Top 2000 geniuses and minds: 201-400

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In genius studies, top 2000 geniuses and minds: 201-400 refers to the top or greatest geniuses, minds, or intellects, of all time, presently ranking in at the two-hundred-and-one to four-hundred range.

Geniuses | 201-400 | IQ:170-180

See also: Higher minds, 1-200, 201-400, 401-600, 601-800, 801-1,000, 1,001-1,200, 1,201-1,400, 1,401-1,600, 1,601-1,800, 1,801-2,000, Full list, Candidates

The following (see: IQ key) are intellects “1-200” of the top 2000 geniuses and minds:

# Person D A Overview G Country
201.
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180 Torquato Tasso
(411-360 BE)
(1544-1595 ACM)
IQ C.png=180 3.53 51 M Italian
202.
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180 Hugo 75.png Victor Hugo
(153-70 BE)
(1802-1885 ACM)
IQ C.png=180 3.40 83 (Cattell 1000:142) (RGM:156|1,350+) (PR:99|65AE / writer:11) (CR:10) (Murray 4000:13|WL) (TL:12) Romantic poet, novelist, and dramatist; M French
203.
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180 Francis Edgeworth
(1845-1926)
2.22 81 M Irish
204.
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180 Francois Arago

(1786-1853)

IQ C.png=180 2.69 67 M French
205.
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180 Joseph Thomson

(1856-1940)

2.17 83 (Becker 160:64|4L) (Simmons 100:31) M English
206.
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180 Johann Helmont
(1579-1644)
2.81 64 M French
207.
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180 De Broglie 75.png Louis Broglie
(63 BE-32 AE)
(1892-1987 ACM)
1.91 94 (Becker 160:140|2L) (Simmons 100:75) M French
208.
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180 Walter Heitler
(51 BE-26 AE)
(1904-1981 ACM)
2.34 77 (GPE:48) (TL:13) Physicist; noted his “Interaction of Neutral Atoms and Homopolar Bonding according to Quantum Mechanics”, co-authored with Fritz London (1900-1954), wherein, starting with Niels Bohr atom model (1913), Louis Broglie’s electron wave theory (1924), the spinning electron theory (1925) of George Uhlenbeck and the Samuel Goudsmit, the "exclusion principle" (1925) of Wolfgang Paul, and the Hamiltonian-style wave equation (1926) of Erwin Schrodinger, derived equations showing that electrons with up and down "spin", confined by Paul's exclusion rules, can interact to yield and "exchange energy", which changes depending upon orbital interaction, therein yielding a quantum physical basis for the "chemical bond" between atoms; this model, supposedly, later led to the generalized model of the "exchange force"; first-slating: 180|#196 (Nov 2020). M German
209.
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180 Euripides 75.png Euripides
(c.2435-2361 BE)
(c.480-406 BCM)
IQ B.png=173 2.43 74 (RGM:140|1,350+) (Cattell 1000:99) (PR:410|65AE / writer:54) (Durant 10P:3) (FA:12) (ACR:7) (TL:27) Philosopher and tragedian playwright; M Greek
210.
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180 Wernher Braun
(43 BE-22 AE)
(1912-1977 ACM)
2.78 65 [RGM:120|1,350+] (Becker 160:146|2L) Aerospace engineer, space architect, and "rocket scientist"; after reading Hermann Oberth at age 14, went on to become the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon, following which, Neil Armstrong, on Apollo 11, became the first human to put foot on the moon; an Alex Bickle (Ѻ)(Ѻ) top 500 candidate (Ѻ); first-slating #150 (Nov 2017). M German–born American
211.
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180 Brunelleschi 75.png Filippo Brunelleschi
(1377-1446)
IQ B.png=190 2.61 69 [RGM:212|1,350+] M Italian
212.
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180 Brougham 75.png Henry Brougham
(1778-1868)
IQ C.png=180 2.00 90 M English
213.
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180 Niebuhr 75.png Barthold Niebuhr
(179-124 BE)
(1776-1831 ACM)
IQ C.png=185 3.27 55 M German
214.
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180 Boerhaave 75.png Herman Boerhaave
(1668-1738)
IQ C.png=165 2.57 70 M Dutch
215.
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180 No image 2.png Petrus Peregrinus
(c.1219-c.1289)
(PR:#|65AE / engineer:82) (Gottlieb 1000:101) Scholar and scientist; noted for his experiments on magnetism and for writing the first extant treatise describing the properties of magnets; his 1268 work contains the earliest detailed freely pivoting compass needles (pictured), a fundamental component of the dry compass soon to appear in medieval navigation; influenced: Roger Bacon, who called him the “master of the experiment”, William Gilbert, and Johannes Kepler; top 1000 candidate (Philoepisteme, Jun 2018) (Ѻ); 112-candidate; first-slating:#475 (Nov 2020).
M French
216.
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180 Haeckel 75.png Ernst Haeckel
(121-36 BE)
(1834-1919 ACM)
2.12 85 (Murray 4000:16|B) (Becker 160:126|3L) (Simmons 100:90) (FA:74) (GPhE:11) (TL:143|#69) M German
217.
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180 Fenelon 75.png Francois Fenelon
(304-240 BE)
(1651-1715 ACM)
IQ C.png=180 2.81 64 (Cattell 1000:102) (PR:6,517|65AE / philosopher:276) (TL:9) Theologian, philosopher, poet, and writer; M French
218.
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180 Johannes Hevelius 75.png Johannes Hevelius
(1611-1687)
Johannes Hevelius projection telescope (1661).png
(Murray 4000:20|A) (CR:5) Astronomer, lawyer, mayor, and brewer;
“Comets had fascinated astronomers for thousands of years, and Hooke set about reading what had been written about them from Aristotle and Seneca to Kepler, Galileo and Hevelius.”
— Stephen Inwood (2002), The Man Who Knew Too Much

After studying under Peter Kruger (1580-1639), himself a student (Ѻ) of Brahe and Kepler, went on to build the Stellaburgum, was Europe’s finest observatory; prior to it being burned down in 1679; image shows him using projection telescope (1661) to observe transit of Mars; Hooke bragged to Hevelius that he had made a better sextant; 112-candidate; first-slating:#209 (Nov 2020).

M Polish
219.
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180 Scaliger 75.png Joseph Scaliger
(1540-1609)
IQ C.png=180 2.61 69 M French
220.
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180 Sinan 75.png Mimar Sinan
(1491-1588)
IQ B.png=180 1.85 97 M Turkish
221.
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180 No image 2.png Phidias
(500-432BC)
IQ B.png=180 2.64 68 M Greek
222.
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180 Alberti 75.png Leon
(1404-1472)
IQ B.png=180 2.65 68 M Italian
223.
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180 Wolsey 75.png Thomas Wolsey
(1472-1530)
IQ C.png=180 M English
224.
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180 Pitt (the Younger) 75.png William Pitt

(the Younger)
(1759-1806)

IQ C.png=190 M English
225.
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180 Bailly 75.png Jean Bailly
(1736-1793)
IQ C.png=180 M French
IQ 180 up.png
226.
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175 Clifford 75.png William Clifford
(1845-1879)
34 (Siegfried 10:3) (CR:6) Mathematician, philosopher, and panpsychist;
“I hold that in the physical world nothing else takes place but this variation of the curvature of space.”
— William Clifford (c.1875), “Article” (Ѻ), in: Mathematical Papers, 1882
“He who truly believes that which prompts him to an ‘action’ has looked upon the action to lust after it, he has already committed it in his heart.”
— William Clifford (1977), The Ethics of Belief (pg. #)
“The question of right or wrong has to do with the origin of his belief, not the matter of it; not what it was, but how he got it; not whether it turned out to be true or false, but whether he had a right to believe on such evidence as was before him.”
— William Clifford (1977), The Ethics of Belief; cited by Maria Popova (2017) in BrainPickings.org (Apr 14)

influenced: Charles Peirce (who influenced: Henry Swan);

M English
227.
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175 Alfred Nobel 75.png Alfred Nobel
(1833-1896)
Nobel achievements.png
(RGM:132|1,350+) (Murray 4000:16|T) (Gottlieb 1000:217) (Becker 160:42|5L) (Singh 100:67) (CR:6) Chemist and engineer; noted for his 1867 invention of “dynamite”, a stable version of nitroglycerin, which he devised three years after his brother Emil and others had died from an explosion of nitroglycerin; noted for his 1895 “last will and testament”, in which he left much of his net wealth, which was $250 million (in 2020 dollars, adjusted to inflation) to the establishment of the Nobel Prize (launched in 1901), a yearly-prize and highly-coveted award to honor men and women for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace; first-slating: #225 (Nov 2020).
M Swedish
228.
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175 Philo of Byzantium
(c.280-220BC)
Philo thermometer.png
Engineer, physicist, and mathematician, noted for making the first thermometer;
“Among the greatest scholars that studied in Alexandria were Euclid, Archimedes, Ctesibius, Philo of Alexandria, and Hero. It is likely that the study of machines was at first an outgrowth of mathematics research and its application to mechanics rather than as an institute to produce useful machines.”
— Francis Moon (2007), The Machines of Leonardo da Vinci and Franz Reuleaux (pg. 110)

Influenced: Leonardo da Vinci, Robert Fludd, and possibly Galileo; 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 175|#212 (Nov 2020).

