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A map[1] of Egypt, showing Heliopolis, home of the Heliopolis creation myth, Memphis, home to the Unas Pyramid Texts, and Alexandria, home to the Library of Alexandria.

In Egypt, Memphis (LH:6) refers to []



In 2800BC, in Memphis, the god Ptah was the central creator god, who fashioned the world and or the sun on his divine potter's wheel, and also ignited the sun with his divine solar fire drill. This was the central motif of the Memphis creation myth.[2]

Unas Pyramid Texts

In 2315BC, at Saqqara (Sakkara), the necropolis of Memphis, the Unas Pyramid, located between the between the Sekhemkhet Pyramid (c.2645BC) and the Djoser Pyramid (c.2675BC), was built for pharaoh Unas (c.2365-2315BC), wherein, on the walls of the burial chamber of Unas, we have the Unas Pyramid Texts, a collection about about 700 lines, which describe creation according to which the god Atum, in the form of Atum-Khepri appeared on top of a mound, shining like the bennu bird (morning sun), that his first act of creation was to make the god pair Shu (air) and Tefnut (moisture), who in turn procreated the gods Geb (earth and Nut (heaven):

“Oh Atum-Khepri, when thou didst mount as a hill; and didst shine as bnw [Bennu] of the ben (or benben) in the temple of the ‘phoenix’ in Heliopolis; and didst spew out as Shu [A], and did spit out as Tefnut; (then) thou didst put thine arms about them, as the arm(s) of a ka, that thy ka might be in them. Atum, so put thine arms about Unas; about this temple, about this pyramid, as the arm (s) of a ka; that the ka of Unas may be in it, enduring for ever and ever. Oh great Ennead who are in Heliopolis: Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys.”
— Unas Scribe (2315BC), Unas Pyramid Text (§:600) at Saqqara, the necropolis of Memphis [3]

Geb and Nut then procreated the gods: Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys. These nine gods in total formed the god family called the "Ennead" by the Greeks. The myth became known as the Heliopolis creation myth.

End matter

See also

  • Hermopolis creation myth


  1. Ross, Tina. (2020). “Illustrated: Map of Ancient Egypt”,
  2. Memphis creation myth – Hmolpedia 2020.
  3. (a) Alford, Alan. (2004). The Midnight Sun: the Death and Rebirth of God in Ancient Egypt (pg. 338). Publisher
    (b) Pyramid Texts: 588-600 –

External links

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