Top 2000 minds: 401-600
In genius studies, top 2000 geniuses and minds: 401-600 refers to 
Geniuses | 401-600 | IQ:165-170
- See also: Higher minds, 1-200, 201-400, 401-600, 601-800, 801-1,000, 1,001-1,200, 1,201-1,400, 1,401-1,600, 1,601-1,800, 1,801-2,000, Full list, Candidates
The following (see: IQ key) are intellects “401-600” of the top 2000 geniuses and minds:
|2.30||74||(PR:8683|65AE / chemist:116) (GCE:#) (CR:33) (LH:4) (TL:37) Chemist, physician, and philosopher; noted for his 1703 "phlogiston" model of combustion, and for his 1708 theory about the "soul" animating non-living matter.||M||German|
(21 BE-41 AE)
|=173||2.74||62||RGM:5|1,350+) (PR:1,712|65AE / astronomer:14) (Becker 160:154|2L) (FA:207) (TL:33) Astronomer and philosopher;
noted for his PBS series Cosmos, co-written with his wife Ann Duryan, wherein he defines a human as “star-stuff”; used the term "cosmic perspective" for the advanced perspective; Isaac Asimov (1980) conceded that Sagan and Marvin Minsky (an IQ:200+ missing candidate (Ѻ)) were smarter than he; IQ estimates at 130-175 (Ѻ); a frequent (Ѻ)(Ѻ) unanswered Quora query.
|2.66||64||(Cattell 1000:121) (PR:705|65AE / writer:89) (Hugo 14:12) (FA:51) (TL:19) Writer, physician, humanist, satirist, Greek scholar, aka “Democritus reborn” (Bellay, c.1550), “secular sage” (Hecht, 2004) noted for his 1532 The Life of Gargantua and Pantagruel (AB:21) tells the story of two giants who make fun of religion.||M||French|
|(Murray 4000:19|C) (GCE:#) German apothecary chemist;
Noted early formulator of analytical chemistry; independent inventor of gravimetric analysis; noted for discoveries on elemental composition of minerals, e.g. he discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789); co-discovered titanium (1792), strontium (1793), cerium (1803), chromium (1797); confirmed previous discoveries of tellurium (1789) and beryllium (1789); first-slating: #395 (Nov 2020).
|(Cattell 1000:906) (CR:8) Philosopher, a student of Plotinus, and the one who edited and published his The Enneads, noted for reporting that the Greek letter theta (Θ) was, in its archaic form, written as a cross within a circle (⊕, ⊗) and later as a line or point within a circle (Θ, ʘ), derived from the Egyptians used an X within a circle as a symbol of the soul, and that the value of nine ‘9’, in the Greek numbering system, was code for it being a symbol for the Ennead [nine gods], the nine major deities of the Heliopolis creation myth of Heliopolis; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 170|#359 (Nov 2020).||M||Roman|
|71||Land air speed record-holder; airlines entrepreneur, film mogul, medical research investor;
His age 14 dissection of a 1919 Stuz Bearcat, the then fastest car in the world, to see how it “worked”, was an inspiration behind the operational framework of Hmolpedia, i.e. to take chemical thermodynamics apart, to see how it works; at age 19, after the death of his father and mother (age 17), therein becoming the wealthiest teenager in the world, he wrote his own will that established a medical research laboratory, today known as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute; his peculiar dietary habits are a frequent topic in "genius and diet" discussions; a top 20 drug addicted genius (2020); the book Howard Hughes: His Life and Madness, supposedly, is a top 15 book everyone should read (Musk, 2018); first-slating: 160-180 (c.2015).
(47 BE-13 AE)
|4.05||42||(PR:3,211|65AE / philosopher:180) (FA:88) (TL:105) Philosopher and physician;||M||French|
|2.39||71||(HCP:24) (SN:23) (TL:69|#159) Naval architect, marine engineer, chemical engineer, industrial executive, and human chemistry pioneer, noted for his 1915 Human Chemistry booklet, wherein people are defined as chemicals whose reactions to each other are explained via physical chemistry, specifically match chemistry.||M||English-born American|
(35 BE-37 AE)
||RGM:156|1,350+) (FA:109) (CR:63) Biochemist turned science fiction writer;
Noted for his 1942 to 1993 Foundation Series, wherein he outlines a theory he calls psychohistory, through the guise of a character Hari Seldon, a type of physical science based conceptualization of history; for his 1956 science fiction short story The Last Question, on the issue of the fate of humanity in the context of the heat death of the universe; and for his outspoken atheism-advocation; originally slated: 165|#245 (Jan 2016); upgraded to 170|#358 (c.2019).
|=165||3.47||49||(Cattell 1000:384) (RGM:119|1,350+) (PR:101|65AE / philosopher:16) (Murray 4000:6|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:8) (Becker 139:9|16L) (Stokes 100:22) (Listal 100:11) (Durant 10:5) (GPhE:#) (TL:58|#182) Theologian and philosopher,||M||Italian|
|[RGM:211|1,350+] (Stokes 100:92) (Scott 50:9) (HCR:22) (CR:37)||M||French|
|2.62||65||(Cattell 1000:773) (RGM:551|1,350+) (PR:616|65AE / philosopher:51) (Murray 4000:19|WP) (Cardano 12:↑D) (Becker 139:43|7L) (Stokes 100:18) (GPhE:#) (TL:33) Anti-atomicist philosopher,||M||Greek-Egyptian born Italian|
|4.05||42||(PR:12,067|65AE / politician:3,890) (TL:6) Deism themed, "anti-religious" perceived, moral philosopher, and politician;||M||English|
(39 BE-46 AE)
|=180||Downgrade from 175|#229| to 170|#425 (Feb 66AE).||M||American|
Noted for his 1884 “Experimental and Theoretical Research on Chemical Equilibria”, wherein he stated introduced his adjusting equilibria theorem, aka Chatelier principle (above); in 1889, did the first French translation of Gibbs’ Equilibrium (1876) and Vernadsky was his student; Lotka (1925) used Chatelier’s principle to explain the physics of animal interactions; Julius Davidson (1919) used it to explain human pairings in mate selection equilibria; Vladimir Vernadsky (1926) used it in his “thermodynamic envelops” model of the biosphere; Lawrence Henderson used it in his “Sociology 23” course (1938-1942), Paul Samuelson (1947) used it to explain economic equilibria.