M Greek
230.
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175 Abraham Lincoln
(1809-1865)
IQ B.png=170
IQ CB.png=160
IQ C.png=150
IQ S.png=150

IQ W.png=147

3.13 56 M American
231.
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175 Eudoxus 75.png Eudoxus
(c.390-337BC)
(GME:#) (GAE:#) [Allen 100:52] (CR:8) Mathematician, astrophysicist, and philosopher;
“Solon, Thales, Plato, Eudoxus, and Pythagoras, were the wisest of the Greeks.”
— Plutarch (100AD), On Isis and Osiris

Studied under Plato; some say he was teacher to Aristotle; supposedly discovered the leap year and invented an early form of calculus; adjacent is his hippopede model of retrograde planetary motion; some rank him second to rank him second only to Archimedes in antiquity genius stature; slated: #295 (Jan 2018); upgraded to IQ:175|#212 (Oct 2020).

M Greek
232.
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175 Buckle 75.png Henry Buckle
(1821-1862)
4.38 40 M English
233.
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175 Bayle 75.png Pierre Bayle
(1647-1706)
IQ C.png=165 2.97 59 M French
234.
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175 Hilbert 75.png David Hilbert
(1862-1943)
(Becker 160:134|2L) M German
235.
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175 Hippocrates 75.png Hippocrates
(c.460-370BC)
(Cardano 12:↑D) (Becker 160:51|4L) M Greek
236.
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175 Watt 75.png James Watt
(219-136 BE)
(1736-1819 ACM)
IQ C.png=165 2.11 83 (Cattell 1000:225) (RGM:89|1,350+) (PR:111|65AE / inventor:5) (Murray 4000:1|T) (Gottlieb 1000:110) (Becker 160:82|3L) (Nelson 19:19) (SIG:12) (EP:31) (TL:132|#83) Engineer and inventor, M Scottish
237.

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175 Johann Faust 75.png Johann Faust
(470-415 BE)
(c.1485-c.1540 ACM)
3.18 55 (PR:4,599|65AE / inspiration:3) (TL:10) Physician, enchanter, and chemist, eponym of the "Faust legend", Faustian, Faustian quest, Faustian dilemma; described as someone whose crime was that he “took the eagle’s wings, and wished to investigate all the depths of heaven and earth” (Spies, 1587), owing to his insatiable desire for knowledge; or someone lured into magic by his desire for worldly enjoyments (Widman, 1599); 112-candidate; first slating: #220 (Nov 2020). M German
238.
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175 Emerson 75.png Ralph Emerson
(152-73 BE)
(1803-1882 ACM)
IQ C.png=155 2.24 78 (Cattell 1000:408) (RGM:264|1,350+) (PR:1,959|65AE / writer:207) (Gottlieb 1000:504) (Listal 100:46) (Choueiri 115:86) (FA:127) (TL:44) Philosopher; upgrade from 170|#347 to 175|#215 per his 1877 “moral power” theory (2018). M American
239.
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175 Crick 75.png Francis Crick
(39-BE-49 AE)
(1916-2004 ACM)
IQ B.png=173 [RGM:297|1,350+] (Becker 160:48|5L) (Simmons 100:33) (FA:152) (CR:108) (LH:#) (TL:#) Geneticist, neuroscientist, and philosopher; M English
240.
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175 Yukawa 75.png Hideki Yukawa
(1907-1981)
Four fundamental interactions.png
Theoretical physicist; noted for his 1935 paper “On the Interaction of the Elementary Particles” (Ѻ), in which he predicted the pion or “pi meson” particle; considered, along with Ernest Rutherford, a pioneer of theory of the strong nuclear force; considered a “genius” (Dalitz, 1985) among modern physicists; adjacent section of "atomic theory" diagram, section four fundamental interactions, indicates his general big name stature (Hanlon, 2020); 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 175|#222 (Nov 2020).
M Japanese
241.
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175 Ptolemy 75.png Ptolemy
(c.100-170)
Eccentric hypothesis 282.gif
(Cardano 12:↑D) (Cattell 1000:80) [RGM:102|1,350+] (Murray 4000:12|CS / 6A) (Becker 160:35|5L) (Eells 100:23) (GAE:3) [CR:52] Mathematician and astronomer;
“Although either the eccentric or epicycle hypothesis could produce the sun’s anomalous motion, it would be more reasonable to fit its motion to the eccentric hypothesis, since it is more simple and is accomplished by one movement, and not by two movements.”
— Ptolemy (c.150), Almagest (§3.4) (Ѻ)

Noted for his 130AD Syntaxis Mathematica, he supposedly the first to introduce the zero number; his 150AD Almagest, situated a "geocentric model", based on the "eccentric hypothesis" (Apollonius, c.200BC), which was not superseded until Copernicus established the "heliocentric model" (1543); first-draft slating: 170-175± (c.2016).

M Greco-Egyptian
242.
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175 Lazare Carnot 75.png Lazare Carnot
(1753-1823)
IQ C.png=170 M French
243.
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175 Gay-Lussac 75.png Joseph Gay-Lussac
(1778-1850)
IQ C.png=175 (Becker 160:86|3L) M French
244.
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175 Boethius 75.png Boethius
(1475-1431 BE)
(c.480-524 ACM)
(Becker 139:84|4L) (Stokes 100:20) (Time 100:23) (Eells 100:96) (CR:11) Philosopher, mathematician, and senator;
“There is an intelligence to the universe, that which was once called fate, and that now we understand it to be a universal force.”
— Boethius (523), The Consolation of Philosophy

Penned his ‘force philosophy’, while in prison (awaiting execution per charges of treason), based on Epicurus, stoics, Anaxagoras, Socrates, and Zeno; gave discourse on the "laws of love" and the problem of evil; first-slating: 175|#211 (Mar 2018).

M Roman
245.
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175 Wilhelm Weber 75.png Wilhelm Weber
(151-64 BE)
(1804-1891)
(GPE:73) (SIG:13) (CR:5) Physicist; noted for his 1856 studies of electrical charges and magnetics, showing that light moves at a constant speed of 300,000 kilometers per second; influential to Maxwell and Faraday; 112-candidate; first-slating:#225 (Nov 2020). M German
246.
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175 Fermat 75.png Pierre Fermat
(1601-1665)
M French
247.
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175 Montesquieu 75.png Charles Montesquieu
(1689-1755)
IQ C.png=165 (Becker 139:69|5L) M French
248.
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175 No image 2.png Ecphantus
(2485-2415 BE)
(c.530-460 BCM)
Ecphantus earth.png
Physicist, astronomer, and philosopher; noted for his earth-as-wheel rotation theory (compare: Heraclides), according to which the earth rotates like a wagon wheel, and that this explains the apparent motion of the stars; posited some type of early atomic theory, wherein he employed a motive force in addition to atoms and void, and declared that monads of Pythagoras were corporeal; first-slating: 175|#225 (Jan 2019).
M Greek
249.
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175 Pauli 75.png Wolfgang Pauli
(55 BE-3 AE)
(1900-1958 ACM)
58
Exclusion principle (Pauli, 1925).jpg
Theoretical physicist; noted for his 1925 exclusion principle; for his 1930 proposal of the existence of the neutrino (see: particle); for his 1949 letter to Ralph Kronig on his dream about “Ehrenfest's sermon on the love” and how love can be seen as a force of nature, e.g. in the context of Goethe’s Elective Affinities; and for his 1952 discussion with Werner Heisenberg on the nature of the soul (see: Heisenberg-Pauli dialogue); considered a top 10 physicist (Springer, 2008) (Ѻ); first-slating: 175|#220 (Dec 2019).
M Austrian
250.
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175 Jevons 75.png Stanley Jevons
(1935-1882)
M English
251.
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175 Xenophanes 75.png Xenophanes
(2515-2435 BE)
(c.560-480 BCM)
2.19 80 (PR:1,075|65AE / philosopher:79) (Stokes 100:3) (FA:5) (EVT:3|21+) (ACR:19) (TL:32) Philosopher, anti-theist, and evolutionist; M Greek
252.
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175 John Atanasoff

(1903-1995)

Atanasoff-Berry computer.png
Electrical engineer, physicist, mathematician, and inventor; noted for his 1937 invention (Ѻ) of the Atanasoff-Berry computer (pictured), the first electronic digital computer, that was able to solve systems up to 29 linear equations; considered the “father of the computer”, along with Charles Babbage, Alan Turing, John Neumann, Conrad Zuse, and Henry Roberts; top 1000 candidate (Bickle, May 2018); 112-candidate; first-slating:#231 (Nov 2020).
M American
253.
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175 Edgar Poe

