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In terms, time (TR:1446) (LH:32) (TL:1478|#11) refers to the count of the reoccurring motion of one thing, e.g. perceptual daily motion of the sun, divided into 24 hours, or seconds based on the cycles of radiation of cesium-133 atom[1], with respect to a second thing, e.g. human observation. When the second thing is moving in a different reference frame with respect to or "relative to" the first thing, then times will differ, and recourse to spacetime becomes necessary.


The following are related quotes:

“If I am not asked, I know what time is, but if I have to give an explanation of it to someone, I do not know.”
Augustine (c.400), Publication; cited by Otto Guericke (1672) New Magdeburg Experiments on the Vacuum of Space (pgs. 85-86)
Place in itself has no real existence. Rather it is a creation of the mind or imagination, an individual and particular relationship, as it were, of one thing with respect to another. When one thing has taken away, then another takes its place and when this in turn is removed, its place is again filled and vise versa. Furthermore, just as ‘place’ has no real existence, neither does time.”
Otto Guericke (1672), New Magdeburg Experiments on the Vacuum of Space (pg. 85)
“I had no sense of the value of time, of my own or others, when I wrote it.”
Willard Gibbs (c.1890), Publication (reflection on Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances)
Time is not one of the variables of pure thermodynamics.”
Gilbert Lewis (1930), “The Symmetry of Time in Physics”
“The thermodynamics of a ‘system’, which is the basis of the present work, considers only the initial and final states, and is not interested whether the process under study occurs under equilibrium or non-equilibrium conditions. Variations of the Gibbs function of the system at any state of the evolution, e.g. ontogenesis or phylogenesis, can be calculated by means of thermodynamic methods, which do not consider time as a parameter.”
Georgi Gladyshev (1997), Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings (pgs. 2-3) [2]

End matter


  1. Sullivan, Donald. (2002). “How does one arrive at the exact number of cycles of radiation a cesium-133 atom makes in order to define one second?” (Ѻ), Scientific America, Dec 16.
  2. Gladyshev, Georgi. (1997). Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings (pgs. 2-3). Nova.

External links

  • Time – Hmolpedia 2020.
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