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The Egyptian cosmology etymology of Theta, symbol "Θ", the 9th letter of the Greek alphabet, according to which the sun god Ra, shown upside down in the waters of the Nun, curled backwards like a circle, with the Maa (wisdom) and science (Thoth) principles embedded within him, births Maat, the goddess of wisdom, justice, truth, and direction, shown as a red crayon-like stick, out of his head, who hands the red sun disc into the air like waters of Shu (air god) or light blue sky.

In letters, Theta (TR:5) (LH:26) (TL:31), in Greek: Θήτα (NE:318), symbol "Θ", whose secret name is Helios (NE:318), the Greek sun god; the 9th letter of the Greek alphabet, symbolic of the Egyptian Ennead; the letter symbol itself, derived from the sun god symbol part of the hieroglyph: Heliopolis H1.png of Heliopolis, i.e. sun god Ra symbol: , water: , and bread: Heliopolis H1 P4.png, the staples of the Nile-based crop season of Egypt, which, over time, via Greek to Egypt cultural transmission, as illustrated adjacent, and explained in the very-complex Heliopolis creation myth, became the theta symbol:

Sun (icon).pngSun (dot in center).pngTheta (sun) 30x32.jpgTheta (New Times Roman).pngΘ

the embodiment of the gods: Ra, Maat, and Thoth, combined in one, birthing the sun out of the water of the Nun. Hence, Θ-based words, or Th-based words, e.g. theology or thermal, are sun or sun god themed. A similar solar etymology exists for E-based words and Phi-based words.


Theta is derived from the Egyptian sun or sun god hieroglyph "", the central symbol of the hieroglyph of Heliopolis (2500BC)[1], aka "city of the sun":

Helios to Theta.png

it has a numerical value of 9, code for the Egyptian Ennead, i.e. nine god family of Heliopolis, and a gematria value of 318, code for both the Greek sun god Helios and the diameter of circle with a circumference of a 1000; the number of a thousand, supposedly, representative, in Greek fractional mathematics, of the monad, nous, or Nun, in Pythagoreanism.

The 9th letter of the Greek alphabet is Theta, symbol "Θ", which also has a Gematria value of "9". The number nine is symbolic of the Heliopolis Ennead, the main sun god family of Egypt, comprised of nine gods, the patriarch of which is Ra (or Atum-Ra) the supreme sun god of ancient Egypt.

Derived terms

The nine (9) gods of the Ennead, showing Ra (or Ra-Atum), the supreme sun god of Egypt, as the patriarch; this was coded into the Greek alphabet, and by repercussion, the English alphabet, in the ninth letter theta (Θ), representative of the Egyptian symbol of the sun and the nine gods of the Ennead.

Terms derived from Theta include: theos (god), dios (god in Spanish), theology, Thanatos, thought, think, thermal, thermometer, and thermodynamics, aka ΘΔ (Maxwell, 1873), the root of the icon at the bottom of all Hmolpedia pages.[2]

Θ | 9

The symbol for Theta "Θ", as is well known, derives from the Egyptian symbol for the sun:[3]

Egyptian Phoenician Greek Etruscan Modern
Sun (small).png Sun (with X).png Sun (with x drawn).png Sun (Ouroboros).png Sun (dot in center).png Sun (tet).png Sun (Greek pot shard).png Sun (Theta, Times).png Sun (Theta small).png Sun (Etruscan) 1.png Th-
(cross center)
teth tet Theta

That Theta is the sun is clear. As to the progressive development of the shape of the letter Theta, be it a dot, cross, X, or bar, consensus is not clear. Philo of Byblos (c.110) says it is the sun deity, encircled by a ringed serpent, with its head turned inward, and that the dot is the eye of god. John Lydus (555) says theta is the symbol of the cosmos, wherein the airy fiery circle represents the world, and the snake, representing the agathos daimon (or good demon) spans the middle.[3] This all collaborates with the ancient myth of the good sun god Ra or Horus doing battle with the evil snake Apep each night fall, aka the Ouroboros myth, as the Greeks called it.