(1809-1849)

IQ O.png=145[1] 4.38 40 M American
254.
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175 Richard Wagner

(1813-1883)

IQ O.png=175[2]
IQ C.png=170
M German
255.
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175 Buffon 75.png Buffon
(248-167 BE)
(1707-1788 ACM)
IQ AE.png=195
IQ C.png=170
Buffon limb bones.jpg
(Cattell 1000:192) (RGM:290|1,350+) (Simmons 100:23) (PR:4,376|65AE / biologist:32) (TL:39) Mathematician and natural philosopher;
“I can name five great men: Newton, Bacon, Leibniz, Montesquieu, and myself.”
— Buffon (c.1760), response to query on how many great men he could name

Noted for his 1745 comet impacting the sun nebular hypothesis planet formation model; his c.1774 experimental use of Newton’s law of cooling on iron balls to attempt calculation of the age of earth (estimate: 75,000-years) (compare: Biblical 6,000-years); his 1778 The Epochs of Nature, discussed the origin of the solar system; declared that Noah’s flood had never occurred; argued for a form if “implied evolution” via the assertion that animals retained parts, e.g. limb bones, that were vestigial and no longer useful, e.g. whales vs bats; was main French precursor to Lamarck; penned a 36-volume Natural History, published in the years 1749 to 1788, which included things such as “maternal imagination theory” (as employed by Goethe).

M French
256.
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175 Justus Liebig

(1803-1873)

IQ C.png=180 (Becker 160:117|3L) (Simmons 100:36) M German
257.
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175 Erasmus Darwin

(1731-1802)

M English
258.
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175 Paracelsus

(1493-1541)

3.72 47 M Swiss
259.
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175 Al-Marri

(973-1057)

IQ CP.png=178
Al-Marri bust.png
(Murray 4000:3|AL) (FA:32) (GMAG:#) (CR:10) Blind philosopher, poet, skeptic, and irreligionist; aka the "Arab Lucretius" (Issa, 2016) and or "Voltaire of the East" (Rihani, 1910)[3];

“Do not suppose the statement of the prophets to be true; they are all fabrications. Men lived comfortably till they came and spoiled life. The scared books are only such a set of idle tales as any age could have and indeed did actually produce.”

— al-Marri (c.1010), Publication

oft-compared to Lucian, Milton, and Dante; first-slated: 175|#206 per four person IQ CP of 178|#164 (Jun 2017).

M Syrian
260.
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175 Eratosthenes

(276-194BC)

M Greek
261.
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175 Helvetius 75.png Claude Helvetius
(240-184 BE)
(1715-1771 ACM)
IQ C.png=160 3.13 56 (Cattell 1000:55) (PR:2,901|65AE / philosopher:165) (TL:39) French philosopher; M French
262.
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175 Hammurabi

(c.1810-1750 BC)

(Time 100:5) King; noted for his Code of Hammurabi, a collection of 282 rules, established standards for commercial interactions and set fines and punishments to meet the requirements of justice (Ѻ); Quora gauged (Wyze, 2015) (Ѻ) as top 10 intelligent mind of history; 112-candidate; first-slating:#700 (Nov 2020). M Babylonian
263.
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175 George Boole

(1815-1864)

Boolean algebra.png
[RGM:801|1,350+] [GME:77] (CR:8) Mathematician, educator, philosopher and logician; born to a poor cobbler who self-taught himself mathematics, by studying Newton; noted for his 1847 Mathematical Analysis of Logic, which introduced an “AND, OR, NOT” type of math called “Boolean algebra”, which is the basis of computer logic, later employed by Jevons and Shannon; his 1854 book The Laws of Thought, one of the first books in human mathematics, showed how to reduce human reasoning (logic) to a symbolic form resembling ordinary numerical algebra; was a college professor in mathematics by age thirty-four (despite holding no university degree); published a treatise on differential equations (1859); first-slating: 175|#212 (c.2017).
M English
264.
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175 Walther Nernst
(91-14 BE)
(1864-1941 ACM)
(Odueny 100:65) (Cropper 30:7/T) (EPD:M12) (TL:136|#75) (PEC10:9)[4] German physical chemist; M German
265.
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175 Thomas Browne

(1605-1682)

(PR: 2,000+) (CR:6) Physician, philosopher, encyclopedist;
“Nature does nothing in vain, is the only indisputable axiom in philosophy. There are no grotesques in nature; not any thing framed to fill up empty cantons, and unnecessary spaces.”
— Thomas Browne (1642), Religio Medici (Part I, Section 15) (Ѻ)

Noted for his 1646 his Pseudodoxia Epidemica (Ѻ), a Bacon-like encyclopedia of sorts, building on the earlier term usage of William Gilbert, coined the term “electricity”; first slating: 175|#222 (Jan 2018).

M English
266.
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175 Evangelista Torricelli

(1608-1647)

4.49 39 M Italian
267.
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175 William Cullen
(245-165 BE)
(1710-1790 ACM)
80 (PR:20,808|65AE / physician:264) (GCE:17) (TL:78) Physician and chemist; noted as the inventor of the chemical reaction diagram (1757), aka chemical equation (see: history of chemical equations):
Cullen reaction diagrams.png

wherein he introduced the bonding bracket symbol ‘{’, to signify a "chemical bond" (AB, A-B, A=B, A≡B, or A≈B, in modern notation), and the "affinity dart" or reaction arrow ‘→’ to signify the force of attraction or chemical affinity, done in his chemistry lectures to illustrated to student the nature of the affinity table, as devised by Geoffroy (1718), as based on Newton's Query 31; student of the works of Herman Boerhaave and Georg Stahl; mentor to Joseph Black; first-slating: 175|#241 (Nov 2019).

M Scottish
268.
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175 Willem Gravesande

(1688-1742)

M Dutch
269.
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175 Eliot 75.png George Eliot
(136-75 BE)
(1819-1880 ACM)
IQ B.png=185
IQ O.png=160[5]
2.87 61 (RGM:169|1,350+) (Norlinger 22:17) (PR:4.959|65AE / writer:496) (GFG:4) (FA:143) (TL:38) Novelist and realism philosopher; F English
270.
Steady.png
175 Wallace 75.png Alfred Wallace
(132-42 BE)
(1823-1913 ACM)
M English
271.
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175 Witherspoon 75.png John Witherspoon
(1723-1794)
M Scottish-born American
272.
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175 Jonathan Dowling 75.png Jonathan Dowling
(0-65 AE)
(1955-2020 ACM)
Theoretical physicist, with focus in quantum electrodynamics and quantum computing, noted for 1998 to 2004 view that "there is NO such thing as life" (see: defunct theory of life debate) and that the difference between a "chemical reaction" such as Stephen Hawking, mentally growing in Cambridge, and a salt crystal, growing in a glass of salt water, is that the former is "more interesting" as compared to the latter; views which he formerly published in his 2013 Schrödinger's Killer App; he is one of the only four known independent "abioists", along with: Libb Thims, Alfred Rogers, and Ferris Jabr; first-slating: #175 (Nov 2020). M American
273.
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175 Wittgenstein 75.png Ludwig Wittgenstein

(1889-1951)

IQ O.png=190[5]IQ N.jpg=190
IQ EM.png=170
Wittgenstein caricature.png
(Becker 139:17|14L) (Stokes 100:78) (Norlinger 22:6)
M Austrian-born English
274.
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175 Berthollet 75.png Claude Berthollet (1748-1822) (Cattell 1000:669) (Murray 4000:13|C) (Partington 50:11) (GCE:11) (DN:7) (CR:56) Chemist; noted for his circa 1800 studies on chemical affinity, the laws of affinity, and in particular his objection to the original notion of “elective affinity”, in that there may the splitting of affinities; was one of the mental references used by German polymath Johann Goethe in the scripting of his novella Elective Affinities; 112-candidate; first-slating: #250 (Nov 2020). M French
275.
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175 John Wallis 75.png John Wallis

(1616-1703)

(Murray 4000:17|M) (Eells 100:33) (GME:25) (CR:13) Mathematician and theologian;

“Descartes took up almost without change what this anonymous mathematician of the thirteenth century had written; and henceforth, from Descartes to Wallis, from Wallis to Bernoulli, and from the former to Lagrange, then to Gibbs, the principle of virtual displacements continued to be extended.” — Pierre Duhem (1913), “Research on the History of Physical Theories”, in: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science (pg. 242) noted as inventor of the infinity symbol ∞, the greater than or equal to symbol ≥, the less than or equal to symbol ≤, and his 1650s mathematical work paved the way for differential calculus; downgrade for criticizing Hooke’s 1687 ancient sea shell fossil flood theory, per reason that it contradicted or ignored the Genesis account of things; beat Hobbes, at some point, in a mathematical dispute; 112-candidate; first-slating:#250 (Nov 2020).

