Murray 4000

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In genius studies, Murray 4000 refers to a 2003 ranking of 4,100+ individuals, from both the western and eastern cultures, who existed in the years from 800BC to 1950, compiled by Charles Murray, who listed the top twenty individuals, of 20 different categories, such as: literature, music, art, philosophy, and the sciences, ranked according to their eminence. The Murray 4000 ranking shorthand, for existographies, is shown as follows: Newton (Murray 4000:2|CS / 1|P / 2|M).

Overview

Origin

In 1997, Charles Murray, being influenced by genius studies scholar Dean Simonton, whose works “fill a shelf” in Murray’s library, began to amass names, from a variety of bibliographic works, thinking originally that the Greeks would dominate; he worked exclusively on this over the course of the next 6-years, completing the project in end 2002, with a total of 4,139-persons and a list of events and ponders 20 top persons in each of 21 categories: nine scientific, three philosophic, and nine artistic fields.

21 Categories | 20 names

The following is a work-in-progress ranking of the top 20 names from Murray's top 21 categories, of the Murray 4000; the small check mark ✓ indicates the person has been added to the top 2000 rankings, the box icon "□" indicates the person has not been added; the big green check mark Check mark (big).png indicates the entire group of 20 names has been added; in groups where most have been added, then boxes are only used; and where only a few names have been added, only small checks are used; the section symbol "§" means the person has been slated into the candidates page.[1]

Combined Science to Technology

The first table shows combined science to technology:

Combined Science Chemistry Physics Astronomy Mathematics Technology
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1. Isaac Newton

2. Galileo Galilei
3. Aristotle
4. Johannes Kepler
5. Antoine Lavoisier
6. Rene Descartes
7. Christiaan Huygens
8. Pierre Laplace
9. Albert Einstein
10. Michael Faraday
11. Louis Pasteur
12. Ptolemy
13. Robert Hooke
14. Gottfried Leibniz
15. Ernest Rutherford
16. Leonhard Euler
17. Charles Darwin
18. Jacob Berzelius
19. Euclid
20. James Maxwell

1. Antoine Lavoisier

2. Jacob Berzelius
3. Carl Scheele
4. Joseph Priestley
5. Humphry Davy
6. Robert Boyle
7. John Dalton
8. Joseph Gay-Lussac
9. Joseph Black
10. William Ramsay
11. Justus Liebig
12. William Crookes
13. Claude Berthollet
14. Linus Pauling
15. August Kekule
16. Dmitri Mendeleyev
17. Johann Helmont
18. Frederick Soddy
19. Martin Klaproth
20. Robert Bunsen

1. Isaac Newton

2. Albert Einstein
3. Ernest Rutherford
4. Michael Faraday
5. Galileo
6. Henry Cavendish
7. Niels Bohr
8. Joseph Thomson
9. James Maxwell
10. Pierre Curie
11. Gustav Kirchhoff
12. Enrico Fermi
13. Werner Heisenberg
14. Marie Curie
15. Paul Dirac
16. James Joule
17. Christiaan Huygens
18. William Gilbert
19. Thomas Young
20. Robert Hooke

1. Galileo

2. Johannes Kepler
3. William Herschel
4. Pierre Laplace
5. Nicolaus Copernicus
6. Ptolemy
7. Tycho Brahe
8. Edmond Halley
9. Giovanni Cassini §
10. Hipparchus
11. Walter Baade §
12. Edwin Hubble
13. Friedrich Bessel §
14. William Huggins §
15. George Hale §
16. Arthur Eddington
17. Ejnar Hertzsprung §
18. Heinrich Olbers §
19. Gerard Kuiper §
20. Johannes Hevelius

1. Leonhard Euler

2. Isaac Newton
3. Euclid
4. Carl Gauss
5. Pierre Fermat
6. Gottfried Leibniz
7. Rene Descartes
8. Georg Cantor
9. Blaise Pascal
10. Bernhard Riemann
11. David Hilbert
12. Jacob Bernoulli
13. Diophantus
14. Gerolamo Cardano
15. François Viete
16. Adrien Legendre
17. John Wallis
18. Augustin Cauchy
19. Fibonacci
20. Archimedes

