Human chemical reaction

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A diagram of Goethe's 4-7 Oct 1793 lab notebooks[1], wherein he studied a reaction with Berlin-blue liquor using a double elective affinity diagram logic (left) and Goethe's 1809 used of the "double elective affinity" reaction (see: Goethe model), as the basis of the opening chapters of his Elective Affinities novel.

In hmolscience, human chemical reaction (CR:5) (LH:17) (TL:22) refers to a chemical reaction that takes place between two or more people; meaning, by definition, that a "change" in a chemical bond occurs, specifically a breakage or formation in a human chemical bond results, as can be quantified or determined by changes in the "bond energies" involved.


In 1717, Newton published his "Query 31", is last and final scientific work.

In 1718, Etienne Geoffroy, during his translation into French of Newton's "Query 31", transformed the verbal reaction descriptions of Newton described into an "affinity table". Over the next century, dozens of large "affinity tables" began to be made, upon which the science of "affinity chemistry", the forerunner to "physical chemistry" and "chemical thermodynamics", arose.[2]

Goethe | 1809

In 1793, Johann Goethe, in his laboratory notebooks, described reaction experiments with Berlin-blue liquor reaction, modeled as a "double elective affinity" reaction, aka "double displacement reaction" in modern terms, as shown adjacent (left), using the affinity chemical reaction notation and logic of Torbern Bergman (1775).

In 1796, Goethe, in his Third Lecture on Anatomy, connected mineral reactions with reactions between people as follows:

“To facilitate our comprehension of the concept of organic existence, let us first take a look at mineral structures. Minerals, whose varied components are so solid and unchanging, do not seem to hold to any limits or order when then combine, although laws do determine these conditions. Different components can be easily separated and recombined into new combinations. These combinations can again be taken apart, and the mineral we thought destroyed can soon be restored to its original perfection. The main characteristic of minerals that concerns us here is the indifference their components show toward the form of their combination, that is, their coordination or subordination. There are, by nature, stronger bonds or weaker bonds between these components, and when they evidence themselves, they resemble attractions between human beings. This is why chemists speak of elective affinities, even though the forces that move mineral components [or humans] one way or another and create mineral structures are often purely external in origin, which by no means implies that we deny them the delicate portion of nature’s vital inspiration that is their due.”
— Johann Goethe (1796), Third Lecture on Anatomy (pg. #)[3]

Goethe, here, in respect to "anatomy", is attempting to ferret out how not only humans can morph or form-change from older animal forms, but also how animals and plants can form or morph over time from chemicals, according to the science of affinity chemistry.

Goethe's 1809 human "double elective affinity" reaction (see: Goethe model), showing: A or Charlotte (or calcium carbonate C03), B or Edward (or calcium Ca), bonded in a weak marriage, at left, who are put in contact with C the Captain (or sulfuric acid H2SO4), and D or Ottilie (a new chemical) who are invited onto their large estate to stay and visit as guests. Over the course of months, old bond, symbolize by the bonding brackets { or Bracket upward.png, are broken, and new bonds form, via human chemical reactions, described in 36 chapters (each chapter a different type of reaction).

In 1809, Goethe, in his Elective Affinities, presented a story, in the form of physical chemistry based novel, wherein the following human "double elective affinity" reaction, is the overall reaction mechanism of the novel, while at the same time there are 36 chapter mechanism reactions:

Here, A is Charlotte (or calcium carbonate C03), B is Edward (or calcium Ca), C is the Captain (or sulfuric acid H2SO4), and D is Ottilie (a new chemical). In Bergman letter symbol reaction notation, Goethe;s reaction reads as follows, where the crotchet { or } are bonding brackets (aka chemical bonds in modern terms), a concept invented by William Cullen (1757):

Goethe reaction (Bergman symbols).png

The leftward pointing bracket: { indicates the bonded reactants, in this case AB (Charlotte and Edward weakly married). The rightward pointing bracket: } indicates a second reactant species that is introduced into the system, in this case CD (or the Captain and Ottilie, who in the novella are introduced in chapters 1.3 and 1.5, respectively.

The downward pointing:Bracket down.png means a product that precipitated out of the liquid solution as a solid, in this case: CA (or the Captain and Charlotte strongly bonded, who stay in the estate or reaction system). The upward pointing bracket: Bracket upward.png means a product that as evaporated out of the solution (out of the grounds of the estate) as a gas and or later re-condensed as a liquid using a retort, in this case BD (or Edward and Ottilie as new strongly bonded couple).