|Physicist; in 1959, building on Jack Kilby’s 1958 hybrid integrated circuit, made of germanium, he invented the monolithic integrated circuit, made of silicon, aka the modern microchip, which he said (Ѻ) he invented out of "laziness"; co-founder of Fairchild semi-conductor (1957) and Intel (1968); known as the “Mayor of Silicon Valley”; 112-candidate; first-slating:#765 (Nov 2020).||M||American|
|(Cattell 1000:539) (CR:7) Lawyer, scientist, philosopher;
“Women react differently: a French woman who sees herself betrayed by her husband will kill his mistress; an Italian will kill her husband; a Spaniard will kill both; and a German will kill herself.” — Bernard Fontenelle (c.1730), Publication (Ѻ) noted for his A Conversation on the Plurality of the World (1686), The Origin of Fables (1724), and Of the Island of Borneo (1686), wherein he defended Copernicanism, critiqued miracles, satirized religions, and presented some of the first discussion of the Bible as myth; influenced: Julien la Mettrie, Baron d’Holbach (Ѻ), Voltaire (Ѻ), Napoleon Bonaparte, and John Avery; 112-candidate; first-slating:#375 (Nov 2020).
||170||Jordanus Nemorarius (c.1250-1310)||(CR:4) Mathematician and physicist; was the first to state, supposedly, the idea of both “vertical pressure” and “lateral pressure” (see: mean girls model) in a liquid, e.g. at different depths (Tartaglia, 1545); was the first to the weight of an object resting on an inclined plane, the forerunner to Stevin’s 1586 “parallelogram of forces” model; is conjectured by Duhem (1905) to have introduces infinitesimal considerations into statics in his discussion of "virtual" displacements of objects in equilibrium; 112-candidate; first-slating:#375 (Nov 2020).||M||Italian or French|
|[RGM:273|1,350+] (Odueny 100:61) (GMG:18) (GME:#) (GAE:#) (CR:5) Mathematician, astronomer, and physicist;
employed 62,832/20,000 (= 3.1416) for π; speculated, supposedly, that π (pi) is irrational, as later conjectured by Leonhard Euler, and proved by Johann Lambert (Ѻ); stated that the earth rotates on its axis; classified as a physicist for his explicit mention of the relativity of motion; is said to have been the first to employ a zero symbol concept, and that his later countryman Brahmagupta was to use a zero symbol and the first to show that subtracting a number from itself results in zero (Ѻ); a “24 smartest person ever” genius (Ratner, 2016) (Ѻ); first-slating: 170|#375 (Apr 2020).
|2.02||84||(Becker 160:138|2L)||M||Indian-born American|
||170||John Quincy Adams
|(RGM:385|1,350+) (Murray 4000:10|P) (GPE:56) (CR:4) Physicist;
Noted for pioneering work in: crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity, and radioactivity; first-slating: #425 (Nov 2020).
|2.62||65||SN:35) (EPD:F9) (TL:46) Philosopher;
Noted for his 1808 Theory of the Four Movements and the General Destinies, which has been characterized as a Social Principia (Kaufmann, 1874), among other volumes, wherein he outlines his so-called “theory of the passions”, in terms of work and forces; coined the term feminism; spawned the growth of over seven Fourierism-based utopian communities in the US, e.g. Lake Zurich, Illinois, founded by Fourierist Seth Paine (1836), and Utopia, Ohio; eponym of Fourierism, defined as a “systematic set of economic, political, and social beliefs”; characterized a “Newton of the moral sciences” (Ulam, 1976); influences: Montesquieu and Descartes; influenced: Nikolay Chernyshevsky; pictured is an 1850 political satire showing (Ѻ) Americans William Garrison (IQ:145|#861) and Horace Greeley adding bags of “abolition” and “Fourierism” to their Hurly Burly pot; first-slate: 170|#425 (Dec 2020).
|=180||10.00||17||(Cattell 1000:291) (Norlinger 22:14) Child prodigy poet;
“Happy (if mortals can be) is the man; who, not by priest but reason, rules his span: reason, to its possessor a sure guide; reason, a thorn in Revelation’s side.” — Thomas Chatterton (c.1768), “The Defense” (line 23) (Ѻ) A “neglected genius” touted as the “second Shakespeare” (Ѻ); committed suicide age 17; down-grade from 180|#192 to 170|#333 (Feb 2018).
|(Cattell 1000:621) [RGM:2200|1,350+] (CR:5) Writer and philosopher;
“True love is like ghosts, which everybody talks about and few have seen.” — Francois Rochefoucauld (c.1865), Maxims noted for booklet Maxims, characterized as a dense collection of 504 sharp one-line philosophies, curated, tested, and developed in the French salons.; name-dropped by Nietzsche, frequently; first-slating: 170|#350 (Nov 2018).