M English
276.
Down.png
175 Herder 75.png Johann Herder

(1744-1803)

IQ C.png=165 M German
277.
Up.png
175 Volta 75.png Alessandro Volta
(210-128 BE)
(1745-1827 ACM)
Volta battery.jpg
(Cattell 1000:684) (RGM:76|1,350+) (Becker 160:26|7L) (SIG:14) (CR:25) Physicist;
“What is possible to do well, in physics in particular, are those things that can be reduced to degrees and measures.”
— Alessandro Volta (c.1800), Publication (Ѻ)

Noted for his famous 1776 “animal electricity” debate with Luigi Galvani on the topic of the mechanism of the twitching of dead frog legs in an electric circuit; the result of which was the 1800 invention of the battery or “Voltaic pile” (pictured).

M Italian
278.
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175 Amontons 75.png Guillaume Amontons

(1663-1705)

M French
279.
Wavy.png
175 James Thomson 75.png James Thomson

(1822-1892)

M Irish-born English
280.
Wavy.png
175 Mach 75.png Ernst Mach
(117-39 BE)
(1838-1916 ACM)
M Austrian
281.
Steady.png
175 Herodotus 75.png Herodotus
(2439-2380 BE)
(484-425 BCM)
(Cattell 1000:202) (RGM:232|1,350+) (PR:75|65AE / historian:1) (GHE:4) (ACR:28) (TL:94|#112) Historian, “father of history” (Cicero, 50BC), noted for his 435BC The Histories, wherein he gives a first-hand account of ancient history via travelling around and interviewing people; first draft at 175|#210 (Jul 2017). M Greek
282.
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175 Siger of Brabant 75.png Siger of Brabant

(c.1240-1284)

(CR:8) Philosopher;

“For not every being has a cause of its being, nor does every question about being have a cause. For if it is asked why there is something in the natural world rather than nothing, speaking about the world of created things, it can be replied that there is a first immoveable mover, and a first unchangeable cause. But if it is asked about the whole universe of beings why there is something there rather than nothing, it is not possible to give a cause, for it's the same to ask this as to ask why there is a god or not, and this does not have a cause. Hence, not every question has a cause, nor even every being.” — Siger of Brabant (c.1275), Publication (Ѻ) aka the “Latin Averroes”, noted for his secular interpretation (Ѻ) of Aristotle; in his Impossibilia, presented the idea that “there is no god” (see: god does not exist), intended an intellectual training tool for students in logical disputation; the Condemnation of 1277 was, supposedly, a response to radical thinkers, such as Brabant; Dante, in the Divine Comedy, put Siger in the ‘Heaven of Light’ in the brilliant company of twelve illustrious souls, specifically beside Thomas Aquinas and Isidore of Seville; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 175|#257 (Nov 2020).

M Belgian-born French-Latin
283.
Down.png
175 Campanella 75.png Tommaso Campanella

(1568-1639)

IQ C.png=185 M Italian
284.
Down.png
175 Champollion 75.png Jean Champollion

(1790-1832)

4.27 41 M French
285.
Steady.png
175 Geber 75.png Geber

(c.721-c.815)

IQ GC.jpg=175 (RGM:1063|1,350+) (GCE:#) (CR:26) Chemist, aka "Jabir ibn Hayyan"; noted for his "two principles theory", according to which sulfur gives flammability or combustion, and mercury gives volatility. Later "salt" was added in as the principle of solidity, and via the writings of Paracelsus, it came to be known as the ‘three principles’ theory. M Arabian
286.
Steady.png
175 Mendeleyev 75.png Dmitri Mendeleyev

(1834-1907)

Mendeleyev periodic table (caricature).png
(Murray 4000:16|C) (Gottlieb 1000:253) (Becker 160:32|6L) (Simmons 100:47) (Thims 97:43) (CR:23) Chemist; noted for his Mendeleyev periodic table (1869).
M Russian
287.
Steady.png
175 Halley 75.png Edmond Halley

(1656-1742)

M English
288.
Steady.png
175 Averroes 75.png Averroes

(1126-1198)

IQ B.png=175 (Becker 139:44|7L) (AT:5|D) M Andalusian
289.
Wavy.png
175 Theodorus
(c.340-250BC)
M Greek
290. 175 No image 2.png Jean Buridan
(c.1301-1361)
60
Impetus (Buridan, c.1350).png
(PEC7:3)[6] Natural philosophy, physicist, and economist; head of the faculty of arts at the University of Paris, wherein, based on Aristotle and logic, he founded the French school of natural philosophy; noted for some type of economic moral determinism philosophy, related to the exchange value of goods, which was later parodied via the so-called “Buridan 's ass” paradox; in his Quaestiones super quattuor libris de Cælo et Mundo, influenced by John Philoponus’ concept of “impetus” (530), he rejected Aristotle's dynamic theory of motion, replacing it with the concept of “impetus” (a forerunner to inertia); associate of Nicole Oresme; first-slating: 175|#287 (Dec 2020).
M French
291.
Up.png
175 No image 2.png George Gore

(1826-1908)

M English
292.
Wavy.png
175 Quetelet 75.png Adolphe Quetelet

(1796-1874)

M Belgian
293.
Down.png
175 John Adams 75.png John Adams (1735-1826) IQ C.png=155

IQ S.png=155

M American
294.
Steady.png
175 Imhotep.png Imhotep
(4590-4550 BE)

(2635-2595 BCM)

IQ O.png=200

IQ SS.png=190
IQ SS.png=150, 170

IQ O.png=170

Step Pyramid at Saqqara.jpg
[RGM:334|1,350+] (GBG:1) Polymath, first architect, engineer, and physician in early history, who served under third dynasty king Djoser (Zoser) as chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis, architect of the world’s first pyramid, the Step Pyramid at Saqqara; a possible main theorist behind the current world dominating Anunian theologies.
M Egyptian
295.
Down.png
175 More 75.png Thomas More

(1478-1535)

IQ C.png=155 (Becker 139:115|3L) (Stokes 100:28) M English
296.
Wavy.png
175 Shockley 75.png William Shockley

(1910-1989)

IQ O.png=125-129 M American
297.
Wavy.png
175 Wilhelm Humboldt 75.png Wilhelm Humboldt

(1767-1835)

IQ C.png=175 M Prussian
298.
Wavy.png
175 Hipparchus 75.png Hipparchus

(190-120BC)

2.50 70 (Becker 160:74|3L) M Greek
299.
Wavy.png
175 Higgins 75.png Godfrey Higgins

(1772-1833)

2.87 61 M English
300.
Wavy.png
175 Kirchhoff 75.png Gustav Kirchhoff

(1824-1887)

(Becker 160:124|2L) (Simmons 100:57) M German
301.
Down.png
175 Sorokin 75.png Pitirim Sorokin
(66 BE- 13 AE)
(1889-1968 ACM)
2.21 79 (PR:6170|65AE / sociologist:17) (Scott 50:38) (TL:141|#77) Sociologist; M Russian-born American
302.
Up.png
175 Wheatstone 75.png Charles Wheatstone

(1802-1879)

73
Wheatstone device.png
(Murray 4000:15|T) Scientist, experimentalist, and inventor; noted for his 1834 experiment wherein he used a Leyden jar, a conducting wire with a gap cut in it, and a rotating mirror, to measure the speed of electricity; revolving mirror design was later used by Leon Foucault and Hippolyte Fizeau to measure the velocity of light (or speed of light); 1836, Wheatstone and William Cooke (1806-1879), based on the Andre Ampere telegraph model (1820), built the first working telegraph system, and transmitted a message of one mile along a railway in London; 112-candidate; first-slating: #275 (Nov 2020).
M English
303.
Steady.png
175 Lucilio Vanini 75.png Lucilio Vanini
(370-336 BE)
(1585-1619 ACM)
5.30 33 (PR:11,544|65AE / philosopher:416) (FA:66) (EvT:7|21+) (CR:23) (LH:4) (TL:27) Philosopher, physics dabbler, lawyer, priest, and free-thinker, characterized “genius burned at the stake” (Goss, 2009); M Italian
304.
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175 William Ramsay 75.png William Ramsay

(1852-1916)

(Murray 4000:10|C) (Becker 160:130|2L) (GCE:#) (CR:20) Physical chemist; noted for his 1891 discovery of the lost kinetic theory work of John Waterston (1845); for his 1894 work with Sidney Young, wherein they showed, via building on the earlier work of Henri Deville (1865) and William Donkin (1873), that passing a mixture of dry nitrogen and dry hydrogen gas through a heated tube containing iron filings produced some ammonia (which Haber built on to make the Haber process); with John Strutt, they isolated the element argon; in 1907, following Rutherford’s “half-transformation time” (1905), he coined the anthropomorphic term “half-life” (1907); in hmolscience, noted for his 1898 description of gas molecules as akin to football players; first-slating: #300 (Nov 2020). M Scottish
305. 175 Niccolo Tartaglia 75.png Niccolo Tartaglia
(455-398BE)
(c.1500-1557 ACM)
57 Physicist, mathematician, and translator;
“Tartaglia was the first to have a clear idea of the ‘vertical’ and ‘lateral’ pressure in a liquid.”
— William Middleton (1964), The History of the Barometer (pg. 5) [7]

Noted for lateral pressure theory; declared publicly that the trajectory of a body flying in any but a vertical direction can only be curve and ‘contains not a single absolute straight line’; first-slate: 175|#300 (Dec 2020).

