Top 2000 candidates

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In genius studies, top 2000 candidates refers to seeming-to-be missing and or potential top 2000 range minds or intellects, not found (see: full list) in the current top 2000 geniuses and minds rankings, some of which being slated below, per various avenues of discussion and suggestion.

Candidates | Unordered

See also: Higher minds, 1-200, 201-400, 401-600, 601-800, 801-1,000, 1,001-1,200, 1,201-1,400, 1,401-1,600, 1,601-1,800, 1,801-2,000, Full list, Candidates

The listing of potential candidates of possible “missing names” from the top 2000 geniuses, intellects, and new minds rankings; listed below as being on the back-burner, processing, or digesting stage, many being newly-found or newly-suggested. Some, to note, are quick-adds, who based a certain intuitive obviousness, seem, conceptually, to be top 2000 name additions; but were added when time was short, to slate property (the numbers shown, indicate the recentness of when they were added):[1]

# Person D A Overview G Country
Amerigo Vespucci


First to propose that the Americas (named after him) were not the “edge of Asia” (as Columbus proposed), but that it was a new continent or “new world” (1501) as he called it.
Victoria Woodhull
(117-28 BE)
(1838-1927 ACM)
Joseph Needham
(55 BE-40 AE)
(1900-1995 ACM)
John O'brien 75.png John Obrien
(5-39 AE)
(1960-1994 ACM)
33 Author of Leaving Las Vegas (1990). Committed suicide by gunshot, at his Beverly Hills apartment on 10 Apr 1994, two weeks after learning that his novel, Leaving Las Vegas, was to be made into a movie. M American
Cesare Beccaria 75.png Cesare Beccaria (217-161 BE) (1738-1794 ACM) 56 (PR:2,892|65AE / philosopher:164) (Gottlieb 1000:474) (LH:3) Philosopher, and penal law reformer, aka “father of penology”; M Italian
Charles Overton


Discovered the phospholipid by layer of cell membranes (1889); a key advancement in the "no thought without phosphorus" conjecture.
Moleschott 75.png Jacob Moleschott
(133-62 BE)
(1822-1893 ACM)
70 M Dutch
Hauriou 75.png Maurice Hauriou
(99-26 BE)
(1856-1929 ACM)
73 (SN:20) (TL:27) Law professor and thermodynamics based social philosopher; M French
Alvin Kuhn 75.png Alvin Kuhn
(75 BE-8 AE)
(1880-1963 ACM)
82 (RMS:111) (TL:20) Religio-mythology scholar,
Kuhn is a man of immense learning and even greater courage. He is one of the single greatest geniuses of the twentieth century, who towers above all others of recent memory in intellect and his understanding of the world's religions.”
Tom Harpur (2004), The Pagan Christ (pg. #)
M American
Stewart 75.png John Q. Stewart
(61 BE-17 AE)
(1894-1972 ACM)
78 (SN:16) M American
Josef Loschmidt 75.png Josef Loschmidt
(134-60 BE)
(1821-1895 ACM)
74 (PR:11,878|65AE / chemist:169) (HGC:163) (TL:9) Physical chemist; M Austrian
Caus 75.png Salomon Caus
(379-329 BE)
(1576-1626 ACM)
50 (EP:9) (TL:17) Engineer, architect, and mathematician; M French
Jean Perrin 75.png Jean Perrin
(85-13 BE)
(1870-1942 ACM)
71 Proved that atoms exist [!] by calculating Avogadro's number using three different methods, all involving liquid phase systems. First, he used a gamboge soap-like emulsion, second by doing experimental work on Brownian motion, and third by confirming Einstein’s theory of particle rotation in the liquid phase; one the 1926 Nobel Prize in physics for this. M French
John Stewart (walking) 75.png John Stewart
(208-133 BE)
(1747-1822 ACM)
75 (SN:15) (FA:102) (CR:5) (LH:#) (TL:#) Peregrinating philosopher and co aka “Walking Stewart”, characterized a “modern Pythagoras” (Anon, 1937), noted for his 1790 Moral State of Nations (AB:11), wherein he outlines pantheistic matter and motion theory, the goal of which being to increase the utility, defined as well-being + happiness, of all ‘animated matter’. M Scottish-English
Arthur Clarke 75.png Arthur Clarke
(38 BE-53 AE)
(1917-2008 ACM)
90 (RGM:577|1,350+) (PR:1828|65AE / writer:196) (LH:3) Science fiction writer, futurist, and philosopher; M English
Emil Reymond (1818-1896) One of the four co-signers of the Reymond-Brucke oath (1842), signed in blood.
Ernst Brucke (1819-1892) One of the four co-signers of the Reymond-Brucke oath (1842), signed in blood.
Carl Ludwig

