Holbach salon

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The Holbach salon, aka “Holbach Hotel”, a five-story palace, with a dinner seating capacity of 50, at 8 Rue des Moulins[1], Paris, where, from 1759 to 1789, Baron Holbach, held his famous atheism universal philosophy intellectual salon meetings.[2]

In salons, Holbach salon (TL:8), aka "Holbach Hotel", "Holbach's coterie" (Rousseau, c.1755), "philosopher's synagogue" (Diderot, c.1770), "synagogue of the atheists", "Holbach's circle" (Blum, 2011), or "philosopher's hotel" (Galiani, c.1770), was a radical enlightenment philosophical salon, held bi-weekly, during Thur and Sun dinners, in the 1750s to 1770s, at the Paris mansion of Baron Holbach, at 8 (or 10) Rue des Moulins, surrounded by his 3,000-book library, attended by about one to two dozen (or up to 50) people per meeting, original or main group shown below:

Holbach Hotel philosophers.png

The Holbach salon, over time, attracted many of the greatest thinkers in the world, such as: Denis Diderot, Jean Rousseau, David Hume, Adam Smith, and Benjamin Franklin, to name a few; discussions tending to be themed on atheism, religion, science, philosophy, politics, morality, and the new enlightenment ideas of the encyclopedist movement.

Overview

In 1749, Baron Holbach, aged 26, returned to France from Leyden University, having completed a round education in physics and chemistry, and, after obtaining a degree or license to practice law, began to engage in Denis Diderot's Encyclopedia, e.g. contributing articles to the 1752 edition. Sometime, herein, at one of Holbach's mansions, the Holbach salon concept began to take root.

In 1754, Basile-Genevieve Aine (1728–​1754), Holbach's first wife destated (died), and he closed his salon for a period of about two-years, and moved out to the country to stay with his friend Friedrich Grimm. In 1757, Holbach married his second wife Charlotte-Suzanne Aine (1733–1814), whom with he had three children, and two years later he restarted his salon meetups.

In 1759, Holbach moved into 8[1] or 10[3] Rue des Moulins (formerly known as: rue Royale Saint-Roch), Paris, a five story palace, with a 12-person to 50-person dinner table, and a 3,000-book personal library, whereat, every Thu and Sun, for a period of two decades, give or take, he hosted one of France's most famous intellectual salons, during which the greatest minds of Europe and America would come for dinner and drinking, and talk freely and openly about most philosophically taboo topics of the time. This location remained the central location for the Holbach salon for at least the next two decades.

Guests

The following are known Holbach salon meeting attendees:

# Person Date Summary
Holbach 75 2.png Baron Holbach
(232-166 BE)
(1723-1789 ACM)
1759-1770s Started the salon (c.1751), aiming to revive his all-night frank and open dinner debates of his Leiden student days;
“I have never met with a man more learned — I may add, more universally learned, than the Baron Holbach; and I have never seen anyone who cared so little to pass for learned in the eyes of the world. Had it not been for the sincere interest he took in the progress of science, and a longing to impart to others what he thought might be useful to them, the world would always have remained ignorant of his vast erudition. His learning, like his fortune, he gave away, but never crouched to public opinion. The French nation is indebted to Holbach for its rapid progress in natural history and chemistry. It was he who, 30 years ago, translated (enriched with valuable notes) the best works published by the Germans on both these sciences, till then, scarcely known, or at least, very much neglected in France. Holbach possessed an extensive library, and the tenacity of his memory was such as to enable him to remember without effort every thing he had once read.”
— Friedrich Grimm (1789), “On Baron Holbach”, Aug 10

something more substantial than the then-standard salons moderated by "respectable ladies", wherein polite conversation was maintained, while new literary works were read, and open conversation was largely avoided.[3]

Diderot 75.png Denis Diderot
(241-171 BE)
(1713-1784 ACM)
Diderot statute.png
Met Holbach in late 1749 or early 1750; in second volume of the Encyclopedia (1752), Holbach is thanked for having written a considerable number of articles on mineralogy, metallurgy, and physics.
“All his contemporaries agreed that nothing was so charged with divine fire as the conversation of Diderot. Gautherin, in his fine bronze [adjacent][4] of him on the Place Saint-Germain-des-Près, seems to have caught the spirit of his talk and has depicted him as he might have sat in the midst of Holbach's society, of which he was the inspiration and the soul.”
— Max Cushing (1914), Baron d’Holbach (§1, pg. #)[5]

The Holbach salon would have officially started in this period. We can already see, in comparing Holbach, Diderot, and Rousseau, that Diderot, in his refusal to wear the wig, is already bucking social protocol, in his photo alone!