M Italian
306.
Steady.png
175 Danti 75.png Dante Alighieri
(1265-1321)
IQ B.png=175 (Hugo 14:11) M Italian
307.
Wavy.png
175 No image 2.png Aristarchus
(c.310-230BC)
M Greek
308.
Wavy.png
175 Orsted 75.png Hans Orsted

(1777-1851)

IQ C.png=180 M Danish
309.
Down.png
175 Malebranche 75.png Nicolas Malebranche

(1638-1715)

IQ C.png=180 (Stokes 100:35) M French
310.
Wavy.png
175 Alhazen 75.png Alhazen
(990-915 BE)
(965-1040 ACM)
2.33 75 (RGM:934|,1350+) (PR:815|65AE / physicist:24) (Becker 160:103|2L) (GME:58) (TL:12) Physicist, mathematician, and philosopher; M Arabian
311.
Wavy.png
175 Homer 75.png Homer
(2705-2680 BE)
(c.850-725 BCM)
IQ B.png=175 (PR:52|65AE / writer:3) (Cattell 1000:13) (RGM:50|1,350+) (Hart 100:88) (Hugo 14:1) (Cardano 12:13) (ACR:2) (TL:66) Writer; after having studied in Egypt, wherein he learned their art of conveying fables via hieroglyphs, so to convey mysteries of natural and moral philosophy, in a fictional guise, in hidden form; he produced his Iliad and Odyssey. M Greek
312.
Steady.png
175 Coleridge 75.png Samuel Coleridge

(1772-1834)

IQ C.png=175 M English
313.
Steady.png
175 Bunsen 75.png Robert Bunsen

(1811-1899)

IQ C.png=175 (Becker 160:88|3L) M German
314.
Up.png
175 Legendre 75.png Adrien Legendre

(1752-1833)

M French
315.
Up.png
175 Schwarzschild 75.png Karl Schwarzschild

(1873-1916)

Event horizon.png
(GPE:95) (GAE:20) (CR:4) Physicist and astronomer, noted in radiation thermodynamics, for his 1915 derivation, which he did by solving Einstein's general relativity field equations, while he was serving in WWI at the Russian front, of the so-called the “Schwarzschild radius”, which is the radius of the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 175|#286 (Nov 2020).
M German
316. 175 Albert Michelson 75.png Albert Michelson
(103-24 BE)
(1852-1931 ACM)
79
Michelson-Morley experiment.png
(Becker 160:131|2L) (CR:7) Noted for his 1887 “Michelson-Morley experiment”, done with Edward Morley, wherein they used mirrors mounted on a stone slab that floated in a annual trough of mercury, designed to measure the “luminous ether”; they did not detect the presumed to exist “ether”, which provided evidence that “ether” does not exist; first slate: 175|#310 (Dec 2020).
M American
317.
Steady.png
175 Taylor 75.png Robert Taylor
(1784-1844)
2.92 60 M English
318. 175 No image 2.png Telauges
(c.540-470BC)
70 (CR:6) Mathematician and philosopher;
Empedocles was a student of Telauges in the time when Heraclitus the obscure was well known.”
Eusebius (c.330), Preparation Evangelica (10.14.15)

son of Pythagoras; teacher of Empedocles; first-slate: 175|#311 (Dec 2020).

M Greek
319.
Wavy.png
175 Sanger 75.png Frederick Sanger

(1918-2013)

1.84 85 (Becker 160:149|2L) M English
320.
Up.png
175 Frederick II 75.png Frederick II

(1194-1250)

3.13 56 M Italian-born German
321.
Wavy.png
175 Macaulay 75.jpg Thomas Macaulay

(1800-1859)

IQ W.png=180

IQ C.png=175

2.97 59 (Cattell 1000:90) (CR:5) Historian and politician;

“Great minds react on a society which has made them what they are, but they only pay with the interest what they have received.” — Thomas Macaulay (1825), “Essay on John Dryden”; cited by Newell Sims (1924) in Society and Surplus (pg. 344) Noted for his 1848 five-volume History of England wherein, in volume four, he details the trial and execution of Thomas Aikenhead.

M English
322.
Up.png
175 Lucian 75.png Lucian

(c.120-190AD)

2.50 70 M Roman
323.
Up.png
175 Stevin 75.png Simon Stevin
(407-335 BE)
(1548-1620 ACM)
2.43 72
Stevin inclined plane.png
Mathematician, engineer, and polymath, noted for his 1586 Statics and Hydrostatics, wherein he gave the first complete statement of the impossibility of perpetual motion, and also derived the notion of the vectorial decomposition of forces, according to which force that must be exerted along the line of greatest slope to support a given weight on an inclined plane; teacher of Isaac Beeckman.
M Dutch
324.
Wavy.png
175 Fuller 75.png Margaret Fuller

(1810-1850)

4.38 40 F American
325.
Wavy.png
175 Haller 75.png Albrecht Haller (1708-1777) IQ C.png=190 2.54 69 (Simmons 100:42) M Swiss
326.
Down.png
175 Lope de Vega 75.jpg Lope de Vega
(413-320 BE)
(1562-1635 ACM)
IQ C.png=190 2.43 72 Playwright, poet, novelist, and marine. M Spanish
327.
Up.png
175 Petrarch 75.png Petrarch

(1304-1374)

2.54 69 M Italian
328.
Steady.png
175 Bolingbroke 75.png Lord Bolingbroke

(1678-1751)

M English
329.
Wavy.png
175 Avogadro 75.png Amedeo Avogadro
(1799-99 BE)
(1776-1856 ACM)
(SIG:15) (Becker 160:59|4L) M Italian
330.
Down.png
175 Agassiz 75.jpg Louis Agassiz

(1807-1873)

IQ C.png=175 M Swiss-born American
331.
Wavy.png
175 Onnes 75.png Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes

(1853-1926)

(Simmons 100:61) M Dutch
332.
Up.png
175 No image 2.png Jean Robinet

(1735-1820)

Robinet evolution model.png
(CR:9) Physicist philosopher, naturalist, encyclopedist, and early evolutionist;
“To the inferior beings, such as minerals and vegetables, we refer all the phenomena that occur to matter, as the principle constituent (le fond principle) of these beings. A little higher in the scale, we begin to doubt; we are undecided. We remark a ‘spontaneity’ of movements and operations which discloses an ‘active principle’ which we cannot but attribute to them.”
— Jean Robinet (1768), Philosophical View of the Natural Gradation of the Forms of Being

noted for his five-volume 1761 to 1768 Natural Gradation of Forms, wherein he argues, that humans “metamorphosized” over time back through the fish species; and that “spontaneity” of movement, based on a “gradation of forces”, is what differentiates the higher beings, e.g. man, from the lower beings, e.g. minerals, vegetables, and fish; was the second, following Leibnitz, to promote a “living atom” theory, according to which “all matter contained both life and soul, and that organisms were simply combinations of these living atoms” (Curran, 2012); 112-candidate; first slating: #300 (Nov 2020).

M French
333.
Up.png
175 Ramon Llull 75.png Ramon Llull
(723-640 BE)
(1232-1315 ACM)
2.11 83 (Cattell 1000:517) (PR:.094|65AE / philosopher:131) (GCE:44) (TL:16) Chemist and philosopher,
“If understanding followed no rule at all, there would be no good in the understanding nor in the matter understood, and to remain in ignorance would be the greatest good.”
— Ramon Llull (c.1300), The Hundred Names of God

Noted for his 1926 encyclopedia entitled Tree of Science (Arbor Scientaie), depicting a “tree of knowledge”; for his 1303 “scale of intellect” diagram (see: great chain of being), connecting earth with the abode of god, showing organized bodies, including fire, in the main scale; a discussed (Ѻ) potential top 1000 genius candidate; 112-candidate; first-slating:#325 (Nov 2020).

