Mathematics

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In terms, mathematics (CR:583) (LH:14) (TL:597|#51) is the language of science, the letters of which are numbers, intermixed with various characters and symbols, such as triangles, circles, lines, and other geometrical figures.

Overview

Egyptian numbers

A basic diagram of Egyptian numbers and their hieroglyph symbols.

The following are the hieroglyphs for Egyptian numbers:[1]

Egyptian numbers.png

The number one 1 is a single vertical line: One H.png (or one digit finger). The number ten 10 is an upside down U symbol: Ten H.png or cattle hobble. The number hundred 100 is a rope coil: 100 H.png (or wind symbol). The number thousand 1,000 is a lotus plant symbol Lotus H.png. The number ten-thousand 10,000 is a line with a bend at the top: 10,000 H.png (or a bent finger). A hundred thousand 100,000 is a tadpole (or frog): 100,000 H.png. A million 1,000,000 is a figure of a man (or god) half seated with his arms raised: 1,000,000 H.png.[2]

Operations

The addition and subtraction symbols are feet walking: Plus (right).png (means plus (+) or addition if in the direction of the text) and Minus (left).png (means minus (-) or subtraction opposite the direction of text). Note that Egyptian text is generally written right to left (like the Hebrews and Arabs), some pyramid text is written left to right.

The divide symbol is the mouth hieroglyph: Mouth H.png, when is written over a number to mean divide. Thus 1 over 100 H.png means 1/100.

Quotes

The following are related quotes:

“The ‘mathematical’ arts were founded in Egypt.”
Aristotle (c.350), Metaphysics (pg. 1553)[3]
Science is written in the language of mathematics and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth.”
Galileo (1623), Publication[4]
“A mathematician may say anything he pleases — but a physicist must be a least partially sane.”
Willard Gibbs (c.1895), Publication [5]
“We possess written records concerning the state of mathematics in Egypt and Mesopotamia (Iraq) from as early as about 2000 BC. Around 500 BC, mathematical knowledge spread to the Greek world. This included not only modern Greece, but also the coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and Magna Grecia (southern Italy and Sicily). About 300 BC, the center of mathematics moved from Athens to Alexandria in Egypt, where it was to remain for the next 800 years; for it was in Alexandria that all the books were kept.”
— William Anglin (1995), The Heritage of Thales (pg. 4)[6]

End matter

See also

  • Mathematical introduction
  • Mathematical thermodynamics

References

  1. Egyptian numerals – Wikipedia.
  2. Egyptian Mathematics and Numbers – DiscoveringEgypt.com.
  3. Aristotle. (322BC). The Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume Two (editor: Jonathan Barnes) (§: Metaphysics, pgs. 1552-; quote, pg. 1553). Princeton, 1995.
  4. Hsieh, Ching-Yao; Ye, Meng-Hua. (1991). Economics, Philosophy, and Physics (pg. 119). M.E. Sharpe.
  5. (a) Author. (1944). “Article”, Scientific Monthly, Dec.
    (b) Leerburger, Benedict A. (1963). Josiah W. Gibbs: American Theoretical Physicist (pg. 101). Watts.
  6. Anglin, William; Lambek, J. (1995). The Heritage of Thales (pg. 4). Springer.

External links

Theta Delta ics T2.jpg