The upward triangle: Δ, means the reaction is "heated", aka warmed by sunlight in the novel. The downward triangle: ∇ means the reaction occurs in an aqueous environment, which is described in the novel with reference to the lakes on the estate, and how the child formed from reaction drowns in the lake.

In modern reaction notation, Goethe's reaction reads as follows:

where the bonding brackets are now assumed by the contact or adjacent letters, a chemical notation technique invented by Bergman (1775).


In 1969, Jeremy Adler, completed his PhD dissertation, under the direction and advisement of German literature scholar Claus Bock, author of Goethe the Critic (1960), on the chemists and affinity reactions used by Goethe to construct his Elective Affinities.

In 1987, Adler, in his An Almost Magical Attraction: Goethe’s Elective Affinity and the Chemistry of its Time , a 260-page book (in German), presumably a condensed summary of his PhD, gives a robust history of affinity chemistry, in respect to Goethe and his Elective Affinities.[4]

In 1990, Adler published (in English) “Goethe's use of chemical theory in his Elective Affinities”, in English, a chapter of the collaborative book Romanticism and the Sciences, wherein we are given a good short history of the chemists and reactions used by Goethe.[5]

Beg | 1987

The cover of Arshad Beg's 1987 New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior, wherein he explains sociology according to the principles of physical chemistry.[6]

In 1976, Arshad Beg, in his Human Behavior in Scientific Terminology, presented an outline of the scientific terminology of physical chemistry as applicable to public management and administration of people in society and business.[7]

In 1979 to 1982, Beg, based on his Human Behavior in Scientific Terminology, published four articles in the Pakistan Management Review, one of which was the 1981 “Human Behavior in Scientific Terminology: Affinity, Free Energy Changes, Equilibria, and Human Behavior”, wherein he explains social reactions based on affinity chemistry and chemical thermodynamics, specifically Gibbs energy changes of social reactions.[8]

In 1987, Beg, in his New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physio-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior, explains the behavior and reactions of people, with humans defined explicitly types of chemicals, and social transformations defined using the logic of human chemical reaction theory.[6] In his §2: Solutions and the Society, Beg gives the following reaction (R2.2):

wherein a every society, according to Beg, faces with a hazard or "scare of hazard", has at least some if not all of its members, having become so scared, that they leave the calamity stricken area, without delay. Here, the members of a society are the "reactants", at the left side of the equilibrium reaction arrow: , and the refugees are the "products" that leave or precipitate out of the "system" or reaction vessel of the society.

In his §4: Human Interaction and the Socialization Process, Beg gives the following reaction (R4.1):

where A and B are to people who become close friends, symbolized by the "AB" union or friendship bond, which he refers to as a human "dimer". When three people or species are bonded, such as ABC, he calls this a human or social "trimer". Larger bonded social formations, Beg refers to as social "polymers".

In his §§4: "Changes of State" (pgs. 81-93), Beg says that "social changes can be viewed as a mix of physical and chemical changes" and that the social interactions of the individuals of group A with those of groups B and C may be viewed as the following type of reaction:

Beg social chemical reaction.png

Beg then attempts to apply the phase rule of Willard Gibbs to explain these reactions. Beg also digresses on social equilibrium constants, and refers to what he calls the "A-B linkage" as follows:

“The equilibrium process suggest that A and B interact to establish the ‘A-B linkage’ but the reverse process or remaining as individuals like A and B is also operative.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 73)

This is one of the first historical forerunners to theory of the "human chemical bond", later worked out, independently, by Thims, in 2003 to 2007.

Thims | 2007

The table of contents of Thims' 2007 two-volume Human Chemistry, showing chapters related to "human chemical bonding" highlighted, the entire book itself introducing the basics of "human chemical reaction" theory.[9]

In 1995, Libb Thims, as a chemical engineering student[10], began to work on the problem of how the human reproduction reaction, which he then modeled as follows:

where Mx is a man, Fy is woman, and Bc is baby or baby turning into child, at about the age of 15, at the point of detachment from the family structure, could be explained by the spontaneity criterion of chemical thermodynamics:

Namely, in terms of Gibbs energy changes, with a detailed mechanistic understanding of the enthalpy and entropy changes involved, in respect to physical attractive heat and mental attraction heat?

In 2001, Thims came to realization that the human reproduction reaction could be energetically mapped and quantified as follows:

where Hf and Sf is the enthalpies and entropies of the product formations in their "final state" (year eighteen), and Hi and Si are enthalpies and entropies of the reactants in their "initial state" (year one).

