In 1648, Blaise Pascal took an "inverted mercury column" to the top of Puy de Dome, a 4,800-foot mountain (a low pressure area) in France, to see if his so-called "Torricelli devise" would indicate a change in the "atmospheric pressure", as indicated by a decrease in the height of the mercury column (or increase in the size of the vacuum at the top of the tube). The Pascal model, as compared to the Stewart-Warntz model (1964), wherein cities are constructed as mountains, based on population densities, are both shown below:
In Apr 2020, Libb Thims, building on the Pascal model, combined with the Stewart-Warntz model, of cities conceived as mountains (or planets), based on measured population densities and exchange or interaction rates, that rotate via a social gravity around the largest cities, conceived as "stars" (or suns), devised an instrument, in the concept stage, to measure real SI unit "pressure" in social systems; social pressure envisioned as a type of "lateral pressure" operating as a force per unit, acting on people, perpendicular to that of atmospheric pressure. In short, a double-decker bus, filled with say college-age students, told they were going to be in some type of reality show, the students in the bus being the "inverted mercury" (liquid ), the bus being the "inverted tube", the city they are in being the "atmosphere" ( and gas molecules) the unoccupied space at the rear top back of the bus being the size of the "social vacuum", as shown below:
Such as social bus barometer, could be driven from a large densely-populated city, e.g. New York, Paris, or Tokyo, the location of the large city akin to the location of Pascal's mercury column at the bottom of the mountain, to a small town (a low pressure area), and thereby, according to the prediction, the "height" of the students in the column of the bus, should decrease, and the vacuum at the top back end of the bus should increase.
This social mercury column bus “thought experiment” was devised, in Thims’ mind while researching the history of vacuum proof experimentation, and the subsequent invention of the barometer by Berti (1639), Torricelli (1644), Pascal (1648), Guericke (1650s), Boyle (1658), and Huygens (1660s); and first penned as an end note in the Apr 2020 draft chapter “Berti Water Column Experiment” (1638) of HCT.
- Thims, Libb. (2020). “A Theoretical Torricelli Social Barometer to Measure Social Pressure” (abs) (pdf) (ppt) (YT), Talk at International Conference on Thermodynamics 2.0, Virtual, Session: T08, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Jun 22.
- William Warntz – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Social gravitation – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Thims, Libb. (2020). Human Chemical Thermodynamics — Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities: Meaning, Morality, Purpose; Sociology, Economics, Ecology; History, Philosophy, Government, Anthropology, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence; Religion, Relationships, Warfare, and Love (pdf). Publisher.
- Social pressure – Hmolpedia 2020.