God | Rescript?
Comparatively speaking, the god character equivalents of "Saturn" in Greek and Egyptian mythology, is a bit illusive? Generally, Saturn, in Greek mythology, is considered to be the equivalent of Cronus, the Greek god of time. The Saturnalia festival, summarized below, however, is known to have been the Roman version of the Egyptian Khoiak festival, a crop harvest celebration associated with the god Osiris. Hence, the common query: why is the Egyptian god Osiris connected to Saturn?
In c.300AD, Eusebius, using the Memphis creation myth, described creation as follows, wherein Saturn, Cronus, or "time" is born before Osiris, in the scheme of things:
- “The first man, according to the Egyptians, was Hephaestus [Ptah], who was the inventor of fire. From him descended the sun. After whom Agathodaemon. After whom Cronus [Saturn]. Then Osiris. And then Typhon [Set], the brother of Osiris. After whom was Orus [Horus], the son of Osiris and Isis. These were the first Egyptian kings. After them, the empire descended by a long succession to Bites, through a lapse of 13,900 years [months]; reckoned, I say, in lunar years of thirty days to each: for even now, they call the month a year. After the gods, a race of demi-gods reigned 1,255 years. Then reigned other kings 1,817 years. After them, thirty Memphite kings, 1,790 years. Then ten Thynite kings, 330 years. Then came the kingdom of the manes and demi-gods. 5,813. The number of years altogether amounts to 11,000; which also are lunar years, that is to say, months. All the lunar years which the Egyptians allow to the reigns of the gods, the demi-gods, and the Manes, are 24,900.”
Also, pictured adjacent, we see Saturn holding the "Agatho-daemon" (ouroborus) or Apep snake, who Eusebius says is born or generated after the sun (but before Osiris)? It could, possibly, be that the Romans had reformulated things, beyond the Greek model, to the effect that "time" was born after the sun, but before crops, or something to this effect?
Khoiak | Saturnalia | Christmas
In the early centuries of the Roman empire (c.400BC to 300AD), the Saturnalia was a public festival, held from 17 Dec to 23 Dec, in honor of Saturn. This was a crop harvest season, so to say, adopted or rather culturally transmitted, from the Egyptian Khoiak festival, which formerly ran from Dec 10 to Jan 8, for three millennia prior. The Saturnalia festival, after c.350AD, when Pope Julius I declared Dec 25th the official birthday of Jesus, was subsumed into the Christmas season holiday.
The following are quotes on Saturn:
- “In this way antiquity disposes of its sun-gods. The Hebrews turned [the sun gods] into Patriarchs. Adam, Abraham, Israel, were names of Saturn. Edom is Adam; and the ancient usage was to name the nation, the land or city after the chief god. The Greeks made these deities founders of tribes.”
- — Samuel Dunlap (1858), Vestiges of the Spirit of Man 
- God character rescripts – Hmolpedia.
- why is the Egyptian god Osiris connected to Saturn? (2019) – Quora.
- Agathodaemon – Wikipedia.
- Anon. (1833). “Article” (pg. 106), Family Magazine, 14, Jul 20.
- (a) Movers, Franz C. (1841). The Phoenicians, Volume One (Die Phonizier, Volume One) (86, 130) (Arc). Publisher.
(b) Dunlap, Samuel F. (1858). Vestiges of the Spirit History of Man (Israel, pg. 53). Publisher.
- Saturn – Hmolpedia 2020.