In terminology, life (TR:2,293) (LH:208) (TL:2,501|#2), from Old Swedish (1200AD) liv, from Old Saxon (700AD) lif, meaning "body", + viv (e.g. vivus) or vis, meaning "force of Venus", meaning a "life forced body", aka "vita" (200BC), as compared to "death", is a defunct term (Lotka, 1925), colloquially employed, presently, in reference to what are now defined as powered CHNOPS+ species, e.g. plants and animals, in the animate state.
Bios → Vis
In 400BC, the Greek term "ις" (NE:210), meaning force, wherein a body with this force means "bios" (NE:282), became the Latin term "vis" (goddess force of Venus), and a body having this force, referred to has having "vita".In 120BC, Lucilius wrote the following:
- “Life is force you see: to do everything force doth compel us.” [English]
- “Vis est vita vides? Vis nos facere omnia cogit.” [Latin]
- — Lucilius (120BC), Publications (pg. #)
Here, to clarify:
In 50BC, Marcus Varro, in his On the Latin Language, citing Lucilius (120BC), stated that people born of the "born of vis [of Venus] have what is called vita, ‘life’." In other words, Romans, in the centuries before Varro, believed that the "vis" was a thing that came from the goddess Venus. The following are the god character prescripts and rescripts of Venus and her "vis" or goddess life force:
|Force||Ankh (☥)||Is (ις) (NE:210)||Vis (force)||Breath of life||Vis viva
|Principle||Bios||Vita||Life||Vitalism / Neovitalism|
In short, over a period of five-thousand years, the "ankh" of Hathor, the "magic force" that brought "clay humans" to life; became the ις (NE:210) of Aphrodite, which means: "strength, force" (Barry, 1999), or secret name: "fertile" (πιον) (NE:210); which became the vis of Venus, or force of the goddess Venus, in the Roman period; which became the breath of life of Eve, in Hebrew mythology, which became the "vis viva" of Leibniz; then the lebenskraft or "life force" of animals, in the 18th century, which morphed into all sorts of vitalism (19th century) and neovitalism (20th century) theories. The goddess, as shown above, atrophied away, but the language and premise of humans having a different type of force from the rest of nature persisted, and continues to exist in modern language and conceptual models of human existence.
Callander | Etymology (1782)
In 1782, John Callander, a Scottish antiquarian, in his notes and observations on stanza one of the c.1540 poem Gaberlunzie-man, by James V (1512-1542), king of Scotland, we fined the following telling etymology for the English term “life”:
“Ver. 1. Pauky] Sly, cunning, Bel. Paiken, to coax or wheedle. Douglas, p. 238, v. 37. Prattis are repute policie, and perrellus paukis.
Auld] Old Ger. alt, as eald. In. aldradur. Dan. Eeld. Scot. eild. Casaubon brings this from εωλος, ‘vetus’, and Lye from ςλδεω, ‘augeo’; as if our ancestors had no word to express old age, till they got it from the Greeks. But this is indeed an old wife's tale. The primitive E denotes existence; every thing that ‘lives’. Hence Eve [Egyptian: Hathor; Greek: Aphrodite; Roman: Venus] is called emphatically, the mother of all living. Latin eft [est]. French etre, being, effentia [essential], whence our ‘essence’, what constitutes the being of that thing.
Hence, Hebrew hei, life, and god emphatically; i.e. ‘he who lives’. heie, to live, life itself. Arab. hei-hi, ‘to live’, to be glad. In Zend, gueie, foul, life. This word furnishes a remarkable example of the truth of our general principle, explained in the preface, and therefore we hope the reader will allow us to trace it a little further.
The aspirate H, in the northern dialects, is changed into W, and Qu, and hence Swedish weet, wight, ‘living animal’; English and Scottish wight; Gothic, qwick, ‘lively’; ewicka, ‘quicken, quick-silver’, from its lively motion. In Sued. qwick-hilfwer.