In 2003, Thims came to the realization that his previous "A + B → C" reaction model for the human reproduction reaction, was an "overall mechanism" view of things, but that to account correctly for the Gibbs energy changes involved, the "bond energy" stored in the marriage bond MxFy needed to be accounted for; namely:

Human reproductive reaction.png

according to which the correct reproduction reaction is a reaction of the form:

Moreover, when the germ cells, namely sperm (G1) and egg (G2), are accounted for, the reaction becomes a double displacement reaction in mechanistic detail, the sperm germ (G1) and egg germ (G2) attaching to form the fetus G1G2, which becomes the infant, baby, child, and eventually "young adult" at about age 15 to 19, at the point when he or she detaches from the parental structure MxFy, occurring over an approximately 18 to 22 year period.

In 2007, Thims, having discovered the work of Goethe the previous year, published the two-volume Human Chemistry, the contents of which are shown adjacent, in which the basics of the model of the "human chemical reaction" are explained in full standard college level format.[9] Thims later discovered the work of Beg in 2014.


Others to have ventured in the area of human chemical reaction theory or logic, in a marginal or notable sense, include: Lawrence Henderson (1935), Aram Boyajian (1956), Matthew Melko (1969), Norman Dolloff (1975), Alfred Steer (1990), Karl Fink (1991), Christopher Hirata (2000), David Hwang (2001), Chanel Wood (2007), Don Jorge (2007), Thomas Wallace (2009), Surya Pati (2009), Christine Kamla (2011), Vamshi Regalla and Ravi Vedula (2012).


The following are related quotes:

“There are men who would be better off in a small village than in a large town, if you had some sort of human chemical reaction to determine in advance which man's nature was suited to the smaller place and which to the larger.”
Henry Pritchett (1906), “Discussion: Small vs. Large Colleges” [11]
“Suppose that this hypothetical experiment could be realized, which seems not unlikely, and suppose we could discover a whole chain of phenomena [evolution timeline], leading by imperceptible gradations form the simplest chemical molecule to the most highly developed organism. Would we then say that my preparation of this volume [Anatomy of Science] is only a chemical reaction[12], or, conversely that a crystal is thinking[13] about the concepts of science?”
Gilbert Lewis (1925), Anatomy of Science (pg. #)[14]

End matter

See also


  1. Goethe timeline (2019) (WB) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  2. Affinity table (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  3. Third Lecture on Anatomy – Hmolpedia 2020.
  4. Adler, Jeremy. (1987). An Almost Magical Attraction: Goethe’s Elective Affinity and the Chemistry of its Time (Eine fast magische Anziehungskraft: Goethe’s 'Wahlverwandtschafte' und die Chemie seiner Zeit) (Amz). Munich: Beck.
  5. Adler, Jeremy. (1990). “Goethe's Use of chemical theory in his Elective Affinities”, in: Romanticism and the Sciences (editors: Andrew Cunningham and Nicholas Jardine) (§:18:263-79; Tabor, pg. 278). Cambridge.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Beg, Mirza Arshad Ali. (1987). New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior (abs) (intro) (pdf, annotations by Libb Thims, 2014). Karachi: The Hamdard Foundation.
  7. Beg, Arshad. (1976). Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology. Publisher.
  8. (a) Beg, Mirza. (1979). “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology”, Pakistan Management Review, 20, 2nd Qtr.
    (b) Beg, M. Arshad Ali. (1980). “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology: Assimilation” (Ѻ), Pakistan Management Review, 21(3):5-##.
    (c) Beg, M. Arshad Ali. (1981). “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology: Affinity, Free Energy Changes, Equilibria, and Human Behaviour” (Ѻ), Pakistan Management Review, 22(4):17-##.
    (d) Beg, M. Arshad Ali. (1982). “Article Title”, Pakistan Management Review, 1, 32, Jan.
  9. 9.0 9.1 (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry, Volume One (GB) (Amz) (eB) (pdf). LuLu.
    (b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry, Volume Two (GB) (Amz) (eB) (pdf). LuLu.
  10. See: Progress report: Chemical engineering (1995).
  11. Pritchett, Henry S. (1906). “Discussion: Small vs. Large Colleges” (Park, pg. 4; human chemical reaction, pg. 25) in: Official report of the New England Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools, the 21th Annual Meeting held in Huntington Hall, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, on Friday and Saturday, October 12 and 13. University of Chicago Press.
  12. See: extrapolate up approach.
  13. See: extrapolate down approach.
  14. Lewis, Gilbert N. (1925). The Anatomy of Science (§7: Non-Mathematical Sciences), Silliman Lectures; Yale, 1926.

External links

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