1. James Watt

2. Thomas Edison
3. Leonardo da Vinci
4. Christiaan Huygens
5. Archimedes
6. Guglielmo Marconi
7. Vitruvius
8. John Smeaton §
9. Henry Bessemer §
10. Thomas Newcomen
11. Charles Babbage
12. Carl Siemens §
13. John Wilkinson §
14. Benjamin Franklin
15. Charles Wheatstone
16. Alfred Nobel
17. Michael Faraday
18. Denis Papin
19. George Stephenson
20. Samuel Morse §

Medicine to Western Art

The following table shows medicine to western art:

Medicine Biology Earth Sciences Western Philosophy Chinese Philosophy Western Art
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1. Louis Pasteur ✓

2. Hippocrates ✓
3. Robert Koch ✓
4. Galen ✓
5. Paracelsus ✓
6. Paul Ehrlich §
7. Rene Laennec §
8. Elmer McCollum §
9. Alexander Fleming ✓
10. Ambroise Pare §
11. Emil von Behring §
12. Joseph Lister ✓
13. Kitasato Shibasaburo §
14. Thomas Sydenham §
15. Andreas Vesalius §
16. Gerhard Domagk §
17. Alexis Carrel §
18. Sigmund Freud ✓
19. John Hunter ✓
20. Ignaz Semmelweis ✓

1. Charles Darwin ✓

2. Aristotle ✓
3. Jean Lamarck ✓
4. Georges Cuvier ✓
5. Thomas Morgan §
6. Carl Linnaeus ✓
7. William Harvey ✓
8. Theodor Schwann ✓
9. Stephen Hales §
10. Jan Swammerdam §
11. Marcello Malpighi ✓
12. Claude Bernard ✓
13. Hugo de Vries §
14. Karl Ernst von Baer §
15. John Ray ✓
16. Ernst Haeckel ✓
17. Lazzaro Spallanzani §
18. Gregor Mendel ✓
19. Pliny the Elder ✓
20. Albrecht Haller ✓

1. Charles Lyell ✓

2. James Hutton ✓
3. William Smith §
4. Georgius Agricola §
5. Abraham Werner §
6. Roderick Murchison §
7. Matthew Maury §
8. Louis Agassiz ✓
9. Jean Guettard §
10. Carl Mosander §
11. Horace Saussure §
12. Nicolas Desmarest §
13. Alfred Wegener ✓
14. Alexandre Brongniart §
15. Adam Sedgwick §
16. Thomas Chamberlin §
17. Vihelm Bjerknes §
18. Eilhard Mitscherlich §
19. Per Cleve §
20. Maurice Ewing §

1. Aristotle

2. Plato
3. Immanuel Kant
4. Rene Descartes
5. Georg Hegel
6. Thomas Aquinas
7. John Locke
8. David Hume
9. Augustine
10. Benedict Spinoza
11. Gottfried Leibniz
12. Socrates
13. Arthur Schopenhauer
14. George Berkeley
15. Friedrich Nietzsche
16. Thomas Hobbes
17. Bertrand Russell
18. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
19. Plotinus
20. Johann Fichte

1. Confucius

2. Laozi
3. Zhu Xi
4. Mencius
5. Zhuang Zhou
6. Xun Kuang
7. Wang Yangming
8. Mozi ✓
9. Dong Zhongshu
10. Cheng Hao
11. Chengi
12. Feng Youlan
13. Zhou Dunyi
14. Kang Youwei
15. Dai Zhen
16. Han Fei
17. Zou Yan
18. Lu Jiuyuan
19. Zhang Zai
20. Huineng

1. Michelangelo

2. Pablo Picasso
3. Raphael
4. Leonardo da Vinci
5. Titian
6. Albrecht Durer
7. Rembrandt
8. Giotto
9. Gian Bernini
10. Paul Cezanne
11. Peter Rubens
12. Caravaggio
13. Diego Velazquez
14. Donatello
15. Jan van Eyck
16. Francisco Goya
17. Claude Monet
18. Masaccio
19. Vincent van Gogh
20. Paul Gauguin

Western Literature to Indian Literature

The following table shows Literature to Western Music:

Western Literature Western Music Chinese Literature Chinese Painting Indian Philosophy Indian Literature
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1. William Shakespeare

