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In 1834, William Whewell, following his 1833 BAAS debates with Adam Sedgwick and Samuel Coleridge, on what exactly a "natural philosopher" was and should entail, coined introduced the term "scientist" as follows:
- “Formerly the ‘learned’ embraced in their wide grasp of all the branches of the tree of knowledge, mathematicians and well as philologers, physical as well as antiquarian speculators. But these days are past. This difficulty was felt very oppressively by the members of the BAAS at Cambridge last summer. There was no general term by which these gentlemen could describe themselves with reference to their pursuits. ‘Philosophers’ was felt too wide and lofty a term, and was very properly forbidden them by Mr. Coleridge, both in his capacity and philologer and metaphysician. ‘Savans’ was rather assuming and besides too French; but some ingenious gentlemen [Whewell] proposed that, by analogy with ‘artist’, they might form ‘scientist’—and added that there could be no scruple to this term since we already have such words as ‘economist’ and ‘atheist’—but this was not generally palatable.”
- — William Whewell (1834), “Article”, Quarterly Review
The following are quotes:
- “Vitalists resist on principle the pretensions of those scientists who foresee the ultimate prospect of a capacity to break down the boundary between organic and inorganic matter, and who disregard the plausibility of supra-material factors in the existence of life. As a result, concepts like ‘life force’ or ‘immanent energy’ are presented by vitalists not only to fill in the areas of mystery left by the incomplete advances of biology, but also to explain why biology’s advances will always be incomplete.”
- Scientist – Hmolpedia 2020.