation of ice into water and water into steam; associated with the blurry terms: historical materialism (1892) and “dialectical materialism”; commented on thermodynamics and economies viewed as physical systems; 112-candidate; first-slating:#475 (Nov 2020).

M German
165 Somerville 75.png Mary Somerville


F Scottish
165 Ohm 75.png Georg Ohm
(166-101 BE)
(1789-1854 ACM)
(SIG:18) (Becker 160:61|4L) M German
165 Germaine Stael


IQ C.png=180 (Norlinger 22:10) M French-born German
582. 165 Anders Celsius
43 (RGM:181|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:265) (Becker 160:107|3L) (CR:8) Astronomer and physicist; noted for his 1741 invention "scaled" thermometer, namely labeled with the boiling point of 0˚ and a freezing point of 100˚; he published the findings of his scale in the 1742 paper “Observations of Two Persistent Degrees on a Thermometer”; first-slate: #550 (Dec 2020). M Swedish
583. 165 Spartacus
40 (RGML:94|400+)[25] Gladiator and slave; noted for forming a slave army, that nearly overthrew the Roman empire; the 1960 film Spartacus, staring Kirk Douglas, directed by Stanley Kubrick, based on the 1951 novel by Hoard Fast, inspired by his story, is legendary; first-slate: 165|#550 (Dec 2020). M Roman
165 Sofia Kovalevskaya
IQ R.png=170
IQ D.png=156
3.90 41 (Norlinger 22:13) F Russian
165 Evariste Galois


8.25 20 Mathematician and political activist; M French
165 William Wordsworth


IQ C.png=165 80 (Cattell 1000:67) (RGM:707|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:577) (CR:16) Romantic poet;

“At 10, Wordsworth first began to hold communion with nature, in that mystic bond which he held throughout his life, and before he was 15, seems to have recognized his calling as a poet and interpreter of nature.” — Catherine Cox (1926), Early Mental Traits if 300 Geniuses (pg. 605) With Coleridge, helped to launch the so-called ‘romantic age’, via their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798); associate of John Stewart.

M English
165 Viktor Frankl


Man's Search for Meaning.jpg
(CR:3) Meaning philosopher, neurologist, and psychiatrist;

“What man actually needs is not a tensionless state but rather the striving and struggling for some goal worthy of him. What he needs is not the discharge of tension at any cost, but the call of a potential meaning waiting to be fulfilled by him.” — Viktor Frankl (c.1946), Publication (Ѻ) “Everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms — to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way.” — Viktor Frankl (c.1945), Publication Noted for his 1946 Man’s Search for Meaning, wherein he details his concentration camp derived philosophy, involving the identification of a purpose”, to feel positive about, then immersively imagining the outcome; ranked (Ѻ) as one of the top 6 “Emotional Intelligence” (EQ) authors (Ung, 2020), along with: Dale Carnegie, Hector Garcia, Barry Schwartz, Mark Manson, and Daniel Coleman; cited in film Halloween (2019) as a philosophy being taught to kids in high school about finding “meaning” even in the most dire of circumstances; 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020).

M Austrian
165 Wilbur Wright


IQ B.png=165 (Becker 160:91|3L) M American
165 William Herschel


IQ C.png=165 83 (Becker 160:111|3L) (Simmons 100:27) M German-born English
165 Johannes Brahms


IQ O.png=165[7] 64 M German
165 Seneca


(Becker 139:82|4L) (Stokes 100:15) M Roman
165 Lucilius
(c.2135-2057 BE)
(c.180-102BC BCM)
2.12 78 (PR:9126|65AE / writer:885) (TL:12) Philosopher and satirist;
Life is force you see: to do everything force doth compel us.”
— Lucilius (c.120BC), Publication; cited by Marcus Varro (c.50BC) in On the Latin Language: On the Science and the Origin of Words, Addressed to Cicero

Influential to Cicero, Varro, among others; first-slating: 165|#351 (Dec 2017).