(139-60 BE) (1816-1895 ACM)

One of the four co-signers of the Reymond-Brucke oath (1842), signed in blood.
Mencken 75.png Henry Mencken
(75 BE-1 AE)
(1880-1956 ACM)
75 M American
Johann Glauber 75.png Johann Glauber (351-285 BE) (1604-1670 ACM) 66 (PR:6025|65AE / chemist:70) (Farber 114:8) Chemist, philosopher, and chemical engineer; M German-born Dutch
Conrad Gessner


49 (biologist:25) M Swiss
Ephraim Chambers


60 His 2-volume Cyclopædia: A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, was the seed behind Diderot's 28-volume Encyclopedia. M English
No image 2.png Elizabeth Fulhame
(205-135 BE)
70 (SIG:20) Chemist; credited as inventing catalysis (1794); the unit of which "katal" (mol/s) is associated with her. F English
Oscar Wilde
46 (RGM:121|1,350+) Poet and playwright;
“I have nothing to declare except my genius.”
— Oscar Wilde (1881), reply to custom’s officer upon his arrival to America[2]
M Irish
Lou Costello 75.png Lou Costello
52 Actor; the jokester of the of the 1938 to 1950s comedy duo Abbott and Costello; the highest-paid entertainers in the world during World War II; ranked as #1 comedy duos of all time.[3] Their top ten skits, e.g. who’s on first, Susquehanna Hat Company, Two Tens for a Five, 7 x 13 = 28, etc., are a hilarious play on word and number double meanings.[4] The apex of the transition of the art of radio comedy to television comedy. M American
Bud Abbott 75.png Bud Abbott
76 Actor; the straight man half of the 1938 to 1950s comedy duo Abbott and Costello; they were the highest-paid entertainers in the world during World War II. M American
Robert Howard 75.png Robert Howard
(49-19 BE)
(1906-1936 ACM)
30 Science fiction writer and philosopher;
“Civilized men are more discourteous than savages because they know they can be impolite without having their skulls split, as a general thing.”
— Robert Howard (c.1930), Publication[5]

noted for Conan the Barbarian and Solomon Kane; friends with Howard Lovecraft.

M American
Mikhail Lomonosov 75.png Mikhail Lomonosov
(244-190 BE/AE)
(1711-1765 ACM)
53 (RGM:176|1,350+) (PR:2,646|65AE / physicist:57) (Farber 114:15) (LH:2) Physicist, chemist, astronomer, poet, and generally characterized polymath, aka "Russian Pindar" (Starikovksy, 2013); noted for [] M Russian
Edgar Pierce 75.png Edgar Pierce
(85-26 BE)
(1870-1929 ACM)
59 Psychologist, philosopher, businessman, and philanthropist; M American
Charles Bukowski 75.png Charles Bukowski
(RGM:506|1,350+) (PR:762|65AE / writer:92) Poet, novelist, and short story writer;
“If you’re going to ‘try’, go all the way. Otherwise, don’t even start.”
— Charles Bukowski (1985), Publication (Ѻ)
“Some people never go ‘crazy’. What truly horrible lives they must lead?”
— Charles Bukowski (c.1970), Publication
“I’d rather be reading Bukowski.”
— Anon (2015), Bumper sticker; seen by Thims (2021) in Chicago, Apr 3
“The ‘free’ soul is rare, but you know it when you see it; basically, because you feel good, when you are near or with them.”
— Charles Bukowski (c.1980), Publication
M German-born American
Al Capone 75.png Al Capone
IQ O.png=95 48 Prohibition era gangster and businessman; co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit; character behind the 1932 and 1983 Scarface films, colloquially-ranked as one of the top five manliest moves of all time. M American
George Patton 75.png George Patton
60 (RGML:64|400+)[6] Military commander; noted for leding the Third Army, against the Germans, to take Berlin, thus bringing an end to WWII. M American
Leonidas 75.png Leonidas
45 (RGML:37|400+)[6] Spartan king; legendary for leading the 300 elite Spartan troops against the Achaemenid Empire of Xerxes during the three day battle at Thermopylae, aka the “hot gates”; a top 100 generals of all time.[7] M Greek
No image 2.png Henry Briggs
68 Mathematician, astronomer, and navigator;
“The logarithms of Napier and Briggs, by shortening the labors, doubled the life of the  astronomer.”
Pierre Laplace (c.1800), Publication