Maat | Moral order | World soul

See main: Maat

Porphyry (c.280) says the Theta Θ symbol represents the “world soul” or "soul" of the world and connects it with the number “9” of the Ennead.[4] The following is a 17th century residual form of this belief:

“Whatever [?] the power be that creates such an animal out of an egg, that it is either the soul, or part of the soul, or something having a soul, or something existing previous to, and more excellent than the soul, operating with intelligence and foresight.”
William Harvey (c.1630), “On the Source of the Chick Embryo”

Connecting Porphyry's Θ = world soul + Ennead conjecture, with Harvey's "power that turns an egg into an animal", with the Hermopolis creation myth (2800BC), as shown below, wherein the god Ptah makes a golden egg, out of which the sun is born, which was the second main religious recension in Egypt, we have a loose connection between: Maat, Theta Θ, the moral order of the universe, and power:[5]

Ptah's golden egg.png

The following, from Coffin Text 80 (c.2100BC) gives us insight into this Egyptian moral order based theo-philosophy:[6]

“Atum’s two children Shu [life principle] and Tefnut [moral order principle]—whose offspring were Geb [Adam] (earth) and Nut [Eve] (heaven)—and in this Coffin Text 80 (c.2100BC), Shu is identified as the principle of life and Tefnut is identified as the principle of moral order, a concept that the Egyptians referred to as Ma’at [Maat].”
— Gary Greenberg (2000), 101 Myths of the Bible (pgs. 43-49) [7]
A depiction of Ra, Thoth, and Maat riding in Ra's solar boat, though the sky, in the stars, shown inside the arched body of Nut, above which the boat rides.[8]

We also note the following:

“The hymns to Ra which are found in the Book of the Dead and in other funeral works of the ancient Egyptians state that the deities Thoth and Maat stand one on each side of the great god in his boat, and it is clear that they were believed to take some important part in directing its course; and as they were with Ra when he sprang up from the abyss [Δ] of Nu [Nun] their existence must have been coeval with his own. Thoth was a self-begotten god who made calculations concerning the establishing of the heavens, and the stars, and the earth; was the heart of Ra, master of law, both in the physical and moral conceptions of the knowledge of ‘divine speech’. He was the inventor and god of all arts and sciences, the ‘lord of books’, the ‘scribe of the gods’, and ‘mighty in speech’, i.e. his words took effect, and he was declared to be the author of many of the funeral works by which the deceased gained everlasting life.”
— Wallis Budge (1904), The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (pgs. 400-27, esp. 401) [9]

Here, according to Budge, Maat was thought to be the "guiding-directive" that determined Ra's path in the sky, for the day, or something along these lines, like a person's destiny.

Related to this, in 1350BC, we find the Akhenaten (c.1380-1335BC)[10], Egypt's first monotheistic pharaoh, who is the considered the archetype role model behind Judaism, behind regularly describing himself as “living in Maat”, meaning living in truth and justice, or something to this effect.[11] A century after this, on the Papyrus of Ani, we find Maat playing the following role in the judgment of the "moral nature" of a person in the afterlife:

“Let there be given to him the offerings which are issued in the presence of Osiris, and may a grant of land be established in the ‘field of offerings’ as for the ‘followers of Horus[12]. Thus, says Horus son of Isis: I have come to you, O Wennefer [high priest of Osiris] (Ѻ), and bring Ani to you. His heart is true, having gone forth from the balance, and he has not sinned against any god or any goddess. Thoth has judged him in writing which has been told to the Ennead, and Maat the great has witnessed. Let there be given to him bread and beer which have been issued in the presence of Osiris, and he will be forever like the ‘follower of Horus’.”
— Anon (1250BC), Egyptian Book of the Dead (§:30B Chapter for not letting Ani’s heart create opposition against him in the god’s domain) (Plate 3-B to 4-A, pgs. 41-42) [13]
The Maat-Thoth version of the Heliopolis creation myth, wherein, out of the void, Maat, Thoth, and Ra are co-generated.

