Linus Pauling

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In existographies, Linus Pauling (54 BE-43 AE) (1901-1994 ACM) (IQ:190|#36) (ID:2.04|93) (RGM:430|1,350+) (PR:1,449|65AE / chemist:10) (Becker 160:29|7L) (Simmons 100:16) (FET:28) (GCE:#) (EPD:F9) (CR:90) (LH:9) (TL:101|#109) was an American chemical engineer and physical chemist, noted for []


Chemical bond

A c.1942 model of the tetrahedron, showing the electrons moving on different orbitals.[1]

Hook and eye | Model

In 1917, Pauling, age 16, as a chemical engineering student, at Oregon Agricultural College, was taught the Dalton-version of hook-and-eye bonding model, aka "hooked atoms" (TR:18)[2] model, according to which each atom had a certain number of hooks and eyes that allowed it to attach to other atoms, where a "chemical bond" resulted when a hook and eye connected:

Hook and eye model.png

Electron exchange | Model

In 1926, Pauling, in Europe, was working and or visiting with Walter Heitler and Fritz London, who were working on the exchange force model of the atom, wherein a bond forms when atoms approach one another, and, via wave mechanics, exchange electrons, which results in a system energy lowering, and hence a "bond energy" and "bond mechanism", mathematically derived which matched experimental data.[3]

In c.1930, Pauling solved the problem of the benzene ring having two equivalent structures, per reason that according to wave mechanics, the double bond has no localized position in the ring.

In 1932, Pauling had developed the hybrid orbital model of chemical bonding.

In 1939, Pauling published The Nature of the Chemical Bond, dedicated to Gilbert Lewis, would go on to become referred to as “bible of modern chemistry”.

Schrodinger | Negative entropy

See main: Life feeds on negative entropy

In 1987, Pauling, his memorial chapter “Schrodinger’s Contribution to Chemistry and Biology”, ripped into Schrodinger’s negative entropy model, in a baseline leveling way:[4]

“In respect to what extent Schrodinger contributed to modern biology, to our understanding of the nature of life, aside from his discovery of the Schrodinger equation, it is my opinion that he did not make an contribution whatever, or that perhaps, by his discussion of ‘negative entropy’, in relation to life, he made a negative contribution.”
— Linus Pauling (1987), “Schrodinger’s Contribution to Chemistry and Biology” (pgs. 228-29)

Pauling states the errors of Schrodinger frankly as follows:

“We know from the principles of thermodynamics, that the free energy of the organism necessarily decreases. One cannot say, without more information, whether there is an increase or a decrease in the entropy of the organism.”
— Linus Pauling (1989), “Schrodinger’s Contribution to Chemistry and Biology” (pg. 230)

This is a fairly intellectually powerful statement; not yet surpassed to date. Pauling, moreover, derides as follows:

“Life does not feed on negentropy as a cat laps up milk.”
— Linus Pauling (1989), “Schrodinger’s Contribution to Chemistry and Biology” (pg. #)

Pauling said that Schrodinger made “no contribution to our understanding of life”; that his lecture was too “vague and superficial” to be tolerated, even in a lay audience; pointing out that Schrodinger that he NEVER defines the system; concluding that anyone with “good understanding of Gibbs on chemical thermodynamics” would agree with him about this.


Quotes | On

The following are quotes on Pauling:

“This explanation of the direction properties of valency was given by Pauling and Slater (1931).”
Walter Heitler (1956), Elementary Wave Mechanics (pgs. 173-74)[5]
“By virtually any standard of measure, Linus Pauling ranks as one of the most-influential and celebrated scientists of the twentieth century. Pauling’s The Nature of the Chemical Bond, in its three editions and numerous translations, is the most cited scientific book of all time.”
— Zeleck Herman (1997), “Force of Nature: the Life of Linus Pauling: Linus Pauling in His Own Words”[6]

Quotes | By

The following are quotes by Pauling:

“Only when I began studying chemical engineering, at Oregon Agricultural College, did I realize that I myself might discover something new about the nature of the world, and also have some new ideas that contributed to a better understanding of the universe.”
— Linus Pauling (c.1960), Publication[7]

End matter


  1. Tetrahedron (1940s) –
  2. Hooked atoms – Hmolpedia 2020.
  3. Heitler, Walter; London, Fritz; Pauling, Ava. (1926). “Photo”, Europe,
  4. Pauling, Linus. (1989). “Schrodinger’s Contribution to Chemistry and Biology”, in: Schrodinger: Centenary Celebration of a Polymath (§18, pgs. 225-). Cambridge University Press.
  5. Heitler, Walter. (1936). Elementary Wave Mechanics: with Application to Quantum Chemistry (directional properties, pgs. 173-74; benzine, pgs. 189-90). Oxford, 1958.
  6. Herman, Zeleck S. (1997). “Force of Nature: the Life of Linus Pauling: Linus Pauling in His Own Words”, Chemical Intelligencer, 2):60-62; in: Culture of Chemistry: The Best Articles on the Human Side of 20th-Century Chemistry from the Archives of the Chemical Intelligencer (editors: Balazs Hargittai and Istvan Hargittai) (pg. 89-91). Springer, 2015.
  7. Pauling, Linus. (c.1960). Linus Pauling in His Own Words: Selections From His Writings, Speeches and Interviews (editor: Barbara Marinacci) (pg. 42). Simon and Schuster, 1995.

External links

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