Noted for his c.1618 idea to convert John Napier's logarithms into base 10 logarithms, which were easier to work with.

M English
Quintilian 75.png Quintilian
65 (Cattell 1000: 608) Educator and rhetorician; a Cardano 12 runner-up. M Roman
Jabir Aflah 75.png Jabir Aflah
60 (Cardano 12:10) Astronomer and mathematician; M Spanish
No image 2.png John Suisset
70 (Cardano 12:6) Mathematician and scientist; aka the "calculator", admired by Cardano, Scaliger, and Leibniz.[8] M English
Archytas 75.png Archytas
62 (Cardano 12:7) (Allen 100:52) Philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist; student of Philolaus; friend of Plato; teacher of Eudoxus. M Greek
Noah Webster 75.png Noah Webster
84 Lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English language-spelling reformer, political writer, and author;
“But what is a ‘Gam’? You might wear out your index-finger running up and down the columns of dictionaries, and never find the word. Dr. Johnson never attained to that erudition; Noah Webster’s ark does not hold it. Nevertheless, this same expressive word has now for many years been in constant use among some fifteen thousand true born Yankees. Certainly, it needs a definition, and should be incorporated into the Lexicon. With that view, let me learnedly define it. GAM (Noun)—A social meeting of two (or more) Whaleships, generally on a cruising-ground; when, after exchanging hails, they exchange visits by boats’ crews: the two captains remaining, for the time, on board of one ship, and the two chief mates on the other.
Herman Melville (1851), Moby Dick (§53: the Gam)

Noted for his 1828 An American Dictionary of the English Language, containing a record-breaking 70,000 entries (previous record: 58,000 entries; Samuel Johnson's 1755 Dictionary of the English Language: 43,000 entries), the result of two-decades of study, including learning 26-languages, to better understand the etymology of words, and a year abroad in Paris and the University of Cambridge; as a spelling reformer, he believed that British-English words were unnecessarily complex, hence, he simplified spelling as follows: colour with color, waggon with wagon, and centre with center; a upgrade that is ongoing to this very day.  

M American
John Walker 75.png John Walker
78 Chemist; noted for his 1826 discovery that chemically-dipped match sticks ignite by friction on the earth, and therefrom invented friction matches, which he sold in boxes, with attached sandpaper. M English
David Warren 75.png David Warren
Black box (Warren, 1953).png
Fuels and energy research scientist; noted for his 1953 invention of the "black box" recording device of airplanes.[9]
M Australian
Alexander Scriabin 75.png Alexander Scriabin
43 (RGM:190|1,350+) (PR:2146|65AE / Composers:73) Pianist; composer, and philosopher; influenced in music by Chopin; influenced in philosophy by Nietzsche and his uberman; influenced in religion by Helena Blavatsky and her theosophy; M Russian
George Uhlenbeck 75.png George Uhlenbeck
87 (PR:22,604|65AE / Physicists:370) Physicist; noted for his 1925 “ingenious suggestion” (Heitler, 1956), developed with Samuel Goudsmit, that an electron, in addition to its orbital motion, has a “spinning motion”, aka they introduced the concept of electron spin. M Dutch-born American
Samuel Goudsmit 75.png Samuel Goudsmit
76 (PR:25,589|65AE / Physicists:404) Physicist; noted as being the 1925 co-developer, with George Uhlenbeck, of the concept of electron spin. M Dutch-born American
Pieter Zeeman.png Pieter Zeeman
78 (PR:1,824|65AE / Physicists:40) (Kanowitz 50:31) (GPE:92) Physicist; student of Kamerlingh Onnes and Hendrik Lorentz; noted for his 1896 discovery that certain spectral lines, emitted by atoms, when passed through a strong magnetic field, split up into several lines, aka Zeeman effect (Heitler, 1956). M Dutch
Johann Balmer 75.png Johann Balmer
72 (PR:4,282|65AE / Physicists:97) Mathematician and physicist; noted for his 1885 derivation of the empirical formula for the visible spectral lines of the hydrogen atom, aka Balmer formula and the Balmer series (Heitler, 1956). M Swiss
Judson Herrick 75.png Judson Herrick
(87 BE-5 AE)
(1868-1960 ACM)
92 M American
Henry Beecher 75.png Henry Beecher
73 Religious reformer;
“The philosophy of one century is the common sense of the next.”
— Henry Beecher (c.1850), Publication; cited by Joshua Green (2013) in Moral Tribes (pg. #)