M Spanish
334.
Wavy.png
175 Bichat 75.jpg Marie Bichat
(1771-1802)
IQ C.png=175 M French
335.
Up.png
175 Galvani 75.png Luigi Galvani

(1737-1798)

M Italian
336.
Up.png
175 Cardano 75.png Gerolamo Cardano
(454-379 BE)
(1501-1576 ACM)
IQ C.png=175 (Murray 4000:14|M) (Eells 100:10) (GME:13) (EP:5) (TL:29) Mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astronomer, philosopher, gambler, an “accused atheist” (Lessing, c.1755), polymath, characterized a “tormented towering renaissance figure” (Ѻ) and “eccentric genius” (Ѻ), noted for [] M Italian
337.
Wavy.png
175 Polybius 75.png Polybius

(c.200-118BC)

M Greek
338.
Wavy.png
175 Millikan 75.png Robert Millikan

(1868-1953)

M American
339.
Wavy.png
175 Bethe 75.png Hans Bethe
(49 BE-50 AE)
(1906-2005 ACM)
1.79 98 (PR:5,977|65AE / physicist:141) (RGM:268|1,350+) (Becker 160:144) (Simmons 100:58) (GPE:66) (GAE:#) (Landau scale:1.5) (CR:12) (LH:4) (TL:16) Physicist, noted for his work, with Enrico Fermi, on the development of exchange force theory; and for his 1939 work on stelar nucleosynthesis, wherein he showed how the proton-proton chain reaction, by showing how proton can beta decay into a neutron via the weak interaction during the brief moment of fusion, making deuterium the initial product in the chain, therein showing how reactions in stars could produce elements sized up to nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen; first-slating: 175|#305 (Oct 2020). M German-born American
340.
Up.png
175 Varro 75.png Marcus Varro
(2071-1982 BE)
(116-27 BCM)
(619-708 AUC)
1.97 89 (Cattell 1000:427) (PR:2,556|65AE / writer:265) (TL:10) Scholar, politician, and philosopher; M Roman
341.
Wavy.png
175 Mary Shelley 75.png Mary Shelley
(158-104 BE)
(1797-1851 ACM)
(EPD:M11D) (GFG:6) (CR:56) Novelist and philosopher; F English
342.
Up.png
175 Pasteur 75.png Louis Pasteur

(1822-1895)

IQ O.png=185[8]IQ JP.png=180+

IQ O.png=155

Pasteur crystals.png
[RGM:113|1,350+] (Murray 4000:1|M / 11|CS) (Becker 160:7|14L) (Simmons 100:5) (Partington 50:49) (Hart 100:6) (Singh 100:82) (GCE:#) (CR:19) Chemist;

“Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world.” — Louis Pasteur (c.1880), Publication became famous when in 1948 he founded the stereochemistry, after going through and hand-picking tartaric acid crystals (from fruit), and solved the problem of opposite rotation of polarized light by laevo-tartarate and dextro-tartarate, by showing that the two substances formed mirror-image crystalline forms; noted for the principles of pasteurization (eponymously named), vaccination, and microbial fermentation.

M French
343.
Wavy.png
175 Leeuwenhoek 75.png Antonie Leeuwenhoek

(1632-1723)

(Becker 160:53|4L) (Simmons 100:55) M Dutch
344.
Wavy.png
175 Pherecydes 75.png Pherecydes

(c.580-520BC)

M Greek
345.
Steady.png
175 Whewell 75.png William Whewell

(1794-1866)

M English
346.
Up.png
175 Lubicz 75.png Rene Lubicz
(68 BE-6 AE)
(1887-1961 ACM)
2.36 74 (RMS:115) (TL:17) Chemist, physicist, Egyptologist, religio-mythology scholar, and thing philosopher; M German-born French
347.
Down.png
175 Salvador Dali

(1904-1989)

IQ B.png=175
Dali soft watches.png
[RGM:426|1,350+] Surreal artist;

“Now sexual obsessions are the basis of artistic creation. Accumulated frustration leads to what Freud calls the process of sublimation. Anything that does not take place ‘erotically’ sublimates itself in the work of art.” — Salvador Dali (c.1960), Publication [9] Noted for his The Persistence of a Memory (1931) painting, adjacent, wherein the “soft watches” were not inspired by the theory of relativity (a question put to him by Prigogine), but by the surrealist perception of a Camembert (cheese circle) melting in the sun; considered himself a “genius”, as describes in his Diary of a Genius (1964) (Ѻ), akin to a striving to be “Nietzsche of the irrational” or an “almost divine genius like Raphael”.

M Spanish
348.
Wavy.png
175 Picasso 75.png Pablo Picasso

(1881-1973)

IQ B.png=175

IQ SS.png=175

M Spanish-born French
349.
Wavy.png
175 Sidis 75.png William Sidis
(57-11 BE)
(1898-1944 ACM)
IQ O.png=250-300[10]IQ O.png=200 3.80 46 (RGM:838|1,350+) (Norlinger 22:35) (TL:173) Mathematician, physicist, the result of a forced prodigy experiment, noted for his 1920 The Animate and the Inanimate, wherein he attempted to explain the origin of animate forms according to reversibility and second law, within the context of then-current cosmology models. M American
350.
Wavy.png
175 Stephenson 75.png George Stephenson
(1781-1848)
IQ B.png=173 M English
351.
Wavy.png
175 Aeschylus

(c.523-456BC)

IQ B.png=173 M Greek
352.
Up.png
175 Honore Balzac 75.png Honore Balzac
(156-105 BE)
(1799-1850 ACM)
IQ C.png=155 3.43 51 (Cattell 1000:448) (RGM:191|1,350+) (PR:141|65AE / writer:15) (Gottlieb 1000:254) (Choueiri 115:81) (SN:55) (TL:44) Philosopher, novelist, and playwright; M French
353.
Steady.png
175 Jacob Bernoulli

(1654-1705)

M Swiss
354.
Down.png
175 Arnold Sommerfeld
(87-4 BE)
(1868-1951 ACM)
2.13 82 (PR:5,977|65AE / physicist:141) (TL:8) Theoretical physicist; M German
355.
Down.png
175 Alfred Musset

(1810-1857)

IQ C.png=180 M French
356.
Wavy.png
175 Theophrastus 75.png Theophrastus
(2326-2242 BE)
(c.371-287 BCM)
2.08 84 (PR:1,570|65AE / philosopher:101) (FA:22) (TL:9) Philosopher, aka “the most elegant and erudite of philosophers “ (Cicero, c.45BC) and a "universal genius" (Cap, 1851); M Greek
357.
Down.png
175 Robert Peel

(1788-1850)

IQ C.png=180 M English
358. 175 James Chadwick
(1891-1974)
83 (Becker 160:139|2L) Physicist; noted for his 1932 discovery of the neutron—though, technically, Ettore Majorana, independently, arrived at the same conclusion, namely the existence of a “heavy neutral particle”, as he termed it, within the same period that year; first-slate: 175|#350 (Dec 2020). M English
359. 175 Edward Guggenheim
(54 BE-19 AE)
(1901–1970 ACM)
68 (CR:82) Physical chemist; noted for his 1933 Modern Thermodynamics: by the Methods of Willard Gibbs, at which point, combined with Gilbert Lewis' Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances (1923), chemical thermodynamics, as a science, became "modern"; first-slate: 175|#350 (Dec 2020). M English
360.
Up.png

Up.png

175 Claude Bernard
(142-77 BE)
(1813-1878 ACM)
2.73 64 [RGM:686|1,350+] (Murray 4000:12|B) (Simmons 100:13) (Oduenyi 100:80) (Simmons 100:13) (Singh 100:94) (CR:24) Physician;
“When we meet a fact which contradicts a prevailing theory, we must accept the fact and abandon the theory, even when the theory is supported by great names and generally accepted.”
— Claude Bernard (1865), An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (pg. 164)

Noted as founder of general physiology  (Henderson, 1927); for his views on relation of chemistry, heat, and life; commonly known for his "homeostasis" theory, namely that "stability of the internal environment [the milieu intérieur] is the condition for the free and independent life", and for his discoveries concerning the role of the pancreas in digestion; characterized by Paul Bert and his colleagues as a “great priest of atheism” (Ѻ); influenced: Bayliss, Lotka, Henderson; first-slating: 160|#501 (2019); upgraded to 175|#350 (Nov 2020).

M French
361.
Wavy.png
175 Arnauld 75.png Antoine Arnauld
(343-261 BE)
(1612-1694 ACM)
IQ C.png=190 2.13 82 (Cattell 1000:447) (Choueiri 115:20) (Stokes 100:34) Theologian, philosopher and mathematician; defender of the views of Cornelius Jansen (aka Jansenist movement), which held heretical doctrines on the nature of free will and predestination; defended by Blaise Pascal; correspondent with Leibniz on his monism views on matter; M French
362.
Wavy.png
175 Sophocles 75.png Sophocles

(498-406)

IQ B.png=173 M Greek
363.
Wavy.png
175 No image 2.png Stephen Gray

(1696-1736)

Gray experiment.png
(Cattell 1000:644) (CR:3) electrical experimenter, astronomer, chemist, and dyer; noted for his 1708 to 1729 experiments, wherein he invented the “electric cord”; 112-candidate; first-slating: #325 (Nov 2020).
M English
364.
Down.png
175 Carnegie 75.png Andrew Carnegie

(1835-1918)

IQ B.png=175 M Scottish-born American
365.
Down.png
175 Duchamp 75.png Marcel Duchamp

(1887-1968)

IQ B.png=180 M French-born American
366.
Down.png
175 Thou 75.jpg Jacques Thou

(1553-1617)

IQ C.png=175 M French
367.
Wavy.png
175 Marvin Minsky 75.png Marvin Minsky
(1927-2016)
IQ MC.png=200+ Mathematician, computer scientist, and artificial intelligence researcher;
“The idea of ‘dualism’, that there's a ‘physical’ world and a ‘mental’ world is just ignorance.”
— Marvin Minsky (1999), “What is the Mind-Body Problem” (Ѻ), Closer to the Truth

aka “father of AI”, co-founder of the MIT AI laboratory; an IQ:200+ missing candidate (Ѻ); Isaac Asimov (1980) conceded that Minsky and Carl Sagan both were smarter than he was; his 1999 “Closer to the Truth” (Ѻ) response to queries on mind, dualism, and “mind-body problem” were sharp, to say the least; slated at IQ:175 (Oct 2020).