The Latins used the V, and so formed vita, vivere, vivax, victus, vicło, vis, vigor, vigeo, and a thousand more; as also the derivatives we have adopted from that language, vivacity, violent, vivid, etc. Vossius [c.1630] (RMS:23), able to get no further than the Greek, deduces vita from βιοτη [?]: but βιος (bios), ‘life’; βιο (bio) [or βια?], ‘violence’, βιαηοπαι [?], βιοω [?], all come from one primitive, as also Greek ις, the vis of the Latins, ιςχνς, is ιςχνρος, only by suppressing the aspirate.
In the more ancient dialects of Scandinavia, we find the fame word denoting the same objects; Teuton. vuith. In. vætir. a Saxon vught, vight, all sign. animals, living creatures ; and the Alam. quick, quickr. Old German queck. Danish queg, living, animal, every thing alive. Suab. vich, viech, animal. From the same source we formed wife. Bel. wyf. Swedish wif. Suab. wib, all signifying woman, mother of a family.
Thus, we have followed this word from the remotest East, to the farthest extremities of the West and North. Such coincidences of found and meaning, demonstrate that language is no arbitrary thing, nor etymology that fallacious science it has been called, by those who find it more easy to decide in haste, than to examine at leisure.”
In sum, according to Callander and Vossius, the Greek alphabet letter "B", phonetically, became the Latin letter "V", e.g. how "berry" sounds like "very", according to which he Greek "bio" became "vio", e.g. as seen in the word "violence" (or survival), and the Greek ις (NE:210), which means: "strength, force" (Barry, 1999) or "fertile" (πιον) (NE:210), in secret name, became the Latin vis (force), such as found in the terms "vis viva" (living force) or "vis of Venus" (vita) aka "life", in defunct vitalism terminology.
Vis → Viv (vis viva) → Liv → Lif → Life (or Alive)
In 500AD, when the Latin language began to migrate out of Rome, the letter "L", in some way, was added to "vis" to make the word "life". Callander (1782) touched on this in his etymology, when shows how the term "wife", which is similar to "life", derives from the bio/vio or vis/viv etymology. Also, knowing that the German term Leib means "body", it can be argued that: body (leib) + force (vis) = live, in the sense of leibvis, meaning body with life force, or something along these lines? Other language clues are as follows:
- Dutch lijf (“body”), Low German lif (“body; life, life-force; waist”), German Leib (“body; womb”) and Leben (“life”), Danish, Norwegian and Swedish liv (“life; waist”), Icelandic líf (“life”)
- Old Swedish (1200AD) liv, from Old Saxon (700AD) lif,
Life, aka "bio" (Greek), etymologically, traces to a divine religio-mythical property, associated with a class of animate things, said to have been imbibed with one of the following: “vis” of Venus (Roman, 150BC), the stolen “divine fire” of Prometheus (Greek, 750BC), the “solar fire” of fire drill of Ptah (Egyptian, 2800BC), or the Milky Way “spirit” of the magical ankh of Hathor (Egyptian, 3100BC).
What was formerly conceptualized as "life", prior to the life vs non-life divide discussions (19th century), vitalism debates (20th century), defunct theory of life debate (21st century), and the is now reconceptualized, in physico-chemically neutral life terminology reform language, is now defined a bound state existence of powered CHNOPS+ species, while animate.
- See main: Life terminology reform
In the mid 19th century, the so-called "vitalism debates" erupted (see: defunct theory of life), which revolved around that argument that plants, animals, and humans, in respect to physics and chemistry, had a special vita-based property, which so-called "dead atoms" (Tyndall, 1874) form which the former are made, did not, which differentiated humans from say things seen in inorganic chemical physics. These debates and discussions continued into the 20th century, with Lewis (1925) classifying life as a "metaphysical" term, and Sherrington (1938) declaring: "life has been deleted as a scientific category", which were followed by scientific neo-vitalism debates (1960s), with the final blows being taking between vitalist Michael Polanyi and materialist Francis Crick; with Crick (1966) declaring at the end, that the term "alive", in scientific discourse, must be abandoned.