In the following quote, we see Maat connected with the term "dynamic order":

“In the ethical and or philosophical sense Maat means much more than to do what is right. Maat means also the just order established by god in nature and society through the act of creation. It is the dynamic order that is behind all creation, an order man must strive to preserve by conducting himself properly toward god, his fellow men, and all things, even animals. For the Egyptian all life was of a single piece governed by the same moral law. This idea is close to the medieval notion of a natural moral order that is the material expression of the divine order in which human law and human action are participants in and reflections of the larger order of the universe. In the Egyptian view, however, unlike the later Aristotelian concept, this cosmic order does not govern itself nor is it governed by some unmoved mover. When men do evil, they bring disorder to the natural order of things. Accordingly, it is man's responsibility to preserve and restore the natural order by doing what is right, that is, Maat.”
— Richard Gabriel (2002), Gods of Our Fathers: The Memory of Egypt in Judaism and Christianity (pg. 12) [14]

Another take on this comes from Muata Ashby (1997) who alludes to the assertion that “Pa”, as in papa (father), has its etymological roots in the Egyptian Pa Neter (see: neter [god][15]) or “high god”, and that “Ma”, as in mama (mother) has its etymological roots in the order goddess Maat, to the effect that Ra created the universe by putting the Maat in place of chaos; Maat is akin to “universal mother” or “mother nature”, or thereabouts.[16]

Souls | Split

It is also said that if Maat, theta Θ, or Maat+Thoth, was the conceptual embodiment of the original "world soul", that at one point it was split:

“From the Book of the Dead (xvii. 16) we learn that Shu and Tefnut were supposed to possess but one soul between them, but that the two halves of it were identified with the soul of Osiris and the soul of Ra, which together formed the great double soul which dwelt in Tattu.”
— Wallis Budge (1904), The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume Two (pg. 91) [9]

In Greek mythology, this soul-splitting theory, was re-cast, by Plato, into the myth of Zeus splitting the original "one soul" of ball-shaped humans, into two souls, people their after said to wonder the the earth looking for their lost "soul mate".[17] We also that a person's soul, in the judgment hall of the afterlife, is weighed (see: soul weight)[18] on the "scale of Maat".

⊕ | ⊗ | Tet | Compass

A visual of the conjecture, knowing that the Phoenician Tet symbol "⊗" has been called the "compass", and that the loadstone was known as the "bone of Horus" by the Egyptians, that the Greek Theta sun symbol "Θ" derived, in part from early Egyptian ideas about the relation between north, south, and magnetism, in respect to the location of the rising sun, and or Horus, as the sun god, doing battle each night with the evil snake Apep?

The connective etymology of Theta with the X or "cross", however, remains an a bit of unsolved etymology, as this symbology dates back to 3100BC and the stone-carved symbols of the "walking ankh" symbol.[19] One conjecture, noting firstly that as Horus is the "oldest god of all" or the "oldest of all Egyptian gods" (Budge, 1905), and secondly that the Egyptians referred to the lodestone (or magnetism) as the "bone of Horus":

“The loadstone is called, by the Egyptians, the ‘bone of Horus’, as iron is the ‘bone of Typho’ [Set].”
— Manetho (c.300BC), Publication; cited by Plutarch [8]

and thirdly knowing that the form of theta in Old Hebrew and Phoenician was the letter or symbol "tet" ‘⊕’ (or ⊗), such as summarized below, is reasoned argument that the cross in the solar circle represented a North-South West-East directionality indicator to the ancient Egyptians, in the sense of where the sun rises and sets:[20]

“In Old Hebrew and Phoenician as the letter tet ‘⊕’, also known as the ‘compass’, is part of all early alphabets, including Mayan, Chinese, Linear A & B, Etruscan, and the Indus Valley scripts. It also appears on early rock paintings all over the world. The tet became the Greek theta, originally written ⊕ (now θ). Theta is the first letter of god: theos [see: theology], and his throne or thronos.”
— Esther Stein (2018), The Visible Kingdom of God: the Song of Noah [21]

The gist of this symbolic supposition is summarized aptly by William Drummond (1818), a scholar noted[22] for influence on Percy Shelley, as follows:[23]