Rousseau 75.png Jean Rousseau
(243-177 BE)
(1712-1778 ACM)
Contributed Encyclopedia articles on music (Blom, 2011)[3]; later spent years attacking and denouncing his former friends (Spencer, 2014)[6], e.g. his "Open Letter to Alembert" (1757), attacking Jean Alembert on music philosophy, and Emile: on Education (1762), attacking all the philosophers of the salon in group, calling them braggarts.
No image 2.png Nicolas Boulanger
(233-196 BE)
(1722-1759 ACM)
(RMS:35) French mathematician, civil engineer, philosopher, and ancient and oriental languages scholar; his “The Christian Mythology”, the fourth chapter of his Christianity Unveiled, explicitly defined Christianity as a “mythology”; Holbach employed Boulanger posthumously as one of his pseudonyms.[7]
Naigeon 75.png Jacques Naigeon
(217-145 BE)
(1738-1810 ACM)
French atheist philosopher, editor, and artist; characterized a “brash evangelical atheist” (Hecht, 2003), was a friend of Baron Holbach, who in circa 1869 had begun to increasingly politicize Holbach and his views, who assisted Holbach in the classic atheist works, such as Jean Meslier, and who penned the preface to Holbach’s The System of Nature.[8]
Helvetius 75.png Claude Helvetius
(240-184 BE)
(1715-1771 ACM)
His Essay on Mind (1758), which was burned Paris, espoused atheistic, utilitarian, and egalitarian doctrines; was materialistic in its conception of the universe;
“Holbach and Helvetius were life-long friends and spent much time together reading at Helvetius's country place at Vore. After his death in 1774, Holbach frequented Mme. Helvetius' salon where he knew and deeply influenced Volney, Cabanis, de Tracy, and the first generation of the Ideologists who continued his and Helvetius' philosophical doctrines.”
— Max Cushing (1903), Baron d’Holbach: a Study of Eighteenth Century Radicalism in France (pg. #)[5]

argued that a "nonreligious morality" is what really guided most people's virtues.

D'Alembert 75.png Jean Alembert
(238-172 BE)
(1717-1783 ACM)
(Spencer, 2014)[6]
Morellet 75.png Andre Morellet
(228-136 BE)
(1727-1819 ACM)
Economist and abbe (Spencer, 2014)[6]
“It was there that one could not fail to hear the freest, the most animated and the most instructive conversation that ever was; when I say free, I mean in terms of philosophy, of religion, of government, etc., there was no bold thought in politics and religion that was not brought forward there, and discussed pro and con, almost with much subtlety and profundity.”
— Andre Morellet (c.1790), Memoires (1:128-30)

Was supported by Voltaire; he was, supposedly. outshined by Diderot, commenting: "one simply cannot get a word in edgewise" when the philosopher [Diderot] was in full flight.

Marmontel 75.png Jean Marmontel
(232-156 BE)
(1723-1799 ACM)
French historian and writer[9];
“It was there that Holbach, who had read everything, and forgotten nothing interesting, poured out abundantly the riches of his memory; it was there above all, with his mild and persuasive eloquence, that his face sparkling with the fire of inspiration, that Diderot spread light into ever mind, and his warmth into ever heart. He who has only known Diderot by his writings has not known him.”
— Jean Marmontel (c.1780), Memoirs (pg. 215)
“Nobody has more wit, more knowledge, and more logic than Marmontel; but why spoil all that with a self-importance and a hard-headedness that nobody can stand.”
— Denis Diderot (1762), “Letter to Sophie Volland” (on previous Thu Holbach dinner), Oct 24[10]

critiqued literature (Blom, 2011)[3]; became permanent secretary of the Academie Francaise (Spencer, 2014)[6]

