Mehdi Bazargan

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In existographies, Mehdi Bazargan (48 BE-40 AE) (1907-1995 ACM) (IQ:180|#95) (GJ:#) (SN:14) (CR:80) (LH:13) (TL:94|#117) was an Iranian mechanical engineer, thermodynamicist, and 75th prime minister of Iran (1979), known for his 1AE (1956) treatise Thermodynamics of Humans, the first book-length attempt at the subject of "human thermodynamics", in which he attempted to explain the work ethic of the individual in the context of the Islamic teachings and the view that systems, physical or social, evolve towards equilibrium as quantified by a minimum of free energy.[1]

Overview

Prison

In 1953, the Iranian coup occurred, during which time the democratically-elected secular prime minister Mohammad Mosaddegh was overthrown, and replaced by the Shah Mohammad Pahlavi, after which Mossadegh, on 21 Dec 1953 was sentence to three years solitary confinement in a military prison. Bazargan, being a close associate of Mossadegh, was also, for whatever reasons, put in prison.[2]

In spring 1955, Bazargan, while in prison, for a period of five-months, arrived at the idea for a book on thermodynamics applied to humans, while leafing through books on love stories, religions, and biographies; he retrospectively describes this as follows:

“Thankfully, reading and writing was not forbidden. So, my main preoccupation was leafing through books. A few novels and books of legends, that is, love stories, and a few religious books including prayers and biographies and discussions of matters of belief, that is, books whose end is worship of the ‘eternal essence’ [Allah]. In addition, I had asked my family to bring me my industrial thermodynamics book from home, so that I could use the available opportunity to think through a topic about the similarity between thermodynamics and chemical reactions.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (c.1960), Publication; cited by cited by Alireza Doostdar (2018) in The Iranian Metaphysicals (pgs. 140-14)[3]

This phenomena is classified as the genius hiatus effect[4]; similar to how Newton was force away from college, back to the idleness of his country home, owing to the plague, during which time, it is said he gleaned the basics of calculus and the science behind his Principles of Mathematical Philosophy.

Thermodynamics of Humans | Love and Worship

In 1956, Bazargan, aged 49, completed his Thermodynamics of Humans: Love and Worship, the first book-length attempt at the subject of "human thermodynamics", wherein he attempted to explain the work ethic of the individual in the context of the Islamic teachings and the view that systems, physical or social, evolve towards equilibrium as quantified by a minimum of "free energy"[5] Bazargan, in fact, credits those who incarcerated him as being responsible for the book:

“My Human Thermodynamics or Love and Worship, is a ‘difficult to digest confection’, which, ‘good or bad’, should be credited to those who were responsible for my idleness in captivity.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (1956), Thermodynamics of Humans (pg. #); cited by Alireza Doostdar (2018) in The Iranian Metaphysicals (pg. 141)[3]

Applicability

Bazargan, in defense of his presumably objectionable, for the period (1950s) and location (Middle East), application thermodynamics to human affairs, comments as follows:

“This is not the first time that thermodynamics has intruded upon the terrain of other sciences so that, by sniffing that which exudes [from its objects], it would be able to figure out their workings, take the theorems and laws that they have deduced after years of experience and explained in complex and involved language, and return them as simple mathematical formulas that can be used for further inference. It has done this in thermoelectrics, in the melting and extraction of metals, in thermal radiation, and in chemical reactions. What should keep it from experimenting with biology, and even with human economic, moral, and religious activities? Thermodynamics is a young science. There is no blame upon the youth for entertaining wishes!”
— Mehdi Bazargan (1956), Thermodynamics of Humans; cited by cited by Alireza Doostdar (2018) in The Iranian Metaphysicals (pgs. 140-14)

Basically, if thermodynamics is universal, and has been successfully applied to varied fields, e.g. "thermoelectrics", returning "simple mathematical formulas that can be used for further inference", the same should be the case when applied to the social field of study. Moreover, in simple terms:

“In life, there is heat, and there is activity. Therefore, there are thermodynamics as well.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (1956), Thermodynamics of Humans (pg. #); cited by Alireza Doostdar (2018) in The Iranian Metaphysicals (pg. 141)[3]

Thermodynamics, in short, according to Bazargan can be applied to social phenomena.

Hereafter

Bazargan speculated about what thermodynamics might say about the the afterlife or hereafter:

“Bazargan was most self-conscious about his method when writing about the hereafter. Here he was treading completely speculative ground, writing of things that could not be empirically tested or verified. But there was still a scientific logic to his imaginative enterprise. He said that if one were to begin with the assumption that another world and another life existed after death, thermodynamics would help explain the processes and the conditions under which such life would come to be. This would only be ‘extremely approximate and incomplete, in the form of specters and speculation’.”
Alireza Doostdar (2018), The Iranian Metaphysicals (pg. 141) [3]

Compare: ahereafterism.

Other

In 1969, Bazargan, supposedly, published Thermodynamics in Human Condition, wherein he addressed the relation between individual human morality and social movement.[6] This, however, may be but an English citation abstract summary of this 1956 book?