M American
IQ 175 up.png
368.
Up.png
170 Meslier 75.png Jean Meslier

(1664-1729)

M French
369.
Up.png
170 Zeno of Citium 75.png Zeno of Citium

(c.334-c.262BC)

(Becker 139:102|3L) M Greek
370.
Wavy.png
170 Coulomb 75.png Charles Coulomb
(219-149 BE)
(1736-1806 ACM)
70
Coulomb torsion balance.png
(PR:1,673|65AE / physicist:35) (Becker 160:82|#L) (SIG:16) (TL:18) Physicist, civil engineer, and military engineer; noted for his 1785 construction of charge measuring torsion balance, with which he experimentally showed that the force of attraction (or repulsion) between the two charged spheres is proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of their distance of separation.
M French
371.
Up.png
170 No image 2.png Charvaka
(c.650-575 BCM)
Brahma (Brahmanism).jpg
(Murray 4000:7|IP) Materialist atheism philosopher (or his school);
“Uncivilized ignorant fools, who imagine that spirit is something different from body, and reaps the rewards of actions in future state; we might as well expect to find excellent fruit drip from trees growing in the air.”
— Anon (c.600BC), Charvaka position; voice of: Passion in The Rise of the Moon Intellect (1200)
“In this school the four elements, earth, air, water fire, are the original principles; from these alone, when transformed into the body, intelligence is produced, just as the inebriating power is developed from the mixing of certain ingredients [e.g. Kinwa producing fermentation in the manufacture of spirits from sugar, bassia, &c]; and when these are destroyed, intelligence at once perishes also.”
— Vidyaranya (1331), Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy

Noted for employing the Empedoclean four elements theory to explain everything, while also rejecting all Vedic supernaturalism: (Ѻ) that Brahma (the Indian rescript of Ra), the creator god, was a puppeteer, who controlled the actions (karma) of people as well as the divas, by three ropes (gunas); first-slating: #360 (Nov 2020).

M Indian
372.
Up.png
170 Lichtenberg 75.png Georg Lichtenberg (213-156 BE) (1742-1799 ACM) 3.04 56 (FA:97) (TL:7) Physicist, philosopher, and satirist; M German
373.
Wavy.png
170 Poisson 75.png Simeon Poisson

(1781-1840)

M French
374.
Up.png
170 Akhenaten (c.1380-1335BC).png Akhenaten
(3335-3290 BE)
(c.1380-1335 BCM)
IQ O.png=215
Aten.png
(GAEG:2) (PR:220|65AE / politician:55) (Time 100:2) (FA:1) (TL:49) Pharaoh and religion reformer;
Ikhnaton, who sought to reform religious conceptions in the light of reason is the ‘first individual’ in history.”
— J.H. Breasted (c.1910), Publication; cited by Roderick Seidenberg (1950) in Post-Historic Man (pg. 86)

Generally credited as the person who moved the world, or at least Egypt, from a henotheism-based state religion, i.e. one supreme god (see: supreme god timeline) + lesser gods, to monotheism-based state religion, one god (Aten), where god became, a few anthropomorphisms aside (e.g. Aten's finger), the the heat or energy of the sun; oft-cited as the person behind the character “Moses” (Freud, 1939); IQ fictionally stated to be 215 (Ѻ); first-draft guestimated at 170|#250 per “greatest black geniuses” page start (Jun 2017).

M Egyptian
375.
Wavy.png
170 Lamarck 75.png Jean Lamarck

(1744-1829)

(Becker 160:110|3L) (Simmons 100:69) M French
376.
Wavy.png
170 No image 2.png Daniel Scargill

(1647-c.1690)

[FA:53] (CR:4) Hobbesian-Epicurean stylized mechanical philosopher;

“There is desirable glory in being, and being reputed, an atheist; which I implied when I expressly affirmed that I gloried to be a Hobbist and an atheist.” — Daniel Scargill (1669), “Recantation” at Cambridge University Noted for his age 21 thesis which asserted that the origin of the world could be explained mechanically, after which he was expelled from Cambridge, and was not allowed to return until he made a “public recantation” of his presumed errors; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 170|#336 (Nov 2020).

M English
377.
Wavy.png
170 Regiomontanus 75.png Regiomontanus

(1436-1467)

M German
378.
Wavy.png
170 Hubble 75.png Edwin Hubble

(1889-1953)

(Becker 160:22|8L) (Simmons 100:30) M American
379.
Wavy.png
170 Savery 75.png Thomas Savery

(c.1650-1715)

M English
380.
Wavy.png
170 Weber 75.png Max Weber

(1864-1920)

M German
381.
Wavy.png
170 Giovanni Borelli 75.png Giovanni Borelli

(1608-1679)

Inverse square law.png
Physiologist, physicist, and mathematician; his Theory of the Planets (1666) is cited, in the heated correspondence of Newton (1686), along with the theories of Ishmael Bullialdus (1645), Christiaan Huygens (1673), Christopher Wren (1677) as being the originators of the inverse square law of gravity, in opposition to Robert Hooke’s claim that he (1666, 1670, 1679) was the first to propose the inverse square law (Ѻ)(Ѻ) and taught or suggested the idea to Newton
M Italian
382.
Wavy.png
170 Blum 75.png Harold Blum
(56 BE-25 AE)
(1899-1980 ACM)
Blum Time's Arrow and Evolution.png
(EvT:20|21+) (CR:55) Physicochemical physiologist, zoologist, and pioneer of the biologic (chnopsologic) study of light; noted for 1934 his “A Consideration of Evolution from a Thermodynamic View-Point”, cites Lawrence Henderson (1913) and Gilbert Lewis (1923), to outline a coupling theory plus free energy decrease based theory of orthogenesis conceptualized evolution, in the form of what he refers to as "chemical peneplanation", i.e. an synonym the semi-modern term Gibbs landscapes; his 1950 Time’s Arrow and Evolution, aimed to reconcile the second law with organic evolution; 112-name candidate list; first-slating: 170|#340 (Nov 2020).
M American
383.
Up.png
170 Smith 75.png Adam Smith
(232-165 BE)
(1723-1790 ACM)
IQ C.png=170 2.54 67
Invisible hand.png
(Cattell 1000:318) (RGM:77|1,350+) (PR:66|65AE / economist:2) (Stokes 100:50) (EPD:F0) (GEE:#) (TL:60) Social philosopher and political economist; noted for his 1759 Theory of Moral Sentiments, a prelude to his Wealth of Nations (1776), in which he describes his "invisible hand" notion, conceives of people as atoms or particles in a system held together by enforced natural justice.
M Scottish
384.
Wavy.png
170 No image 2.png Seleucus

(c.190-120BC)

M Greek
385.
Up.png
170 No image 2.png Apollonius

(2195-2145 BE)
(c.240-190 BCM)

Apollonius conic sections.jpg
(Cardano 12:6) (GME:24) (Eells 100:20) (Allen 100:34) (CR:5) Mathematician and astronomer; in astronomy, proposed the hypothesis of “eccentric orbits”, later adopted by Ptolemy, to explain the apparently aberrant motion of the planets; in mathematics, his definitions of the terms ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola are the ones in use today; Hypatia penned The Conics of Apollonius; first-slating: 170|#340 per GME and eccentric theory (Oct 2020).
M Greek
386.
Up.png
170 Bach 75.png Johann Bach
(1685-1750)
IQ O.png=180[2]
IQ CB.png=165

IQ C.png=165
IQ B.png=165

[RGM:22|1,350+] (GMG:4) Musician and composer; M German
387.
Wavy.png
170 Huxley 75.png Thomas Huxley
(130-60 BE)
(1825-1895 ACM)
2.43 70 (RGM:412|1,350+) (PR:2,224|65AE / biologist:19) (Gottlieb 1000:799) (FA:142) (TL:134|#82) Natural philosopher, M English
388.
Wavy.png
170 Musschenbroek 75.png Pieter Musschenbroek

(1692-1761)

