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In hmolscience, symbols refers to []



The following are the alchemical symbols: water 🜄, earth 🜃, fire 🜂, air 🜁.[1]


The following are science-specific symbols:

Letter Exact Inexact
Heat Q, [2] dQ, δQ, Q LC.png Q TC.png TdS.png DS.png Delta W.png


The following symbols are employed as tools in articles:

Arrows Two way arrow.png
Math Delta.png ± ∇ (del)
Fractions ¼ ½
Science °C ˚F
Bonds - = ~
Superscripts a⁴ a⁻ a⁻¹ a⁺
Slated / Secion §
Chemistry ▽ (water)
Other Ѻ Bent arrow R.png Goes to big arrow.png Arrow squiggle.png Caloric symbol.png DQ over T.png Delta Q over T.png
Redirect Redirect arrow.png Negative dG.png


The following are other symbols:

,, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,


The following are quotes:

“The time may come when human affairs may be described no longer by words and sentences, but by a system of symbols or notation similar to those used in algebra or chemistry. It may then be possible, as Adams suggests, to invent a common formula for thermodynamics and history. But, what means of measuring this dissipation would the historian have? If Kelvin’s law is true, there must have been less energy in 1865, when our Civil War [1861-1865] ended, than in 1861, when it began. The energy dissipated during these four years was not only human but material, solar, sidereal, cosmic. Who can compute it?”
— William Thayer (1918), “Vagaries of Historians” [3]

End matter


  1. Alchemical Symbols –
  2. Lavoisier, Antoine; Laplace, Pierre. (1783). Memoir on Heat (translator: Henry Guerlac) (Q as "quantity" of heat, pg. 7). Neale, 1982.
  3. (a) Thayer, William, R. “Vagaries of Historians”, Presidential address prepared to be read before the American Historical Association, at Cleveland, Dec. 28, 1918. (Reprinted from the American Historical Review, January, 1919).
    (b) Thayer, William R. (1921). “Vagaries of Historians”. Annual Report of the American Historical Association (pgs. 77-88, esp. pgs. 80-84). G.P.O.
    (c) Adams, Henry. (1910). A Letter to American Teachers of History (pdf). Washington.

Further reading

  • Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Strong, Laurence E. (1997). “A Brief History of Thermodynamics Notation” (abs) (pdf), Journal of Chemical Education, 74(3):304-05.

External links

Theta Delta ics T2.jpg