Embodied the transition in America from “stern Calvinism” to “gospel of love Protestantism”; influenced: Mark Twain, Walt Whitman, and Abraham Lincoln, who attended his Sunday sermons[10]; a top 10 pulpit orator genius (Pond, 1900)[11]; name-dropped in the "court scene" of Good Will Hunting (1997)[12]; brother of Harriet Stowe; dubbed the “most famous man in America” (Applegate, 2008).[13]

M American
Harriet Stowe 75.png Harriet Stowe
85 (RGM:750|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:457) Author and abolitionist; noted for her 1852 Uncle Tom's Cabin, the 2nd best-selling book of the 19th century (behind the Bible), and said to have laid the ground work for the Civil War (1861-65). F American
William Patten 75.png William Patten
(94-23 BE)
(1861-1932 ACM)
71 Zoologist and evolution philosopher; note for his 1920 The Grand Strategy of Evolution, wherein he speculates on the morals of an atom, the conduct of a molecule, and molecular society. M American
John Backus 75.png John Backus
82 Computer scientist; noted for his 1953 brainchild of Fortran, aka "formula translator", the first main programing language in engineering.[14] M American
Catherine Johnson 75.png Catherine Johnson
Catherine Johnson (moon).png
Mathematician; noted for doing calculated rocket trajectories for the Mercury and Apollo missions, where IBM computers faltered; her work later played a role in getting the first human on the moon; featured in the book Hidden Figures (Shetterly, 2016), and followup film by the same name.
F American
Emil Lenz 75.png Emil Lenz
60 Physicist; noted for his 1834 explanation of why magnets are slowed in their fall through a copper tube, aka Lenz's law. M Russian
Fritz London 75.png Fritz London
(55-1 BE)
(1900-1954 ACM)
54 M German-born American
Julia Robinson 75.png Julia Robinson
(31 BE-30 AE)
(1919-1985 ACM)
IQ O.png=95 65 (EPD:M2) Mathematician;
“One of my earliest memories is of arranging pebbles in the shadow of a giant saguaro, squinting because the sun was so bright. I think that I have always had a basic liking for the natural numbers. To me they are the one real thing. We can conceive of a chemistry which is different from ours, or a biology, but we cannot conceive of a different mathematics of numbers. What is proved about numbers will be a fact in any universe.”
— Julia Robinson (1985), Autobiography (pg. 4) [15]
“We had all been given an intelligence test — I think it was the Otis — while we were still in junior high school. Constance had done very well on it but I, being a slower reader and unaccustomed to taking tests, had done poorly. She found out later, when she was herself a teacher at the high school, that my IQ was recorded as 98, two points below average. The result was that even after we were in college, Constance, who took her classes lightly while devoting herself to the school paper, was being called into the office to find out why she WASN’T ‘doing better’, while I was being called in to find out why I WAS ABLE to perform ‘above’ ability.”
— Julia Robinson (1985), Autobiography (pg. 8); cited by Constance Reid (1996) in Julia: a Life in Mathematics (pg. 15)