M Roman
165 Aristophanes


(Cattell 1000:136) (FA:18) (CR:30) Philosopher; cited by Plato, in his Symposium, as having given speech in which he describes the human “natural” state as double creatures, cleft in two by Zeus, for our hubris, thereafter struggling to reunite through love, which is the basis of the modern concept of the “soul mate”; his satirical play The Clouds (Ѻ), tells a dialogue about the nature of rain (natural or Zeus caused), between a fictional atheist character Socrates and a lay character Strepsaides, who thinks rain is caused by “Zeus pissing into a sieve”; influential to Nietzsche; first-draft gauged at 165|#352 (Dec 2017). M Greek
165 Richelieu


M French
165 Van Gogh 75.png Vincent Gogh
(106-65 BE)
(1853-1890 ACM)
“The only time I feel ‘alive’ is when I’m painting.”
— Vincent Gogh (c.1880)
M Dutch
165 Stravinsky 75.png Igor Stravinsky


IQ B.png=180
IQ O.png=160[7]
M Russian-born American
165 Lipmann 75.png Fritz Lipmann
(56 BE-31 AE)
(1899-1986 ACM)
1.90 87
(PR:11,404|65AE / chemist:163) (CR:64) (LH:6) (TL:70) Physician, chemist, and organism metabolism physiology;
M German-born American
165 No image 2.png John Philoponus


M Roman
165 Popper 75.png Karl Popper
(Becker 139:46|7L) (Stokes 100:94) M Austrian-born English
165 Townes 75.png Charles Townes
(40 BE-60 AE)
(1915-2015 ACM)
(Becker 160:148|2L) Physicist; noted for his 1950s invention of the maser, co-developed with the Arthur Schawlow, his brother-in-law; downgrade (↓) for promoting religion-science-spirituality compatibility views, two years after winning the Nobel Prize in physics (1964); slated: 165|#468 (c.1919).
M American


170 divide

Presently, there are 175-names in the 170+ (to previous divide) range.

End matter

Next | Previous



  1. Famous People IQ Scores (2011) -
  2. Porter, Darwin. (2005). Howard Hughes: Hell’s Angel (pg. 60). Blood Moon.
  3. Why is this site here? – Hmolpedia 2020.
  4. Genius and diet – Hmolpedia 2020.
  5. Anon. (2020). “20 Genius Minds and the Drugs they were Addicted To” (Ѻ),, Nov 3.
  6. Barlett, Donald; Stelle, James. (2004). Howard Hughes: His Life and Madness. Publisher.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Not Enough Artists (2013) – Hmolpedia Forum.
  8. Yang, Daniel. (c.2018). “Isaac Asimov: Thinking About Nothing” (Ѻ), Blog
  9. Anon. (2016). “Einstein, Hawking, and Asimov were all Agnostics” (Ѻ), Hmolpedia Forum, Jan 6.
  10. What was Isaac Asimov’s IQ? (2010) – Yahoo Answers.
  11. 10,000 Hours With Claude Shannon: How A Genius Thinks, Works, and Lives (2017) – Reddit.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Philoepisteme. (2018). “10 Candidates: Already Written About” (post: #15), Hmolpedia 2020 Forum, Jul 14.
  13. Lake Zurich, IL – Encyclopedia of Chicago.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Hedkandi. (2019). “11 Missing Top 1000 Candidates” (Ѻ), Message to Libb Thims, Sep 25.
  15. Missing Medieval Genius (Philoepisteme, 2020) – Hmolpedia Forum.
  16. Nicole Oresme –
  17. What was Mark Twain’s IQ? (2009) –
  18. Jazari. (c.1190). Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices (Donkey, elephant clock, peacock clock, man-elephant clock). Publisher.
  19. What does an 180 IQ (SD 15) look like? (2017) – Quora.
  20. Kermit, Sperging. (2019). “Greatest Geniuses: Top 100”, Real Geniuses, Reddit, Feb.
  21. Shariff, Mohammed. (2013). “Top 10 Medieval Scientists Smarter than Einstein” (Ѻ), Feb 1.
  22. Guessoum, Nidhal. (2010). “Interview: Islamic Golden Age”, in: Atoms and Eden (§16:215-28; Al-Biruni, pg. 217). Oxford University Press.
  23. Hedkandi. (2019). “11 Missing Top 1000 Candidates” (Ѻ), Message to Libb Thims, Sep 25.
  24. MBTI and IQ (2016) (deleted) – Illuminaticat Blog, WordPress, Dec 7.
  25. Most Important Military Leaders –
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