||170||William Pitt (the Elder)
|(Stokes 100:68) Economist, philosopher, statesman, mathematician;||M||English|
|(CR:6) Physicist, chemist, mathematician, and inventor; noted for his Montgolfier-stimulated 1783 “manned” hydrogen balloon test; and for his 1787 experiment where he filled five balloons to the same volume with different gases, and then raised the temperature of the balloons to 80ºC and noticed that they all increased in volume by the same amount; he thus found the following relation:||M||French|
||170||William of Ockham
|(RGM:289|1,350+) (Becker 139:68|5L) (Stokes 100:24) (AT:7|D) aka "Occam"||M||English|
|62||(Siegfried 10:8) (H11:5) (PEC7:2) Natural philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, and theologian; in his The Book of the Heaven and the World, a Latin to French translation of Aristotle’s On the Heavens (De Caelo), he added critical commentary and original thought, such as, supposedly, the possibility of a plurality of worlds, each sphere having it’s own center of gravity, a void beyond the heavens, and theorized about forces moving sphere’s on tables; studied “arts” with Jean Buridan; discussed the “dropping a ball on a moving ship experiment”, as did Hypatia, Bruno, Nicolaus Cusanus, Jean Buridan, and Galileo, which was finally done by Gassendi (c.1635); characterized as the “forerunner of Copernicus” (Durham, 1910); first-slating: 170|#435 (Dec 2020).||M||French|
|=170||Writer, politician, and bishop;||M||English|
||170||Qin Shi Huang
|=175||Founder of the Qin dynasty and the first emperor of a unified China.||M||Chinese|
|=170||Dramatist, poet, writer||M||Spanish|
|RGM:749|1,350+] (Becker 139:100|3L) (Stokes 100:12) (Perry 80:2|Li) (ACR:26) (CR:14), aka "Diogenes of Sinope", Cynic philosopher; teacher of Crates, who was teacher to Zeno of Citium (IQ:170|#286); first-slating: 170|#350 (Mar 2018).
His lantern quote cited (Ѻ) by character Jedburgh in the 2010 Mel Gibson film Edge of Darkness, in respect to there being so much corruption rampant, cops to business men to governors.
|=170||Theologian and political economist;||M||Scottish|
|Physicist, natural philosopher, experimentalist; was one of the top four “Maxwellians”, along with Oliver Lodge, his friend, Oliver Heaviside, and Heinrich Hertz, who revised, extended, and clarified Maxwell’s electromagnetic field theory; in 1883, following from Maxwell's equations, was the first to suggest a device for producing rapidly oscillating electric currents to generate electromagnetic waves, a phenomenon shown to exist experimentally by Heinrich Hertz in 1888; in 1889, he made the first published statement of the “length contraction hypothesis”, which later became a core part of Einstein’s special theory of relativity; first-slating: #401 (Nov 2020).||M||Irish|
|(GPE:111) (CR:13) Physicist, electrical engineer, and philosopher; is credited by Lorentz, supposedly, with the first published description of the length contraction hypothesis, in 1893; though in fact Lodge's friend George Francis FitzGerald had first suggested the idea in print in 1889; in 1893, he realized the possibility of using Hertzian waves for the transmission and reception of telegraphic messages, and the following year described a device to do so, a concept later realized by Guglielmo Marconi (1896); noted for his involvement in the 1902-1904 “what is entropy debate”, for at some point (Ѻ) having performed laboratory experiments, with William Crookes, in attempts to provide evidence of survival of consciousness after physical death (reaction end), a belief deriving from his theory that some type of electromagnetic field like ether existed in which the spirit world was embedded, thus satisfying his spiritual Christian belief system; 112-candidate; first-slating: #401 (Nov 2020).||M||English|
|2.79||61||Cattell 1000:571) (PR:6,269|65AE / physicist:146) (GPE:#) (EPD:F2) (TL:45) Physicist; noted for his 1798 cannon-boring experiments (compare: ice rubbing experiment, 1799), which provided data for the first calculation of the mechanical equivalent of heat, and which laid question to the then-established caloric theory, as discussed in his famous “An Inquiry Concerning the Source of Heat which is Excited by Friction”; after disproving Antoine Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, he then married his wife (Lavoisier having been guillotined in 1794); 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 170|#402 (Nov 2020).||M||American-born English|
||170||Pliny the elder
|56||(RGM:481|1,350+) (Becker 160:128|2L) (Oduenyi 100:41) (Kanowitz 50:34) (SIG:17) (GPE:#) (CR:5) Engineer and physicist; noted for his May 1896 experimental discovery, in the wake of Rontgen’s Jan 1896 discovery of X-rays, that uranium emits penetrating radiation, aka he discovered “radioactivity”; first-slate: #450 (Dec 2020)||M||French|
|47||(RGM:647|1,350+) (Murray 4000:15|M) (Gottlieb 1000:234) (Becker 160:36) (Oduenyi 100:71) (Simmons 100:21) (CR:6) Physician and anatomist;
Debunked many of the assumed medical views of Aristotle and Galen; noted for his 1543 On the Fabric of the Human Body, derived from his Paduan lectures, wherein he employed the new technique of printing with refined woodcut engravings, to produce superior anatomic illustrations; considered the founder of modern anatomy; some defined the simultaneous 1543 publication of Vesalius’ Fabric and Copernicus Revolutions, as the start of modern science (Gribbin, 2002); first-slate: 170|#450 (Dec 2020).