Noted for her work on Hilbert’s 10th problem, namely to find an algorithm for determining if a diophantine equation has any integer-valued solutions; she became first female president of American Mathematical Society and first female mathematician admitted to National Academy of Science.[16]

F American
Tom Harpur
(26 BE-62 AE)
(1929-2017 ACM)
87 M Canadian
James Whistler 75.png James Whistler
(1955-52 BE)
(1834-1903 ACM)
69 (RGM:423|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:762) Artist;
“I cannot tell you if genius is hereditary, because heaven has granted me no offspring.”
— James Whistler (c.1865), Publication; cited by Des MacHale (2003) in Wit (pg. 72) [17]
M American
Francis Aston 75.png Francis Aston
(78-10 BE)
(1877-1945 ACM)
68 (Thims 97:58) Chemist and physicist; in 1913 and, following WWI, in 1919, building on the work of Joseph Thomson and Wilhelm Wien, built a mass spectrometer, as shown below:
Mass spectrometer.jpg

that was able to separate single elements into their various “isotopes”, based on mass; and developed the “whole number rule” that isotopes have masses that are integer values of the mass of the hydrogen atom.

M English
John Hughes 75.png John Hughes
(5- BE-54 AE) (1950-2009 ACM)
59 Noted for his view on "isms"; along with writing, directing, and producing some of the most icon American films of all time. M American
Gosta Ehrensvard 75.png Gosta Ehrensvard
(45 BE-25 AE)
(1910-1980 ACM)
70 M Swedish
Lewis Terman 75.png Lewis Terman
(78 BE-1 AE)
(1877-1956 ACM)
79 M American
Eric Berne 75.png Eric Berne
(45 BE-15 AE)
(1910-1970 ACM)
(CR:13) Psychologist; noted for his 1964 Games People Play, wherein, building on psychodynamic work of Sigmund Freud, particularly his theory of ego states, he outlined a theory of social psychodynamics in which each players motives depends on aspects of the mental ‘states’ of the other players in the ‘game’;
“The eternal problem of the human being is how to structure his waking hours. In this existential sense, the function of all social living is to lend mutual assistance for this project.”
— Eric Berne (1964), Games People Play (pg. 2)

a psychology based on the analysis of social transactions.

M Canadian-born American
John Platt 75.png John Platt
(37 BE-37 AE)
(1918-1992 ACM)
74 M American
Colin Maclaurin 75.png Colin Maclaurin
48 M Scottish
Johannes Muller 75.png Johannes Muller
(154-97 BE)
(1801-1858 ACM)
56 M German
Weiss 75.png Albert Weiss
(76-24 BE)
(1879-1931 ACM)
M German-born American
Camillo Golgi 75.png Camillo Golgi
82 Noted for his 1873 silver staining technique called “black reaction” (la reazione nera), aka Golgi stain or Golgi method, which allowed never cells to be seen. M Italian
Santiago Cajal 75.png Santiago Cajal
82 (Becker 160:132) Noted for his 1887 use of the Golgi stain technique to study brain tissue, then thought to be one continuous mesh or net (aka reticular theory), and found that there were individual “nerve cells”, which resulted in the “neuron doctrine”. M Spanish
Otto Deiters
29 First person to differentiate between axons and dendrites. M German
Johnstone Stoney 75.png Johnstone Stoney
(129-44 BE)
(1826-1911 ACM)
85 noted his 1891 coining of the term electron as the “quantity of electricity” that changes when chemical bonds are broken M Irish
Albert Gyorgyi 75 2.png Albert Gyorgyi
(62 BE-31 AE)
(1893-1986 ACM)
93 M Hungarian-born American
Louis Leakey 75.png Louis Leakey
69 Paleoanthropologist and archaeologist; noted for work demonstrating that humans evolved in Africa; name dropped by Dorothy Murdock.[18] M British
Bruce Lee 75.png Bruce Lee
32 M Chinese-born American
Bill Hewlett 75.png Bill Hewlett
87 The co-founder of HP (aka Hewlett-Packard); a noted anecdote was when Steve Jobs, age 12, phoned Hewlett, and asked him for some parts to build a frequency counters.[19] M American
David Packard 75.png David Packard
83 M American
Christopher McCandless 75.png Christopher McCandless
24 M American
Oskar Schindler 75.png Oskar Schindler
66 Industrialist; M Austria-Hungarian born German
William Bragg 75.png William Bragg
(GPE:108) Physicist; noted for pioneering x-ray crystallography, with son Lawrence Bragg, the science that led to the discovery of the structure of DNA. They co-won the 1915 Nobel Prize in physics, making the Lawrence, then age 25, the youngest ever winner to date.
M English
Hans Driesch 75.png Hans Driesch
(88-14 BE) (1867-1941 ACM)
74 (CR:11) Physicist, chemist, zoologist, embryologist, and anti-reductionism holism philosopher;
“By ‘dynamis’, in respect to any thing produced by nature or by art, the statue is already contained in the block of marble. Entelechy is that which ‘is’ in the highest sense of the word, even if it is not strictly a realized thing; in this sense, the statue, before it is realized, exists in the ‘mind’ of the sculptor. We can see that the concept of entelechy rather than that of dynamis corresponds, though not completely, to the modern concept of the potential.”
— Hans Driesch (1914), The History and Theory of Vitalism (pgs. 13-14)