2. Johann Goethe
3. Dante Alighieri
4. Virgil
5. Homer
6. Rousseau
7. Voltaire
8. Moliere
9. Lord Byron
10. Leo Tolstoy
11. Fyodor Dostoyevsky
12. Petrarch
13. Victor Hugo
14. Friedrich Schiller
15. Giovanni Boccaccio
16. Horace
17. Euripides
18. Jean Racine
19. Walter Scott
20. Henrik Ibsen

1. Ludwig Beethoven ✓

2. Wolfgang Mozart ✓
3. Johann Bach ✓
4. Richard Wagner ✓
5. Joseph Haydn ✓
6. George Handel ✓
7. Igor Stravinsky ✓
8. Claude Debussy §
9. Franz Liszt §
10. Franz Schubert ✓
11. Robert Schumann §
12. Hector Berlioz ✓
13. Arnold Schoenberg §
14. Johannes Brahms ✓
15. Frederic Chopin ✓
16. Claudio Monteverdi §
17. Giuseppe Verdi ✓
18. Felix Mendelssohn ✓
19. Carl Weber ✓
20. Christoph Gluck §

Du Fu

Li Bai
Bai Juyi
Su Shi
Han Yu
Qu Yuan
Sima Qian
Tao Qian
Ouyang Xiu
Yuan Zhen
Guan Hanqing
Sima Xiangru
Liu Zongyuan
Ban Gu
Wang Wei
Luo Guanzhong
Ma Zhiyuan
Wang Shifu
Song Yu
Cao Xueqin

Zhao Mengfu

Gu Kaizhi
Wu Daozi
Dong Qichang
Ma Yuan
Huang Gongwang
Guo Xi
Xia Gui
Mi Fu
Ni Zan
Wang Wei
Emperor Huizong of Song
Shen Zhou
Dong Yuan
Su Shi
Shitao
Muqi
Wang Meng
Wu Zhen
Wen Zhengming

Adi Sankara

Nagarjuna
Ramanuja
Gautama Buddha
Madhvacharya
Patanjali
Charvaka ✓
Swami Vivekananda
Vasubandhu
Udayana
Vacaspatimitra
Sri Aurobindo
Vallabha Acharya
Dignāga
Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
Bhartṛhari
Gaudapada
Surendranath Dasgupta
Nimbarka
Asanga

Kalidasa

Vyasa
Valmiki
Asvaghosa
Bhartrhari
Tulsidas
Dandin
Bhasa
Bhavabhuti
Banabhatta
Kabir
Jayadeva
Harsa
Somadeva
Namdev
Mira Bai
Sudraka
Amaru
Kautilya
Bilhana

Arabic Literature

The following are (add):

Arabic Literature
1. al-Mutanabbi

2. Abu Nuwas
3. Al-Marri ✓
4. Imru’ al-Qays
5. Abu Tammam
6. Al-Hariri of Basra
7. al-Hamadhani
8. Al-Nabigha
9. al-Farazdaq
10. al-Buhturi
11. Jarir
12. Zuhayr
13. Abu-l-'Atahiya
14. Akhtal
15. Umar Ibn Abi Rabi'ah
16. ibn al-Farid
16. Antarah ibn Shaddad
18. Labīd
19. Ibn al-Muqaffa'
20. ibn Battuta

Influence

In 2018, the Pantheon.world rankings (PR) of 70K+ existographies of individuals in Wikipedia, each name found in 15+ language editions, ranked by their “Historical Popularity Index” (HPI) metric, began to use the Murray 4000 as a reality test checker to make sure the algorithm to their HPI metric was on target.

Quotes

The following are related quotes:

“The second dating convention, is to dispense with BC and AD or their more recent replacements BCE and CE. The putative year of Christ's birth has become the world's cross-cultural base year for a dating system, even in countries that still use another base year in their own calendars, so I will treat it as such and be done with it. Thus 300 AD becomes simply 300 and 300 BC becomes -300.”
— Charles Murray (2003), Human Accomplishments (pg. #)
“Murray scanned the most reputable biographical dictionaries and histories of the arts, philosophy, and sciences to find who and what, during 800 B.C.-1950, are mentioned in them. He came up with 4,139 persons and a list of events and ponders 20 persons in each of nine scientific, three philosophic, and nine artistic fields who were most extensively covered in the resources.”
— Anon (2003), American Library Association

End matter

References

  1. Murray, Charles. (2003). Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950. Harper Collins.

External links

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