|77||(Becker 160:64|4L) Mechanical engineer and physicist; noted for his 1895 production and detection of electromagnetic radiation in the 10nm to 10 pm range, aka X-rays, commonly used now for: X-ray crystallography, mammography, cat scan, and airport security; first-slate: 170|#450 (Dec 2020).||M||German|
|(Cardano 12:11) (Becker 160:75|3L)||M||Greek|
|(Cattell 1000:868) (Gottlieb 1000:306) (GEcE:#) (CR:4) Scholar, free thinker, and cleric; noted for his “Malthusian model”, as advanced in his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), according to which all "life forms", including humans, have a propensity to exponential population growth when resources are abundant but that actual growth is limited by available resources (Ѻ); supposedly, a top four ranked classical economist, along with David Ricardo, Adam Smith, and James Mill; influential to Charles Darwin and Henry Buckle; 112-candidate; first-slating:#410 (Nov 2020).||M||English|
“To a materialist no thing is real but atoms in a void and we are but ‘molecular people’ controlled by the actions of natural physicochemical law.” — George Scott (1985), Atoms of the Living Flame (pg. 181) Noted for his 1960s to early 1970s efforts to make a two cultures department at the University of South Dakota, which attempted to reconcile Burrhus Skinner’ behaviorism, with Clarence Darrow’s determinism models in respect to crime and punishment, in the context of Zeno of Citium and humans viewed atomically or as “molecular people”, intermixed with some ideas of Ilya Prigogine, whose lectures he attended, which resulted in his 1985 book Atoms of the Living Flame: an Odyssey into Ethics and the Physical Chemistry of Free Will; influential to Thims in the development of human chemical thermodynamics; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 170|#410 (Nov 2020).
|=170||Political activist and writer on political theory and religion;||M||Swiss-born French|
|Physician and genetics researcher;
“In 1944, Avery did the experiment proving that DNA was how traits are inherited.” — Craig Venter (2017), “100 Greatest Living Business Minds”, Forbes Proved, via experiment, that it is DNA, and not protein, that transmits heredity; characterized as the most-deserving scientist to not have received the Nobel Prize (Tiselius, 2007); 112-candidate; first-slating:#411 (Nov 2020).
|[RGM:419|1,350+] Philosopher and jurist; in his The Foundation of the Law of Nature and Nations (1705), he opposed Aristotelianism, Lutheranism, the divine right of Kings and Roman Law, instead promoting a non-theological, natural foundation for ethics in the style of Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1694), a Hobbes + Grotius synthesizer; he also derived some type of “special physics” utilizing a numerical scaled "calculus of passions"; first-slating: 170|#355 (Apr 2018).||M||German|
|=170||76||Short-story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat;||M||American|
|=170||57||Dramatist, writer, and Russian consul;||M||German|
|=170||75||Poet and educator;||M||American|
|=170||Nelson 19:13) (Eells 100:18) (CR:9) Mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and land owner; generally know as the “inventor of the logarithms” (c.1594), which he described in his A Description of Logarithm Tables (1614); also invented "Napier bones", pictured, which allowed faster multiplications.||M||English|
|=170||Poet and librettist, considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti;||M||Italian|
|79||Murray 4000:5|B) (Becker 160:135) (Simmons 100:62) (CR:8) was an American zoologist, entomologist, and geneticist, with focus on morphology; noted for his 1911 to 1915 ‘fly room’ experiments, at Columbia University, wherein he established, via cross-breeding experiments, the so-called Mendel-Morgan chromosomal theory of heredity; first-slate: 170|#472 (Dec 2020).||M||American|
|=170||2.88||59||(Cattell 1000:74) (PR:1,554|65AE / writer:171) (Gottlieb 1000:389) (LH:1) Writer and tragedian dramatist playwright;||M||French|
|66||Becker 160:141|2L) (CR:65) Physicist; noted for his 1922 “On the Decrease in Entropy in a Thermodynamic System by the Intervention of Intelligent Beings”, wherein he gave one of the first “exorcisms” of Maxwell’s demons; and for his 1933 nuclear chain reaction theory (pictured), which, following an “urgent” 1939 letter to Einstein, resulted in the “Manhattan project”, which made the first employed atomic bomb; first-slate: 170|#475 (Dec 2020).||M||Hungarian-born American|
“The universe began with a collection of hydrogen atoms, and neither it nor life was in need of any divine intercession. ‘In the beginning was the Word’, and I might venture that the word was ‘hydrogen gas’. As to the question where the hydrogen came from, that is metaphysics.” — Harlow Shapley (1959), “Lecture”, truncated summary by Craig Helge (2004) Dubbed the "modern Copernicus" by his colleagues, noted for his 1917 determination of the center of the galaxy, his 1920s deduction that the sun lies near the central plane of the Milky Way Galaxy and not at the center but some 30,000 light-years away, and for his 1953 “liquid water belt” theory, aka the habitable zone; and for his 1959 lectures on science and religion, wherein said that religion would evolve into a “scientific religion”; 112-candidate; first-slating:#475 (Nov 2020).