Friedrich Grimm 75.png Friedrich Grimm
(232-148 BE)
(1723-1807 ACM)
German-born French-language journalist, art critic, diplomat, and encyclopedia contributor; established and ran the influential Correspondance Litteraire, an intellectual newsletter that was hand-copied to avoid the censors (Spencer, 2014); was a one-man public relations office for the salon and its members; was the only man who had mastered the German language (according to Goethe).[6]
Buffon 75.png Buffon
(248-167 BE)
(1707-1788 ACM)
Characterized as the "grandest among the guests in the first years" (Blom, 2011)[3]; noted for his for his 1745 comet impacting the sun nebular hypothesis planet formation model (later cited by Holbach in respect to the origin of earth, in respect to the origin of humans); declared that Noah’s flood had never occurred;
“At Holbach’s salon, Buffon had the vexation of seeing that the mathematicians, the chemist, the astronomers, granted him but a very inferior rank among them; that the naturalist themselves were but little disposed to put him at their head, and that, among men of letters, he obtained only a standard praise of an elegant writer, and a great colorist.”
— Jean Marmontel (c.1780), Memoires (pg. 214); cited by Philip Blom (2010) A Wicked Company (pg. 61)[11]

he attended the Holbach salon for several years, before drifting off to the salon of Marie Geoffin.[12]

Hume 75.png David Hume
(244-179 BE)
(1711-1776 ACM)
On 18 Oct 1763, Hume (aged 52) visited Paris, a point in time, when most of his works were well-known and he was the toast of the town;
“The men of letters here are really very agreeable: all of them men of the world, living in entire, are almost entire harmony among themselves, and quite irreproachable in our morals. It would give you great satisfaction to find that there is not a single dieste among them. Those whose persons I and conversation I like best, are: Alembert, Buffon, Marmontel, Diderot, Duclos, and Helvetius.”
— David Hume (1763), “Letter to [Name]”[13]

During which time he visited the house Holbach (aged 40) during which time a “legendary dinner party” was thrown, with about two dozen attendees, during which time Hume stated that he does not believe an atheists, because he had never seen one, to which Holbach retorted: "look around, of the eighteen seated here, 15 are atheists, and 3 have not yet made up their minds".[14]

Lagrange 75.png Joseph Lagrange
(219-142 BE)
(1736-1813 ACM)
(Cushing, 1914)[5]
Guillaume Raynal 75.png Guillaume Raynal
(242-159 BE)
(1713-1796 ACM)
Writer and defrocked priest (Spencer, 2014)[6] Rousseau wrote about meeting him in 1748; presumed to have been at the first meetings; said to have been "never at a loss for words, and a wit that was a foil even for Diderot" (Blum, 2010); became editor of Mercure de France, an intellectual journal; wrote a treatise Voyage aux deux Indes, on political philosophy, in respect to France's dealings with the colonies and international trade.
Condorcet 75.png Marquis Condorcet
(212-161 BE)
(1743-1794 ACM)
(Spencer, 2014)[6]
Etienne Condillac 75.png Etienne Condillac
(241-175 BE)
(1714-1780 ACM)
(Spencer, 2014)[6]
Francois Quesnay
(261-181 BE)
(1694-1774 ACM)
(Durant, 1965)[15]
Smith 75.png Adam Smith
(232-165 BE)
(1723-1790 ACM)
(Spencer, 2014)[6]
Gibbon 75.png Edward Gibbon
(218-167 AE)
(1737-1794 ACM)
(Spencer, 2014)[6]
Franklin 75.png Benjamin Franklin
(249-165 BE)
(1706-1790 ACM)
Franklin and the Baron were "intimate friends" (Cushing, 1914); when he arrived at Paris, in 1776, as the congressional ambassador to the French King, was asked whether he would like to see anyone in particular, and replied: "take me to the philosophes" (Blom, 2010).
John Wilkes 75.png John Wilkes
(228-158 BE)
(1727-1797 ACM)
(IQ:150|#496) (Cattell 1000:401) English radical writer and politician (Spencer, 2014)[6]; was one of Holbach's closest friends at Leyden University, in 1745, whom he would go on "delightful evening walks" with.
Priestley 75.png Joseph Priestley
(222-151 BE)
(1733-1804 ACM)
(Cushing, 1914)[5]
Turgot 75.png Robert Turgot
(228-174 BE)
(1727-1781 ACM)
(IQ:170|#593) (Cattell 1000:293) French economist (Spencer, 2014)[6]
Horace Walpole 75.png Horace Walpole
(238-158 BE)
(1717-1797 ACM)
(Cattell 1000:633) English writer, art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician;
“Men and women, one and all, are devoutly employed in the demolition. They thank me quite profane for having any belief and left. I sometimes go to Baron Holbach; but I have left off his dinners, as there was no bearing the authors, and philosophers, and servants, of which he has a pigeon house full. The barrenness persuaded that Pall Mall is paved with lave or deluge stones. In short, nonsense for nonsense, and I like the Jesuits better than the philosophers.”
— Horace Walpole (c.1762), “Letters to [Name]”[16]
David Garrick 75.png David Garrick
(238-176 BE)

