Ingo Muller

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In existographies, Ingo Muller (18- BE) (1937- ACM) (CR:78) (LH:5) (TL:83|#126) is a German physicist and thermodynamicist, noted for []


Quotes | By

Muller's “Man in piston”, drawn by Mark Warmbrunn (1994); re-annotated by Libb Thims (2013) to illustrate the conception of ‘social boundaries’.[1]

The following are quotes by Muller:

“We firmly believe that thermodynamic ideas, in particular those of Clausius, may find an application outside of thermodynamics, even outside of physics, namely in the fields of economy and sociology.”
— Ingo Muller (2002), “Socio-thermodynamics: Integration and Segregation in a Population” [2]
“It is interesting to note that socio-thermodynamics is only accessible to chemical engineers and metallurgists. These are the only people who know phase diagrams and their usefulness. It cannot be expected, in our society, that sociologists will appreciate the potential of these ideas.”
— Ingo Muller (2007), A History of Thermodynamics (pg. 164)
“I have previously warned against an over interpretation of entropy as a measure of disorder, and I stress that caution again. To be sure, an animal definitely seems more ordered than the sum of its atoms, loosely distributed, and it does probably have a lower entropy. But then, what is the entropy of an animal (see: entropy of a mouse)? Or let us ask the easier question: what is the entropy of a molecule like hemoglobin, one of the simpler proteins with only about 500 amino acids? Maybe, molecular biologists can come up with the answer; If so, I do not know about it. But I do know that surely it must be a case of simplism when Schrodinger says that animals maintain their highly ordered state, because they eat highly ordered food. Indeed, before the animal body makes use of the food and anyway, and sets about to create order, it breaks the food down too much less ordered fragments than those which it ingests.”
— Ingo Muller (2007), A History of Thermodynamics [3]

End matter


  1. (a) Muller, Ingo. (1994). Essentials of Thermodynamics: with Historical Notes (Grundzüge der Thermodynamik : mit historischen Anmerkungen). Publisher.
    (b) Muller, Ingo. (2009). Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Applications (pg. #). Publisher.
  2. Muller, Ingo. (2002). “Socio-thermodynamics: Integration and Segregation in a Population”, Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, 14:384-404.
  3. Muller, Ingo. (2007). A History of Thermodynamics (§11: Metabolism, pg. 307). Springer.


External links

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