||170||Ernest Renan||=170||(Cattell 1000:455) (PR:2,969|65AE / philosopher:168) (RMS:62) (TL:4) Semitic languages scholar; noted for his work on Averroes (1852) and his Life of Jesus (1864) which showed that the Bible was written over a long period of time.||M||French|
|=170||67||(Cattell 1000:377) [RGM:57|1,350+] Humanist and Greek and Hebrew scholar.||M||German|
|[RGM:513|1,350+] (GLE:16) Poet; Andrew Robinson (2010) “missing Cox 300” genius (Ѻ); added at: 170|#411 (c.2019).||M||Irish|
|(RGM:669|1,350+) (Murray 4000:8|M) (GME:16) (CR:5) Mathematician; noted for his 1880 “set theory”, which allowed mathematicians to deal better with things, such as people or ideas; influential to Yuri Tarnopolsky; first-slating: 170|#485 per GME ranking IQ interpolation (Nov 2020).||M||German|
|=170||66||(Cattell 1000:473) (RMS:35) (CR:5) Radical theologian, philosopher; aka the most famous of the Young Hegelians; influenced Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus", whose divine nature he denied, via pioneering the historical investigation of Jesus method (see: silent historians problem).||M||German|
(38 BE-48 AE)
|1.97||86||TL:420) Chemist, thermodynamicist, and philosopher; known for is far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics theory of "dissipative structures", according to which, based on the model of Bernard cell formation, "order" forms after "chaos", at the point of the "bifurcation", where in human "choice" and free will emerge; it takes some years to realize that his theory is a religious-based "ontic opening" model; first; slating: IQ:170|#301 (c.2017).||M||Russian-born Belgian|
|70||RGM:769|1,350+) Scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, mathematician, and artist; note for his c.1190 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, which describes 100 mechanical devices, 80 of which are trick vessels; noted for inventing a flushing toilet and an elephant water clock with animate figurines (automatons); adjacent is his donkey-powered water wheel; first-slate: 170|#488 (Dec 2020).||M||Arabian|
|2.33||70||(PR:9,814|65AE / physicist:227) (FA:153) (TL:77|#146) Physicist and atheism-inclining materialism philosopher; famous 1874 “Materialism, Science, and Religion” BAAS Address.||M||Irish|
|=170||79||(Becker 139:28|11L) (Stokes 100:71)||M||German|
|=170||61||(Cattell 1000:265) Painter; noted for his in his masterpiece Las Meninas (1656); his artwork became a model for 19th century realist and impressionist painters; influential to Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí and Francis Bacon who reinterpreted some of his most iconic images.||M||Spanish|
|(RMS:22) (CR:21) Savant, a rhetoric professor, lawyer, mathematician, theologian, telegraph inventor, astronomer, and religio-mythologist;
“We think ourselves possessed, or, at least, we boast that we are so, of liberty of conscience on all subjects. Yet, how far are we from these exalted privileges in fact! There exists, I believe, throughout the whole Christian world, a law which makes it blasphemy to deny our doubt the divine inspiration of all the books of the Old and New Testaments, from Genesis to Revelation. Who would run the risk of translating Dupuis?” — John Adams (1825), “Letter to Thomas Jefferson”, Jan 23 noted for his multi-volume 1794 Universal Religion: Origin of All Cults, oft-cited, along with the parallel works of Constantin Volney (1791), as one of the first Christ myth theory works; 112-candidate; first-slating: #440 (Nov 2020).
|=182||[RGM:433|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:483) (CR:4) Short story writer, essayist, poet, and translator;
“I have always imagined that paradise will be a kind of library.” — Jorge Borges (c.1960), Publication used Georg Cantor’s theory of infinite sets in some (Ѻ) of his literary works; despised Marxism; characterized himself as a “Spencerian anarchist”; downgrade ↓ from 180|#208 to 170|#440 per Gottlieb and RGM rankings, and general lack of CR influence (Apr 2020).
|=170||(Cattell 1000:429) Lawyer, statesman, and revolutionist.||M||French|
|[RGM:205|1,350+] (Becker 139:88|4L) (Washington 23|#) (AT:6|D) (CR:20) Physician-philosopher and theologian; noted for his c.1190 The Guide of the Perplexed, wherein he states that we should ignore accident-based atomic theory because it denies the existence of god.||M||Spanish-born Moroccan|
|=180||71||(Stokes 100:95)||M||Austrian-Hungarian born American|
|=175||Poet, scholar, and chess player; non-notability downgrade 175|#298 to 170|#358 (Feb 2018).||M||Turkic|
|64||(HC11:3) Physicist, astronomer, natural philosopher, and general polymath; noted for his 1088 Dream Pool Essays, wherein he described a suspended magnetic needle compass, which he used to determine true north, in terms of its magnetic declination towards the pole star; explained the operation of the camera obscura; made a new type of water inflow clock; developed a geological hypothesis of land formation, based on inland marine fossils, soil erosion, and silt deposits; first-slate: 170|#499 (Dec 2020).||M||Chinese|
|=182||68||Mathematician; known as the “greatest checkers player ever”; spent approximately 10,000 hours studying checkers while in graduate school; worked as lay preacher (↓) in the Disciples of Christ Church; non-notability downgrade 175|#294 to 170|#359 (Feb 2018).||M||American|
|=185|#23||70||(Cardano 12:8) (RGM:844|1,350+) (Becker 160:75|3L) (Shariff 10:6) Persian mathematician and astronomer;
Noted for his 1830 The Science of Restoring and Balancing, which introduced the term and science of "algebra" (al-jabr); as director of the House of Wisdom in Bagdad, the then biggest city in the world, with a population of over one-million, he oversaw the translation of major Greek and Indian mathematical and astronomy works, including Brahmagupta, in to Arabic; his Latin name is Algorithmi, from whence the term “algorithm” derives; major works introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals and the concepts of algebra into Europe; ranked as a top four Islamic golden age (750-1258) genius, along with Alhazen, Avicenna, and Al-Biruni (Guessoum, 2010); first-slate: 170|#500 (Dec 2020).
|=175||(Cattell 1000:480) Classicist; known as founder of modern philology; downgrade 175|#286 to 170|#359 (Feb 2018).||M||German|
|(Cattell 1000:391) (Washington 23|#) [RMS:2] Statesman, lawmaker, philosopher, and poet; one of the seven sages (Ѻ); credited with being the one who brought democracy to Athens; cited as starting the tradition of studying abroad method, by visiting the great college of Heliopolis; first-slating: 170|#403 (Apr 2018).||M||Greek|
|[RGM:1,011|1,350+] (Siegfried 10:1) (CR:7) Mathematical physicist;
“In the judgement of the most competent living mathematicians, Fraulein Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began.” — Albert Einstein (1935), “Letter to New York Times” (Ѻ) Noted for her 1907 work with Einstein and David Hilbert, her teacher, when special relativity was being made into general relativity, as a consultant to help solve the problem of how the conservation of energy integrates into relativity (Ѻ); and for her 1918 use of group theory to show that to every invariance or symmetry property of a physical law corresponds a conservation principle, and vice versa, aka Noether’s theorem, therein, supposedly, reconceptualized energy as an algebraic property in a system of operators, on invariance condition among many; first slating: 170|#416 (Jan 2019).