Noted for his 1891 sea urchin embryogenesis mechanism experiments; his Concepts of Nature and Judgments of Nature (1904), wherein he discusses, in formula, Clausius’ entropy, Helmholtz’s free energy, and Ostwald’s energetics, in respect to his new-vitalism Kantian-Aristotle view of biology; and for his 1914 efforts argue that “entelechy” is a soul-like thing, similar to physico-chemical potential, but metaphysical, that directs the development of embryos and the creation of works of art;

M German
Franz Kafka 75.png Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka (caricature).png
(RGM:409|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:233) (Bloom 100:23) Novelist, short-story writer, and existentialist;
“Kafka was a genius who recognized that emergence of the absurdity of the modern world and the existential meaningless of life. He bridged between the great 19th century continental philosophers and the 20th century post modern writers.”
— Michael McGrath (2017), “Was Kafka a literary genius?” [20]

Influences: Goethe, Blaise Pascal, Gustave Flaubert, and Soren Kierkegaard[21]; his work mixes realism and fantastic; grouped with Simone Beauvoir, Albert Camus, Jean Sartre, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and Nietzsche, per Google search ranking commonality; classified as a modern “literary genius” (Quora, 2017).

M Bohemian-born Austrian
Attila 75.png Attila
47 Military leader, ruler of the Hunnic Empire, which he established; M Hun
Cyrus 75.png Cyrus the Great
70 Military leader; characterized a top 10 military leader of all time (2019).[22] M Persian
Joan of Arc 75.png Joan of Arc
19 (RGM:253|1,350+) Military leader; characterized a top 10 military leader of all time (2019).[22] F French
John Rawls 75.png John Rawls
81 (RGM:362|1350+) (Becker 139:55|6L) (Spenko 27:8) (Reuters 37:19) (CR:3) Moral and political philosopher; noted for his A Theory of Justice (1971), wherein he attempts to provide a moral theory alternative to utilitarianism and that addresses the problem of distributive justice. M American
George Moore 75.png George Moore
84 (Becker 139:53|6L) (Stokes 100:80) (CR:4) Philosopher; noted for his in his Princia Ethica (1903), wherein he argued that whether something is good is always an open question and that ‘good’ denotes some simple natural property of the universe of which we are intuitively aware; M English
Willard Quine 75.png Willard Quine
92 (Becker 139:40|8L) (Stokes 100:100) (Listal 100:63) (Perry 80:29) (Spenko 27:9) (CR:3) Philosopher and analytic logician; noted for his Word and Object (1960), which is characterized as a top post post-Nietzsche publication; in 1969, he speculated about “ectropy”; M American
Michel Foucault 75.png Michel Foucault
57 (RGM:207|13,50+) (Becker 139:36|9L) (Stokes 100:90) (Listal 100:6) (HuCR:1) (CR:11) Philosopher, historian, sociologist, and literary critic; M French
Oliver Reiser 75.png Oliver Reiser
(60 BE-19 AE)
(1895-1974 ACM)
79 (CR:13) (LH:3) Philosopher, characterized a "Goethe, Rumi, and twentieth century Pascal" (Smith, c.1955); noted for his 1935 “super-observer” model, aka advanced perspective (Thims, 2007); for his 1940 Scientific Humanism, wherein he attempts to outline a beyond-Aristotle beyond-Darwin "scientific humanism" (TCN:36)[23] or "cosmic humanism" (Reiser, 1966), per Einstein's suggestion; and for his 1945 suggestion that a global "Institute for Scientific Humanism" needs to be established. M American
Karl Heinzen 75.png Karl Heinzen
(146-75 BE)
(1809-1880 ACM)
Zurich Atheism Dispute (1846).png
(EPD:M4) (FA:122) (CR:6) Philosopher, poet, and political theorist, also an atheism, women’s rights, and abolition activist;
“The mind is nothing but the result of an organic combination of physical powers. The universe is, as it were, a chemical, magnetical, electrical, etc., laboratory, in which, the material powers (also called vital powers) consummate their unceasing changes and transformations. Where one formation ceases [final state], another begins [initial state]. Even the corpse of man lives; but this is no longer human life, it is only the life of ‘anorganic’ nature [see: inorganic life], to which the human form, after its dissolution, returns, and out of which ‘organic’ nature reproduces itself. There is no thing dead in the world, and dying implies only a retransformation to the material of common life.”
— Karl Heinzen (1856), Six Letters to a Pious Man (pg. 14); truncated version