Leyden jar.png
Scientist; in 1746, building on the electrostatic generator (c.1660) experiments of Guericke, and the electricity storage experiments (c.1742) of George Bose, invented the Leyden jar, the first working capacitor; 112-candidate; first-slating:#345 (Nov 2020).
M Dutch
389.
Wavy.png
170 Diophantus 75.png Diophantus
(c.207-293)
1.98 86 (Murray 4000:13|M) (GME:22) (CR:14) Mathematician; noted as author of a series of books called Arithmetica, many of which are now lost; influenced: Hypatia and Fermat; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 170|#345 (below Legendre) per extant GME rankings (Nov 2020). M Alexandrian
390.
Wavy.png
170 Donder 75.png Theophile Donder
(83 BE-2 AE)
(1872-1957 ACM)
2.02 84 (PR:40,515|65AE / physicist:566) (TL:81) Mathematical physicist and thermodynamicist; M Beligain
390.
Up.png
170 Constantin Volney

(1757-1820)

M French
391.
Steady.png
170 Pearson 75.png Karl Pearson
(98-19 BE)
(1857-1936 ACM)
2.15 79 (PR:7,325|65AE / statistician:4) (TL:67) Mathematician, physicist, philosopher, lawyer, statistician, evolutionist, Germanic literature scholar, M English
392.
Wavy.png
170 Christopher Hitchens
(6 BE-56 AE)
(1949-2011 ACM)
IQ O.png=160

IQ O.png=130-145[11]

IQ O.png=137

62 (RGM:765|1,350+) (FA:215) (RGA:8|375+) (TL:69) Writer, political and literature commentator, and anti-theism atheist; noted for [] M English-born American
393.
Steady.png
170 Virgil

(70BC-19BC)

(Cardano 12:14) M Roman
394.
Wavy.png
170 Georg Hegel

(1770-1831)

IQ C.png=165 (Becker 139:19|13L) (Stokes 100:48) M German
395.
Wavy.png
170 Frederick Soddy
(78 BE-1 AE)
(1877-1956 ACM)
2.15 79 (PR:4,232|65AE / chemist:36) (Murray 4000:18|C) (Thims 33:7) (TL:72|#149) Physical chemist, radiochemist, economist, and philosopher,;
“The laws [of thermodynamics], which express the relation between matter and energy, govern the rise and fall of political systems, the freedom or bondage of societies, the movements of commerce and industries, the origin of wealth and poverty, and the general physical welfare of a people.”
— Frederick Soddy (1911), Matter and Energy (pg. 10-11)

Noted for his 1911 to 1921 publications on relationship of matter, energy, and thermodynamics to economics; a 2019 “missing top 1,000 genius candidate” (Ѻ).

M English
396.
Up.png

Up.png

170 Marcellin Berthelot
(1827-1907)
(CR:45) (Partington 50:50) Physical chemist;

“It is the object of these researchers to do away with life as an explanation, wherever organic chemistry is concerned.” — Marcellin Berthelot (c.1865), Publication; cited by Forris Moore (1918) in A History of Chemistry (pg. 204); cited by George Scott (1895) in Atoms of the Living Flame (pg. 93) noted for his effort to debunk the vital force theory, for his synthesis theories, for work in introducing terms in thermochemistry, and his thermal theory of affinity, and for his maximum work principle, the latter two of which ultimately superseded by the thermodynamic theory of affinity, but important stepping stones, none the less; 112-candidate; first-slating: #350 (Nov 2020).

M French
397. 170 Brahmagupta
(c.598-668)
70 (Siegfried 10:10) (Allen 100:20) (GME:#) (GAE:#) (CR:6) Mathematician and astronomer;
“The sum of two positives is ‘positive’, of two negatives is ‘negative’; the sum of a positive and a negative is their difference; if they are equal it is zero. The sum of a negative and zero is negative, that of a positive and zero positive, and that of two zeros is zero.”
— Brahmagupta (628), Corrected Doctrine of Brahma (§18.30)

Noted for his 628 Corrected Doctrine of Brahma, wherein, building on the zero symbol usage by Aryabhata (c.525), treats “zero” as a number, and not just a placeholder (as the Babylonians had done), and to uses “negative” numbers (for addition, subtraction, and multiplication), a concept thought to be “absurd” by the Greeks; in his chapter “Lunar Crescent”, of his Corrected Doctrine of Brahma (628), refuted the scriptural view that the moon is farther away from the earth than the sun;

“The earth on all its sides is the same; all people on the earth stand upright, and all heavy things fall down to the earth by a law of nature, for it is the nature of the earth to attract and to keep things, as it is the nature of water to flow. If a thing wants to go deeper down than the earth, let it try. The earth is the only low thing, and seeds always return to it, in whatever direction you may throw them away, and never rise upwards from the earth.”
— Aryabhata (c.640), Publication; cited by Al Biruni (c.1030) in India (pg. #)

Building on the heliocentric model of Aryabhata (c.525), used the term “guruthvakarshan” (aka gravity) for the attractive that pulls objects toward the earth; supposedly, he only made scant mentions of his gravity theory; most of his notions on this are found in quotations of other in documenting his work.[12]; first-slate: 170|#385 (Dec 2020).

M Indian
398.
Wavy.png
170 Johann Fichte

(1762-1814)

IQ C.png=165 (Becker 139:116|3L) M German
399.
Wavy.png
170 Henricus Grammateus

(c.14494-1525)

Mathematician; noted for his 1518 A New Skill Book, wherein the “+” and “-“ symbols were first used in the modern mathematical sense; plus and minus symbols only came into general use in England after they were used by Robert Recorde in in 1557 in The Whetstone of Witte, who wrote, "There be other 2 signes in often use of which the first is made thus + and betokeneth more: the other is thus made - and betokeneth lesse"; “addition equation”, in the form of 1 + 1 = 2, is ranked at #7 in Crease's Twenty Greatest Equations of All-Time (2004); 112-candidate; first-slating:#350 (Nov 2020). M German
400.
Wavy.png
170 Murray Gell-Mann

(1929-2019)

(RGM:681|#1,350+) (Simmons 100:45) (GPE:#) (SPE 2014:3|25+) (CR:22) Physicist and philosopher; after being an age 14 Yale prodigy, achieved fame for his 1961 eight-fold way classification of particle physics, understood by a new field of physics he called "quantum chromodynamics", in parallel to quantum electrodynamics, noted for his coining of "quantum flapdoodle" for people who used quantum mechanics incorrectly to argue for nonsense; 112-candidate; in the 1980s, he founded the Santa Fe Institute, for research on complexity theory, which has produced some notable work, e.g. Eric Smith (c.2003); characterized as the man “who knows everything” (Berreby, 1994) (Ѻ); first-slating:#350 (Nov 2020). M American

Discussion

Of note, in the top 201-400 genius range (29 Oct 2020), we have, in terms of sex: 4 females; in terms of nationality: 38 English, 31 French, 21 Greek, 20 German, 17 Americans, 12 Italian, 6 Roman, 6 Dutch, 6 Scottish, 3 Swiss, 3 Austrian, 3 Spanish, 2 Chinese, 2 Egyptian, 2 Russian, 2 Arabian, 2 Indians, 2 English-born American, 2 Scottish-born American, 1 Alexandrian, 1 American-born Canadian, 1 Andalusian, 1 Austrian-born English, 1 Belgian, 1 Danish, 1 Dutch-born Swiss, 1 French-born American, 1 German-born American, 1 German-born French, 1 Greco-Egyptian, 1 Greek-Egyptian born Italian, 1 Indian-born American, 1 Irish-born American, 1 Italian-born German, 1 Prussian, 1 Russian-born American, 1 Spanish-born French, 1 Swiss-born American, 1 Syrian, 1 Turkish.

Divides

180 divide

Presently, there are 141-names in the 180+ (to previous divide) range.

175 divide

Presently, there are 142-names in the 175+ (to previous divide) range.

End matter

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References

  1. What was Edgar Allan Poe’s IQ level? (2013) – Yahoo Answers.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Not Enough Artists (2013) – Hmolpedia Forum.
  3. Marri. (c.1010). The Luzumiyat (translator: Ameen Rihani) (txt). Publisher, 1920.
  4. Philoepisteme. (2018). “10 Candidates: Already Written About” (post: #15), Hmolpedia 2020 Forum, Jul 14.
  5. 5.0 5.1 IQ of Famous People [WB] (2007) – AceIntelligence.com.
  6. Missing Medieval Genius (Philoepisteme, 2020) – Hmolpedia Forum.
  7. (a) Tartaglia, Niccolo. (c.1545). Jordanus: a Small Treatise: Correction Study with New Growth Figures (Iordani: Opusculum de ponderositate, Nicolai Tartaleae studio correctum novisque figuris auctum) (abs). Publisher, 1565.
    (b) Middleton, William E. (1964). The History of the Barometer (pg. 5). Publisher.
  8. What is the IQ of Louis Pasteur? (2009) – Yahoo Answers.
  9. Turner, Genius. (2017). “How to Become a Genius at Something” (Ѻ), Final Species Code, blog, Oct 2.
  10. IQ:200+ (references) – (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  11. Did Christopher Hitchens ever take and official IQ test? (2017) – Quora.
  12. Czamecki, Kevin. (2016). Gravity (pg. 35). Square.
Theta Delta ics T2.jpg