|(Murray 4000:8|CP) (Becker 139:47|6L) Philosopher; noted for his “state of nature” (Ѻ) theory of society, precursory, in form, in some sense, to the latter logic of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Charles Montesquieu; advocated some sort of so-called “Mohist ethics”, according to which morality of an action, statement, teaching, policy, judgment, and so on, is determined by the consequences that it brings about, and its effect on the stability of the state; 112-candidate; first-slating: #450 (Nov 2020).||M||Chinese|
||170||Isidore of Seville
| (GMAG|#) (CR:6) Theologian and scholar;
“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.” — Isidore (c.620), Publication (Ѻ) his The Etymologies (Ѻ), building on Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, Cassiodorus, Servius, and Solinus, presented a collection of diverse etymologies, which became a widely-read books in the centuries to follow; in his The Reply of the World Stars, gave a circular image of “four elements”, each shown as an interlinked circle, within the larger circle; influenced: Dante Alighieri, Geoffrey Chaucer, and Petrarch; 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020).
|72||[RGM:343|1,350+] (Gottlieb 1000:318) (WorldCat 100:17) (CR:5) Poet, essayist, and humanist;
“There will soon be no more priests (see: Jean Meslier). Their work is done. They may wait awhile ... perhaps a generation or two ... dropping off by degrees.... A new order shall arise and they shall be the priests of man, and every man shall be his own priest. The churches built under their umbrage shall be the churches of men and women. Through the divinity of themselves shall the cosmos and the new breed of poets be interpreters of men and women and of all events and things. They shall find their inspiration in real objects today, symptoms of the past and future.... They shall not deign to defend immortality or god or the perfection of things or liberty or the exquisite beauty and reality of the soul. They shall arise in America and be responded to from the remainder of the earth.” — Walt Whitman (1855), Leaves of Grass (1st edition preface) “I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey-work of the stars.” — Walt Whitman (1861), ''Leaves of Grass''; cited by Harold Morowitz (1992) in ''Beginnings of Cellular Life'' (pg. iv) “America's poet ... He is America.” — Ezra Pound (c.1962), comment on Walt Whitman Influences: Volney, Ralph Emerson, Robert Ingersoll, Thomas Carlyle, Alfred Tennyson, John Burroughs, George Sand, William Shakespeare, Homer, Dante Alighieri (Ѻ); cited in Stephen Gould’s The Mismeasure of Man (pg. 124) (Ѻ) in respect to his brain weight; 112-candidate; first-slating: #450 (Nov 2020).
|70||(CR:9) (GPE:#) Theoretical physicist; noted for his “On Parity Conservation and Neutrino Mass” (Ѻ), that questioned “parity conservation”, which was first dismissed Wolfgang Pauli, but then validated, when, in 1957, Tsung-Dao Lee and Chen-Ning Yang suggested experiments that showed that the weak interaction of radioactive decay could indeed violate parity conservation; after which shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to electroweak unification theory; pals with Paul Dirac; Quora-ranked (2005) (Ѻ) as the most-learned Pakistani ever. 112-candidate; first-slating: #450 (Nov 2020).||M||Indian-born Pakistani|
|[RGM:217|1,350+] (CR:2) Philosopher;
“Stirner went so far in his notorious work, The One and His Property: the Ego and its Own, as to reject all moral ideas. Everything that in any way, whether it be external force, belief, or mere idea, places itself above the individual and his caprice, Stirner rejects as a hateful limitation of himself. What a pity that to this book – the extremest that we know anywhere – a second positive part was not added. It would have been easier than in the case of Schelling's philosophy; for out of the unlimited Ego I can again beget every kind of Idealism as my will and my idea. Stirner lays so much stress upon the will, in fact, that it appears as the root force of human nature. It may remind us of Schopenhauer.” — Friedrich Lange (1865), The History of Materialism noted for his 1844 The One and His Property where he classified Feuerbach’s The Essence of Christianity as “inconsistent atheism”; forerunner of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism; purported influence to Nietzsche; top 1000 nominee (2019) (Ѻ); 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020).
“Hooke's kinetic theory of heat and matter was then forgotten for many years, until the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli rediscovered the kinetic theory of gases in 1738. Bernoulli's work was in turn ignored until the idea was revived by two uninfluential English amateurs, John Herapath and John Waterston, in 1820 and 1845. Only with the work of James Joule in the 1840s, and Rudolf Clausius and James Maxwell in the 1860s, did the kinetic theory of heat and matter achieve general acceptance.” — Stephen Inwood (2001), The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 276) noted for his 1820 “On the Causes, Laws and Phenomena of Heat, Gases, Gravitation”, on the kinetic theory of gases, wherein he argued that motion stops at absolute zero of temperature, a precursor to the third law of thermodynamics; 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020).
|(EP:6) (CR:17) Mathematician, chemist, physicist, and general polymath; noted for his 1586 invention of a telescope, able to see things miles away, and for his 1601 steam engine constructions, based on the earlier models of Hero (50AD); previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 170|#451 (Nov 2020).||M||Italian|
|RGM:812|1,350+] (Becker 160:105|3L) (EP:26) (GEE:#) (CR:29) Engineer, who built on the Papin engine (1690) and Savery engine (1698), guided by help from Robert Hooke, to make his 1712 Newcomen engine, the first marketable steam engine; by 1732, there were, supposedly, more than 100 Newcomen engines in Britain and Europe, and 2,000 Newcomen engines by 1800, and the "industrial revolution" was underway; 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 165|#454 (Nov 2020).||M||English|
|(Cattell 1000:147) (RGM:439|1,350+) (Murray 4000:15|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:321) (CR:5) Writer, poet, and renaissance humanist; ranked as one of the greatest European prose writers; he and Coluccio Salutati were friends and disciples of Petrarch, and together were under a conviction that a concentrated force existed in the classical works of buried past, and therein launched Italian “humanism” (Ѻ); first-slating: #520 (~200 slots below Petrarch (#329)) (Nov 2020).||M||Italian|
|=160||3.14||51||(Cattell 1000:39) (RGM:547|1,350+) (PR:138|65AE / writer:14) (Murray 4000:8|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:175) (Bloom 100:26) (LH:3) Playwright and comedic actor; said to be ranked with Pierre Corneille and Racine; upgraded ↑ from 160|#479 to 165|#387 (Feb 2017).||M||French|
Discussed by Pierre Bayle (Ѻ) in his Historical Dictionary, Volume 5 (Ѻ)(Ѻ); categorized, in Chinese philosophy, with Mencius and Confucius. (Ѻ); conjectured to be related to the Ahab philosophy of Herman Melville (Herman, 2014); added at 165|#4## (Oct 2020).