Influenced by Ludwig Feuerbach, Jacob Moleschott, Ludwig Buchner, and Karl Vogt, he attempted to advance an atheistic philosophy based on scientific materialism; was one of the combatants in the 1846 Zurich Atheism Dispute (pictured), along with Arnold Ruge, Friedrich Schultz, and August Follen;

M German-born American
Havelock Ellis 75.png Havelock Ellis
(96-16 BE)
(1859-1939 ACM)
80 M English
Emily Bronte 75.png Emily Bronte
30 (Gottlieb 1000:522) (Bloom 100:39) (CR:4) F English
Henry James 75.png Henry James
72 (RGM:963|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:557) (Bloom 100:93) (WorldCat 100:5) (CR:9) M American-born English
Brooks Adams 75.png Brooks Adams
78 (CR:42) M American
Julian Huxley 75.png Julian Huxley
87 (RGM:848|1,350+) (CR:17) M English
Aldous Huxley 75.png Aldous Huxley
69 (RGM:354|1,350+) (CR:23) M English
Abigail Adams 75.png Abigail Adams
73 (RGM:1043|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:563) (FF:12)[24] (CR:5) Political confidant;
“These are times in which a genius would wish to live. It is not in the still calm of life, or in the repose of a pacific station, that great characters are formed. The habits of a vigorous mind are formed in contending with difficulties. Great necessities call out great virtues.”
— Abigail Adams (c.1800), Publication

Wife of John Adams, mother of John Quincy Adams, and great grandmother to Henry Adams and Brooks Adams (Ѻ); see: Adams family tree[25]

F American
Thomas Kuhn 75.png Thomas Kuhn
(33 BE-41 AE)
(1922-1996 ACM)
IQ EM.png=170[26] 73 (Becker 139:131|3L) (Stokes 100:98) (Listal 100:77) (Reuters 2009:35) (CR:32) M American
Johann Bernoulli 75.png Johann Bernoulli
80 Teacher of Euler.[27] M Swiss
Philo of Alexandria.png Philo of Alexandria
70 (Stokes 100:14) (SHP:5)[28] Philosopher and religious scholar;
“For when aither separated and flew off from air and fire, and evolved into a heaven revolving in a very wide orbit, then fire - which had remained a little apart from the heaven - itself also grew into the rays of the sun. Earth withdrew into one place and when solidified by necessity it emerged and settled in the middle. Moreover, aither, being much lighter, moves all around it without diversion.”
— Empedocles (c.455BC), Fragment I40 / A49a; cited by Philo of Alexandria (c.20AD) in On Providence
M Alexendrian
C.G. Darwin 75 2.png C.G. Darwin
75 (CR:79) Physicist; student of Rutherford; noted for his 1956 The Next Million Years, wherein he defined people as "human molecules", and defined the term "human thermodynamics" as the the "statistical thermodynamics" of conservative dynamical systems", which he said will be the new future science, that will be able to "predict" the next million years of human development; M English