This gist of argument being that a "vitalist" is one who argues that a "living" thing, is a thing that has "vita", which is a mythical property, namely a thing that has the "vis" or divine force of the goddess Venus. The same is true with the terms “live”, from the Latin viv, and the adjective “alive” from the Latin vivus, which of which are "vis-of-Venus" mythology-based concepts, aka "force-of-goddess" based. The Old English term life, from the Old Saxon “lif” (700AD), also derives, as seems to be the case, from Latin “viv”, a vis-of-Venus derived term, e.g. the Latin vivify translates as “make living or alive”. Hence, a concept such as "vital force" is classified as a scientific god synonym.
In 2007, the defunct theory of life debate began, which by 2013 resulted in terminology reform (see: life terminology reform), the new abioism position, and what was formerly defined as "life", redefined as the class of powered-animate CHNOPS+ species, which collectively defines bacteria to humans, and related by evolution animate things, scientifically, i.e. in a way that IS recognized by physics and chemistry, without recourse to myth.
The following are related quotes:
- “Hence, they call the monad ‘Prometheus’, the artificer of life, because, uniquely, it in no way outruns or departs from its own principle, nor allows anything else to do so, since it shares out its own properties.”
- — Iamblichus (c.310), The Theology of Arithmetic (pg. 38)
- “If asked to define ‘life’, I should be inclined to do as Poinsot, the mathematician did, as related by Claude Bernard (1879): ‘If anyone asked me to define ‘time’, I should reply: Do you know what it is that you speak of? If he said Yes, I should say, Very well, let us talk about it. If he said No, I should say, Very well, let us talk about something else’.”
- “Life began with motion itself.”
- “When you grow up, you tend to get told that the world is the way it is, and your life is just to live your life ‘inside’ the world try not to ‘bash’ into the walls too much; try to have a nice family life; have ‘fun’; save a little ‘money’. But, that’s a very limited life. Life can be much broader. Once you discover one simple fact. And that is, once you discover that every thing around you that you call ‘life’, was made up by people who were no smarter than you. And you can change it. You can influence it. You can build you own things that other people can use. The minute that you can understand that you can ‘poke’ life, and that if you actually ‘push’ in, something will ‘pop’ out the other side, then you understand that you can ‘change’ it, you can ‘mold’ it. That’s maybe is the most important thing.”
- (a) March, Francis. (1871). A Comparative Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Language (lif / life, pg. 120). Harper.
(b) Life – EtymOnline.com.
- Ainsworth, Robert. (1746). Thesaurus Linguae: Compendious Dictionary (life, pg. #). Publisher.
- James V of Scotland – Wikipedia.
- James V (of Scotland). (c.1540). Two Scottish Poems: the Gaberlunzie-man, and Christ’s Kirk on the Green, with Notes and Observations (notes and observations by John Callander) (pgs. 19-20). Publisher, 1782.
- See: God character rescripts
- Gerardus Vossius – Wikipedia.
- Life (etymology) – Wiktionary.
- Note: the conditional "animate" here, is reference to situations where a human is "brain dead", e.g. damaged brain from accident, but who has their body kept operational via artificial or mechanical means, and hence, cannot become animate.
- Defunct theory of life – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Crick, Francis. (1966). Of Molecules and Men (pg. 5). Publisher.
- Diab, Mohammad. (1999). Lexicon of Orthopedic Etymology (pg. 378). CRC
- Life – EtymOnline.com.
- Thomas, Joseph. (1857). The First Book of Etymology (pg. 237). Publisher.
- Bayliss, William. (1915). Principles of General Physiology (pg. ix). Publisher.
- Barandum, Johannes. (1910). “Excursion Into the Infinitely Small” (Ѻ), The Open Court, 24:114-18.
- Jobs, Steve. (1995). “Response to Question: What are the Secrets of Life?” (YT)(RG), NeXT Computer Interview, Redwood City; California, Santa Clara Valley Historical Association.
- Life – Hmolpedia 2020.