“In the annals of the Egyptians we meet with little to authorize us to suppose that they were acquainted with the polarity of the needle, if we can believe that so scientific a people could have been ignorant of a fact, which was not unknown to other Oriental nations. There are however some circumstances, which indicate that the Egyptians were really no strangers to this fact; but, like other secrets of their science, it must be looked at through the veil of allegory. Greaves found a magnet, formed in the shape of a beetle, on the breast of a mummy. Now we know that the beetle was a solar type; and the use of this magnet had been undoubtedly to point north and south, and thus served to indicate to its possessor, when the sun came to the meridian. We learn from Plutarch, that the north was the region of Typhon [Set], and the south that of Horus—that the Great Bear was the constellation of the former, and Orion that of the latter. But Plutarch tells us, that the loadstone was called the bone of Horus, and the iron the bone of Typhon. It is further remarkable, that the poets almost always put Orion and the Great Bear in opposition, though the relative positions of these two constellations do not strictly correspond with this supposed hostility. Hear Euripides:
A depiction of Horus, as the sun god, also associated with Orion, whose bone was associated with loadstone, who, in early stages of Egypt, did battle, nightly, with Set (or Apep), or the Bear constellation, whose bone is associated with iron, in the form of a snake, according to which the Theta symbol "Θ" (value: 318) derives from a combination of the sun, magnetism, and the sword of Orion (thought to be the soul of Horus), pointing the direction of north, or something along these lines. Seemingly having something to do with using the Orion constellation to find north.[24]
Πλειάς [Pleiades] μεν [men] ήει μεσοπόρου [intermediate] δι' [for] αιθέρος, [ether]
ό τε ξιφήρης [sword] 'Ωρίων [Orion] ύπερθε δε [not]
Αρκτος [Bear] στρέφουσ' [turn] ουραία [tail] χρυσήρει [goldsmith] πόλω [pole]
— Euripides (413BC), Ion (§:1152) [25]
“A Pleiad hastened through the middle sky,
with Orion and his sword; above,
Arktos turned his golden tail on the pole”
— Euripides (413BC), Ion (§:1152) [26]
Why is Orion called ξιφήρης [swordsman]? Why is he represented with a sword which he points to the north? Why does the Latin poet term him ferroque minax? Is it meant that Orion, or Horus, having wrested the iron from Typhon, always points it against him? Homer, after remarking that the Bear turns round the pole, adds, [Greek]. The scholiast says that the Bear always contemplates Orion as the leader of the Dog, [Greek], he continues [Greek].
The Egyptian fable of the enmity between Horus and Typhon was an allegory, which was probably made applicable to various subjects. In short it was a mixed fable. The loadstone was the bone of Horus; the iron was the bone of Typhon. The constellation of Typhon, on one side of the zodiac, is represented as always pointing to, and regarding the constellation of Horus on the other, as the iron turns towards the magnet. Horus, or Orion, the lord of the south, points his sword towards Typhon, the lord of the north, as the needle points to the pole. These allusions may seem strained and remote; but we must be often contented with such, in endeavoring to explain the mystical and symbolical types, by which the Egyptians darkly expressed their knowledge.
When we are told that Typhon ruled the region to the right hand (the north); that Horus ruled the region to the left hand (the south); and that the loadstone was the bone (the strength) of Horus, and the iron the bone (the strength) of Typhon; how can we doubt that some indication, though it be obscurely expressed, is given of the polarity of the magnetic needle? I have not a copy of Hor-Apollo at hand; but, if I do not forget, he mentions the needle as an Egyptian hieroglyphic. The author of the book entitled Hor-Apollo was a Greek, named Philip, who lived in the fourth century; and his explanations of the ancient hieroglyphics are often very unsatisfactory. If a needle existed among the curiologic characters, it probably indicated the magnetic needle. What else could a needle signify in the hieroglyphical writings of the sages of Egypt?”

