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A diagram of the delta-theta cosmology (Heliopolis, 2600BC), wherein "living" is defined by the number "12" or Greek Bi.

In terms, living (TR:5) (LH:55) (TL:60), from live-, meaning "[add]", + -ing, meaning "action or process"[1], refers to []



A commonly employed defining modern question, often put to men, is: "what do you do for a living?" The following are PCN-synonyms to this question:

What do you do for a living? Discussion
What line of work are you in? Here, the phrase "line of work", is closely related to "path function"[2], in thermodynamics. Also, the "line" aspect, of the phrase "line of work", seems to indicated a trajectory in a given field. In other works, as "work" is defined as a "force" moving an object through unit "distance", the "line of work" would seem to translate as the line through which the "force" moved a person in the career, occupation, paid-endeavors.
What is your occupation?
What do you do for income?
What's your job?
What's your field of employment?

Term reform

In 1892, Karl Pearson, in his Grammar of Science, devoted a section to “The Definition of Living and Lifeless”; ventured discussion on the so-called “half-alive theory”; key point as follows:

“Those who believe that the organic has been developed from inorganic, that “living” has proceeded from deadmatter’ [see: dead matter], may then assert that there must be in matter ‘some-thing-which-is-not-yet-life-but-which-may-develop-into-life’, and may fitly term this side of matter supermateriality.”
— Karl Pearson (1892), Grammar of Science (pg. 339)[3]

Pearson concluded that in the future these terms "half biological" half "physico-chemical terms", e.g. unit mass of "living matter", would be "redefined".


The following are quotes:

“When the heart has been plucked out of a living creature, it pulsates with such rapid movement as to resemble a flickering flame. Therefore, every living thing, be it animal or vegetable, lives because of the heat enclosed within it. This forces us to the conclusion that the element "heat" possesses within it a life-sustaining force which extends throughout the whole universe.”
Cicero (45BC), On the Nature of the Gods (2.24) (character: Stoic Balbus) [4]
“It is notoriously difficult to define the word ‘living’. In many cases we all know whether something is alive or dead. You are ‘alive’ cats and dogs alive; whereas a rock or a pane of glass is dead. But the word ‘dead’ is a bad one, because it implies that the object was once alive and is now dead. It is interesting that there is no simple word for something that is not alive and never has been. In the old game, the question was ‘Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral?’ and the word ‘mineral’ does not service for the sense we want.”
Francis Crick (1966), Of Molecules and Men (pg. 3)

End matter

See also


  1. Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2000.
  2. Path function – Hmolpedia 2020.
  3. Pearson, Karl. (1900). The Grammar of Science (§The Definition of Living and Lifeless, pgs. 338-40; quote, pg. 339). Publisher.
  4. Cicero. (45BC). The Nature of the Gods (Introduction, translation, and notes: Patrick Walsh). Oxford, 2008.

External links

Theta Delta ics T2.jpg