|3.06||51||(Cattell 1000:562) (RGM:177|1,350+) (PR:7624|65AE / writer:728) (TL:7) Philosopher, moralist, and satirist,
Characterized a “sensible writer” (Meslier, 1727); first-slating: 165|#410 (Apr 2018).
|50||(Gottlieb 1000:261) (Becker 160:106|3L) (CR:10) Physicist; Noted for his circa 1720 invention of the mercury thermometer; first-slate: #525 (Dec 2020).||M||Polish-born German|
|(CR:6) Epicurean philosopher;
“Democritus, a man who was not only the most learned man about nature of all the ancients but no less industrious than any other inquirer, says that music is more recent, and indemnifies its cause, saying that it was not singled out by necessity, but arose as a result of plenty.” — Philodemus (c.45BC), On Music; Herculaneum papyrus 1497 (col. CCCVI 29-39) Student of Demetrius, teacher of Virgil (Ѻ), characterized as “very learned” (Cicero, 55BC) (Ѻ); noted for his 45BC On Piety, wherein he attempts to defend the model of “atomic gods”, i.e. gods made of atoms, in respect to immortality beliefs and common theism beliefs, author of 35 books of varied subjects; 112-candidate; first-slating:#475 (Nov 2020).
|(Becker 160:18|8L) (Simmons 100:60)||M||Austrian|
|(Becker 139:24|12L) (Stokes 100:72)||M||German|
|559.||165||Paul Aebersold (1910-1967)||57||
Noted for his 1939 to 1949 work, wherein he injected radioisotopes to humans, to study the flow or “turnover rate” of atoms in humans; first-slate: 160|#530 (Dec 2020).
|(Cattell 1000:481) (EvT:9|21+) (CR:9) Naturalist;
“It is quite certain that there was a moment when life did not exist on our planet, and another moment when it appeared. It is the passage between these two states that forms the great problem of natural philosophy today.” — Geoffroy Hilaire (c.1836), Publication noted for his 1795-1833 views on the origin and form change of animals; characterized as a "deism-based materialistic evolutionary determinism" theory of species origins (Hecht, 2003); noted for his 1830 confrontation with creationist Georges Cuvier; Goethe’s last writings (c.1831) were said to have been devoted to defending Saint-Hilaire; Charles Darwin (1859) said the three main precursors to his evolution theory were: Goethe, Erasmus Darwin, and Hilaire; 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 165|#464 (Nov 2020).
noted for 1885 directive: "that must disappear!", to his University of Leipzig tour guide, upon talking over the chair of chemistry, from Hermann Kolbe, in reference to the Wisdom of Solomon (11:20) (Ѻ) Bible quote: "god has arranged all things by measure and number and weight”, displayed prominently the classroom periodic table (Mendeleyev periodic table, 1869); one of the key “god disabused from science” moments in history; later, at the time of his official obsequies, university tensions over “religious questions” (Farber, 1961) had become so heated and tumultuous, that Ostwald was asked to be “relieved” of his lecture duties, and in 1906 was suspended officially, after which he was forced to become an exchange professor in the US, a fruitful period where in he gave his famous MIT “Affinity Lecture” (1905), therein illuminating to the English-speaking world affinity and free energy connection between the social theories of Goethe to the chemical thermodynamics of Gibbs; gave his Ingersoll Lecture “Individuality and Immortality”, formed the Monastic League (1910) with Haeckel, and gave his famous “Monastic Sunday Sermons”, one of the first overt physical science framed atheist teaching sermons since the Greeks (role model to Thims’ 2015 “Monday School Atheism” class turned “Atheism for Kids” YouTube lecture); first-slate: 165|#532 (Dec 2020).