We also have the following:

“The Egyptians say that the souls of their gods shine as the stars in the firmament, and the soul of Isis is called by the Greeks the Dog Star, but the Egyptians Sothis, and the soul of Horus is called Orion, and the soul of Typhon [Set] is called the Bear.”
— Plutarch (100AD), On Isis and Osiris (pg. 53)

Some of which, in astro-theological terms, being found recast into the Bible story of 2 Kings 2:24.[27]

The equivalent of this, in the Nordic mythology rescript of the myth, is the story of how "Thor" (Nordic equivalent of Horus) has a magic magnetic hammer that comes back to his hand whenever it is thrown, similar to the way amber attracts feathers or the loadstone attracts iron.


The following are related quotes:

“The letter theta (Θ), in the acrostic Ichthys (Greek: ἰχθύς), aka ‘Jesus Fish’, having the same pronunciation as the English diphthong ‘th’, stood for the Greek word Theou (Θεου), which means ‘of god’. The next letter, upsilon (υ), represents the Greek word hwios (υιος) which means ‘son’. Thus, the two letters Θ and υ stand for the ‘son of god’.”
— Constantine Kliora (2009), Catholics, Non-Catholics, and Non-Catholic Catholics[28]

End matter

See also


  1. Heliopolis – Hmolpedia 2020.
  2. Thims, Libb. (2020). Human Chemical Thermodynamics — Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities: Meaning, Morality, Purpose; Sociology, Economics, Ecology; History, Philosophy, Government, Anthropology, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence; Religion, Relationships, Warfare, and Love (§2: Alphabet) (pdf). Publisher.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Theta (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  4. Theta Symbol and its Meaning –
  5. Memphis creation myth – Hmolpedia 2020.
  6. Morality Squared – Hmolpedia 2020.
  7. Greenberg, Gary. (2000). 101 Myths of the Bible: How Ancient Scribes Invented Biblical History (§ Myth 1: In the beginning everything was without form and void, pgs. 11-12; Maat, pgs. 43-49). Source Books.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume Two (solar boat image, pgs. 94-95; Manetho, pg. 246). Dover, 1969.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (soul split, pg. 91; §13: Thoth [Tehuti], Maat, and the Other Goddesses Who Were Associated With Him, pgs. 400-27). Dover, 1969.
  10. Akhenaten – Hmolpedia 2020.
  11. Osman, Ahmed. (1990). Moses and Akhenaten: the Secret History of the Egypt at the Time of the Exodus (pg. 5). Bear & Co.
  12. Followers of Horus – Hmolpedia 2020.
  13. Faulkner, Raymond. (1972). The Egyptian Book of the Dead: the Book of Coming Forth by Day: Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images (translator: Ogden Goelet; Preface: Carol Andrews; Introduction: Daniel Gunther; Foreword: James Wasserman) (Amz) (chapters, pg. 18; recensions, pg. 144). Chronicle Books, 2015.
  14. Gabriel, Richard A. (2002). Gods of Our Fathers: The Memory of Egypt in Judaism and Christianity (pg. 12). Greenwood.
  15. Neter – Hmolpedia 2020.
  16. Ashby, Muata. (1997). Anunian Theology: African Religion, Volume One (Pa, pg. 48; Ma, pg. 50). Cruzian Mystic Books.
  17. Soul mate – Hmolpedia 2020.
  18. Soul weight – Hmolpedia 2020.
  19. Cross (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  20. Alphabet (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  21. Stein, Esther. (2018). The Visible Kingdom of God: the Song of Noah (pgs. #-#). Balboa Press.
  22. William Drummond – Wikipedia.
  23. Drummond, William. (1818). “On the Science of the Egyptians and Chaldeans” (magnet, pgs. 313-14), The Classical Journal, 19:296-314.
  24. Anon. (2014). “Find North with Orion” (YT), Alfie Aesthetics, Aug 11.
  25. Euripides. (413BC). Ion (§:1152, pgs. 44-45) (editor: M.A. Bayfield). MacMillan, 1891.
  26. Euripides Ion 1132 –
  27. 2 Kings 2:24 (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  28. Kliora, Constantine. (2009), Catholics, Non-Catholics, and Non-Catholic Catholics (pg. 146). Publisher.

External links

  • Theta – Hmolpedia 2020.
Theta Delta ics T2.jpg