Nominations | Discussion

The following are recent top 2000 candidate suggestions:

  • Stephen Timoshenko (77 BE-17 AE) (1878-1972 ACM) (PR:15,885|65AE / engineer:81) | Nominated by @stem_ik via Twitter (17 Jul 66AE)[29]

If you know of an intelligent individual from history, who you might intuit could possibly be a candidate for inclusion in the top 2000 rankings, feel free to post a suggestion and reasoning why, either on the "discussion page" or post comments top geniuses and minds (historical or existive) sections of the Hmolpedia forum (lists accumulating here).

Try to avoid posting up discussion about fake intellectuals, e.g. with “inflated IQs[30]; as these, for the most part, are scams and a waste of time. Also key word search the "top 2000 full list" and the above draft candidate table, so to not post up duplicate candidate names. General discussion of geniuses and minds already ranked, however, is always welcome, particularly so if it involved discussion of ranking position change (e.g. up or down) suggestion or opinion.

End matter

See also

Next | Previous



  1. Note: if you know of a potential candidate name not listed on the top 2000 rankings (search: full list), then post on the discussion page of this article.
  2. Harris, Frank. (1916). Oscar Wilde, his Life and Confessions, Volume One (pgs. 74-75). Publisher.
  3. Castro, Danilo. (2016). “15 Best Comedy Duos of All Time” (Ѻ),, Apr 28.
  4. Dunnings, Michael. (2018). “The 10 Best Abbott and Costello Skits” (Ѻ), The Impact News, May 3.
  5. Robert Howard –
  6. 6.0 6.1 Most Important Military Leaders –
  7. Sobel, Brian; Morelock, Jerry. (2019). “Top 100 Greatest Generals of All Time” (Ѻ),
  8. Richard Swineshead – Wikipedia.
  9. David Warren’s 96th Birthday – Google Doodle.
  10. Henry Ward Beecker –
  11. Pond, James. (1900). Eccentricities of Genius: Memories of Famous Men and Women of the Platform and Stage. Chatto.
  12. Eccentricities of Genius (2021) – r/RealGeniuses.
  13. The Most Famous Man in America – Wikipedia.
  14. Fortran (history) –
  15. Robinson, Julia. (1985). “The Autobiography of Julia Robinson”; Narrated to sister (Constance Reid), in her last months, battling leukemia; reluctant at first, then persuaded to speak, so to “give credit where credit has not been given” per reason that this was the only respectable reason ever for speaking about one's self (Kya Boyle, c.1975). in: More Mathematical People (editors: Donald Albers, Gerald Alexanderson, and Constance Reid) (pdf). Publisher.
  16. Robinson –
  17. MacHale, Des. (2003). Wit (pg. 72). Publisher.
  18. Murdock, Dorothy. (c.1998). “Interview: Awake in Our Mythology: the Christ Conspiracy” (YT); Shadow Walker, Apr 6
  19. Jobs, Steve. (1994). “Interview: On Failure” (YT), Silicon Valley Historical Association, Oct 31.
  20. Was Kafka a literary genius? (2017) – Quora.
  21. Franz Kafka –
  22. 22.0 22.1 Anon. (2019). “Top 10 Greatest Military Leaders of All Time” (YT),, Nov 10.
  23. Scientific humanism – Hmolpedia 2020.
  24. Founding fathers fallacy – Hmolpedia 2020.
  25. Adams family tree –
  26. Economakis Michael – Hmolpedia 2020.
  27. Bernoulli genealogy – Hmolpedia 2020.
  28. Silent historians problem – Hmolpedia 2020.
  29. Top 2000 suggestions – Twitter.
  30. Inflated IQ – Hmolpedia 2020.

External links

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