(40 BE-18 AE)
|=125||2.85||58||(RGM:990|1,350+) (PR:11,888|65AE / philosopher:425) (Perry 80:71) (TL:24) Philosopher;||M||English-born American|
|57||(Cattell 1000:170) (RGM:226|1,350+) (PR:1563|65AE / writer:173) (Gottlieb 1000:62) (Bloom 100:10) (CR:6) (LH:1) (TL:7) Writer and poet; noted for his The Canterbury Tales, his magnum opus, which tells 24 stories, the last of which is the Parson's Tale, is cited in the film Se7en (1995); slotted at #320 based on RGM (Jun 2017).||M||English|
(42 BE-5 AE)
|=155||46||[RGM:227|1,350+] (Becker 139:54|6L) (Stokes 100:74) (EPD:F1)||M||French|
|66||Becker 160:129) (Simmons 100:46) Organic chemist; student of Adolf Baeyer; noted for his 1894 “lock and key’ bonding theory, according to which proposed that both the enzyme (the key) and the substrate (the lock) possess specific complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another; first-slate: 165|#539 (Dec 2020).||M||German|
(50 BE-25 AE)
|=155||74||[RGM:418|1,350+] (Becker 139:13|15L) (Stokes 100:73) (EPD:F2)||M||French|
(73 BE-15 AE)
|(RGM:453|1,350+) (Simmons 100:32) (TL:27) (CR:26) Physicist; noted for his 1920 thermodynamic square method of deriving the Maxwell relations; for his 1930s built quantum mechanics work, wherein, building on Werner Heisenberg’s initial work around 1925, he was apply to apply Niels Borh’s theory of the atom to suit more complicated atoms and molecules, beyond hydrogen; and he also proved that Schrodinger's wave equation could be interpreted as giving statistical (rather than exact) predictions of variables; candidate (P10:1); first-slated: IQ:150 (Nov 2020).||M||German|
|[RGM:764|1,500+] (Siegfried 10:9) (MAG:23) (CR:6) Scholastic philosopher, statesman, and theologian, generally noted as an early formulator of the scientific method, particularly in respect to controlled experiment; influenced: Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, and Johannes Kepler; slated: 165|#450 (c.2019).||M||English|
||165||Frederick the Great
(40 BE-54 AE)
|1.76||94||(GEcE:#) (TL:144|#74) Economist and physicist; first-slating: 165|#577 (Nov 2020).||M||American|
|RGM:944|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:415) (Stokes 100:64) (FA:104) (CR:51) Social scientist;
“One day we shall certainly ‘reduce’ thought experimentally to molecular and chemical motions in the brain.” — Friedrich Engels (1882), Dialectics of Nature Famous for being chief cohort of Marx in their development of political economics; noted for his 1878 Anti-Duhring, wherein he invoked water metaphors when he likened the revolutionary transformation of a society (see: social phase) to the qualitative phase transformation of ice into water and water into steam; associated with the blurry terms: historical materialism (1892) and “dialectical materialism”; commented on thermodynamics and economies viewed as physical systems; 112-candidate; first-slating:#475 (Nov 2020).
|(SIG:18) (Becker 160:61|4L)||M||German|
|=180||(Norlinger 22:10)||M||French-born German|
|43||(RGM:181|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:265) (Becker 160:107|3L) (CR:8) Astronomer and physicist; noted for his 1741 invention "scaled" thermometer, namely labeled with the boiling point of 0˚ and a freezing point of 100˚; he published the findings of his scale in the 1742 paper “Observations of Two Persistent Degrees on a Thermometer”; first-slate: #550 (Dec 2020).||M||Swedish|
|40||(RGML:94|400+) Gladiator and slave; noted for forming a slave army, that nearly overthrew the Roman empire; the 1960 film Spartacus, staring Kirk Douglas, directed by Stanley Kubrick, based on the 1951 novel by Hoard Fast, inspired by his story, is legendary; first-slate: 165|#550 (Dec 2020).||M||Roman|
|8.25||20||Mathematician and political activist;||M||French|
|=165||80||(Cattell 1000:67) (RGM:707|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:577) (CR:16) Romantic poet;
“At 10, Wordsworth first began to hold communion with nature, in that mystic bond which he held throughout his life, and before he was 15, seems to have recognized his calling as a poet and interpreter of nature.” — Catherine Cox (1926), Early Mental Traits if 300 Geniuses (pg. 605) With Coleridge, helped to launch the so-called ‘romantic age’, via their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798); associate of John Stewart.
“What man actually needs is not a tensionless state but rather the striving and struggling for some goal worthy of him. What he needs is not the discharge of tension at any cost, but the call of a potential meaning waiting to be fulfilled by him.” — Viktor Frankl (c.1946), Publication (Ѻ) “Everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms — to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way.” — Viktor Frankl (c.1945), Publication Noted for his 1946 Man’s Search for Meaning, wherein he details his concentration camp derived philosophy, involving the identification of a purpose”, to feel positive about, then immersively imagining the outcome; ranked (Ѻ) as one of the top 6 “Emotional Intelligence” (EQ) authors (Ung, 2020), along with: Dale Carnegie, Hector Garcia, Barry Schwartz, Mark Manson, and Daniel Coleman; cited in film Halloween (2019) as a philosophy being taught to kids in high school about finding “meaning” even in the most dire of circumstances; 112-candidate; first-slating:#450 (Nov 2020).
|=165||83||(Becker 160:111|3L) (Simmons 100:27)||M||German-born English|
|(Becker 139:82|4L) (Stokes 100:15)||M||Roman|
|2.12||78||(PR:9126|65AE / writer:885) (TL:12) Philosopher and satirist;
Influential to Cicero, Varro, among others; first-slating: 165|#351 (Dec 2017).
|(Cattell 1000:136) (FA:18) (CR:30) Philosopher; cited by Plato, in his Symposium, as having given speech in which he describes the human “natural” state as double creatures, cleft in two by Zeus, for our hubris, thereafter struggling to reunite through love, which is the basis of the modern concept of the “soul mate”; his satirical play The Clouds (Ѻ), tells a dialogue about the nature of rain (natural or Zeus caused), between a fictional atheist character Socrates and a lay character Strepsaides, who thinks rain is caused by “Zeus pissing into a sieve”; influential to Nietzsche; first-draft gauged at 165|#352 (Dec 2017).||M||Greek|
|“The only time I feel ‘alive’ is when I’m painting.”
(56 BE-31 AE)
|1.90||87||PR:11,404|65AE / chemist:163) (CR:64) (LH:6) (TL:70) Physician, chemist, and organism metabolism physiology;||M||German-born American|
|(Becker 139:46|7L) (Stokes 100:94)||M||Austrian-born English|
(40 BE-60 AE)
|99||Becker 160:148|2L) Physicist; noted for his 1950s invention of the maser, co-developed with the Arthur Schawlow, his brother-in-law; downgrade (↓) for promoting religion-science-spirituality compatibility views, two years after winning the Nobel Prize in physics (1964); slated: 165|#468 (c.1919).||M||American|
Presently, there are 175-names in the 170+ (to previous divide) range.
Next | Previous
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