Quotes

Quotes | On

The following are quotes on Bazargan:

“The Iranian engineer and post-revolutionary Prime Minister, Mehdi Bazargan proposes the theory of thermodynamics. This is to find out the relationship between faith and knowledge and the role of morality in everyday life, which is an attempt to combine Western techno-science with local culture. Bazargan’s usage of the theory of thermodynamics is not metaphorical. His arguments are followed by direct application of concepts and formula. What he achieves is quite creative: faith and knowledge become intertwined but disjointed. The effect of this disjointedness is that the individual becomes responsible for acting morally, as if he or she is performing the act of god. Second, as argued by Bazargan using the theory of thermodynamics, faith is self-reflecting: it changes through time and adjust to renew changes in life. Faith also dies if there is no effort by the subject to revive it.”
— Nurdeng Deuraseh (2011), “Muslim Scholars on Dialog of Modern Sciences” [7]
“A brilliant professor of engineering, Mostafa Chamran (Ѻ) had taught at Berkeley and worked at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He was widely respected in Iranian academic circles as the only student at the University of Tehran to get a 100 percent on his thermodynamics test under Mehdi Bazargan, the school’s toughest instructor who would also become the first prime minister of the revolutionary government.”
— David Crist (2012), The Twilight War [8]
Bazargan was a brilliant mind. He completed his task as an Iranian.”
— Arash Rezayee (2018), “What do Iranians think of Mehdi Bazargan?, Mar 2[9]
Bazargan, in his Thermodynamics of Humans (1956), produced mathematical equations and curves for various human systems and processes, treating them as so many thermodynamic systems and ‘Carnot heat engines’, defining in each case variables like: heat, pressure, volume, energy, and entropy.”
Alireza Doostdar (2018), The Iranian Metaphysicals (pg. 141) [3]

Quotes | By

The following are quotes by Bazargan:

“This section intends to examine the inherent attributes of work and the effects it has upon the internal and external structures and transformations of the human individual. If such a phrase is scientifically permissible, the subject will be treated in the light of ‘physiological thermodynamics’.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (1946), Work and Islam (§:The Relationship Between Man and Work)[10]
“There is no denying that the ‘heat of love’ puts many obstacles in its path. It melts it, and it creates a wonderful ‘buzz’ in its owner. Literary and artistic masterpieces and how many military conquest and political successes below the ‘flames of love’ have been achieved.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (1956), Thermodynamics of Humans (translator: Thims) (pg. 9) [1]
Human thermodynamics is the application of mathematical formula and principles of thermodynamics to the economic and social sciences.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (1956), Thermodynamics of Humans (pg. #)
“Society is a system which could be subject to regulations similar to the laws of physics, chemistry, or thermodynamics. Of course, it is a very complicated and extraordinarily more complex than a simple system of gas or a combination of water and steam.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (1971), Thermodynamics of Humans (pg. 96) [11]
“Government shall belong to humans, not to priests or god. Mankind can rule over itself by its own laws, however not made by a single person, but by the whole nation.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (c.1975), Publication[12]
“In general, an object in a given force field will, of necessity, behave in a calculable and predictable way. For any object, whether a stone, a plant, or a human society, force means movement.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (c.1980), “Religion and Liberty” [13]

End matter

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 (a) Bazargan, Mahdi. (1956). Thermodynamics of Humans: Love and Worship. (Farsi: Eshq va Parastesh ya Thermodynamic-e Ensan) (Persian:: عشق و پرستش ي ا ترمودينام يك انسان) (pdf). Tehran: Enteshar Publications.
    (b) Thims, Libb. (2020). “Love puts many obstacles in his path” (Ѻ), r/Hmolpedia.
  2. 1953 Iranian coup – Wikipedia.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 (a) Doostdar, Alireza. (2018). The Iranian Metaphysicals: Explorations in Science, Islam and the Uncanny (Bazargan, 5+ pgs; Human Thermodynamics, pg. 141). Princeton.
    (b) Alireza Doostdar – Divinity School, University of Chicago.
  4. Genius hiatus effect – Hmolpedia 2020.
  5. Note: Bazargan he uses Helmholtz energy, rather than Gibbs energy, which is the correct free energy; nevertheless, he had the basically correct idea in mind.
  6. (a) Bazargan, Mehdi. (1969). Thermodynamics in Human Condition. Publisher.
    (b) Chall, Leo. (1999). “Abstract” (pg. 984), Sociological Abstracts, 47(2):984-.
  7. Deuraseh, Nurdeng; Talib, Termizi A; and Harun, Husni M. (2011). “Muslim Scholars on Dialog of Modern Sciences: Issues and Responses”, International Journal of Asian Social Science, 1(3):36-38.
  8. Christ, David. (2012). The Twilight War: the Secret History of America’s Thirty-Year Conflict with Iran (pg. #). Penguin.
  9. Rezayee, Arash. (2018), “What do Iranians think of Mehdi Bazargan? (Ѻ), Mar 2
  10. (a) Bazargan, Mehdi. (1946). Labor in Islam (Kar Dar Islam). Houston: Book Distribution Center, 1978.
    (b) Barzin, Saeed. (1992). Islam in Defense of Constitutionalism and Democracy]: A Political Biography of Iranian Ideologue Mehdi Bazargan (Scribd) (pgs. 127, 164, 166). PhD dissertation, University of Exeter.
  11. Bazargan, Mehdi. (1992). Publication (§:Natural Laws of Society) (pgs. 177-83). Publisher.
  12. Bazargan quote (rule over) – DeviantArt.com.
  13. Bazargan, Mehdi. (c.1980). “Religion and Liberty” (Section: Opposition: the Cause of Movement and Life, pgs. 81-82, note 23: Thermodynamics of Humanity); originally in Rediscovery of Values (Bazyabi-e Arzeshha); reprinted in Liberal Islam: a Source Book (§7, pgs. 73-84) edited by Charles Kurzman, Oxford University Press, 1998.

Works

  • Bazargan, Mahdi. (1956). Thermodynamics of Humans: Love and Worship. (Farsi: Eshq va Parastesh ya Thermodynamic-e Ensan) (Persian:: عشق و پرستش ي ا ترمودينام يك انسان) (pdf). Tehran: Enteshar Publications.

External links

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