(1717-1779 ACM)

English actor, playwright, and theater manager and producer (Curran, 2012); was very-much liked by the Holbach society, both Holbach spent several months with Garrick at Hampton (Cushing, 1914)[5].
Ferdinando Galiani 75.png Ferdinando Galiani
(227-168 BE)
(1728-1787 ACM)
Italian economist (Spencer, 2014)[6] secretary of the Neapolitan Embassy, who spent ten years in the salons of Paris. After is return to Naples his longing for Paris led him to a voluminous correspondence with his French friends including Holbach (Cushing, 1914)[5]; argued for idea of “natural” laws in economics; but opposed the unrealistic theoretical ideas of the physiocrats and Quesnay.
Jean Saint-Lambert 75.png Jean Saint-Lambert
(239-12 BE)
(1716-1803 ACM)
An accomplished poet (Blom, 2011);[3] in winter 1747 to 1748, he had an affair with Voltaire’s mistress Emile Chatelet; on 4 Sep 1749, Chatelet gave birth to his child, but then died of fever 6 days later, the child dying a year later; in 1757, Rousseau had an affair with Lambert's second woman Sophie Houdetot; he wrote several articles for the Encyclopedia, and and essay on "Luxury".
Condamine 75.png Charles Condamine
(254-181 BE)
(1701-1774 ACM)
French explorer, geographer, and mathematician; noted for making the first maps of the Amazon region; salon attendee (Morellet, c.1785)[17]
Charles-Georges Le Roy (or Leroy) Lieutenant of the Royal Hunt; contributed Encyclopedia articles on deer, hunting, and instinct (Blom, 2011)[3]
Georges-Louis Leclerc Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens (Spencer, 2014)[6]
Cesare Beccaria 75.png Cesare Beccaria
(217-161 BE)
(1738-1794 ACM)
Italian legal reformer; feted for his proposal to reform penal law along rational and proportional lines, but, as a Catholic, was scared away by the groups atheism (Spencer, 2014)[6]
Jean Suard
(1732-1817)
(Scott, 2010)[18]
Laurence Sterne
(1713-1768)
Irish-born English novelist and clergyman (Scott, 2010)[2]
Barthez (or Barthes) (Morellet, c.1785)[17]
Venelle (or Venel) (Morellet, c.1785)[17]
Rouelle And his disciples (Morellet, c.1785)[17]
Roux (Morellet, c.1785)[17]
Darcet (Morellet, c.1785)[17]
Duclos (Morellet, c.1785)[17]
Saurin (Morellet, c.1785)[17]
Le Chevalier de Chastellux (Morellet, c.1785)[17]
Colardeau (Cushing, 1914)[5]
Thomas (Cushing, 1914)[5]
Damilaville (Cushing, 1914)[5]
d'Alinville (Cushing, 1914)[5]
Chauvelin (Cushing, 1914)[5]
Desmahis (Cushing, 1914)[5]
Gauffecourt (Cushing, 1914)[5]
Margency (Cushing, 1914)[5]
de Croismare (Cushing, 1914)[5]
de Pezay (Cushing, 1914)[5]
Coyer (Cushing, 1914)[5]
de Valory (Cushing, 1914)[5]
Charnoi (Cushing, 1914)[5]
Voltaire 75.png Voltaire
(261-177 BE)
(1694-1778 BCM)
Jennifer Hecht (2004) in Doubt (pg. 352) confusingly alludes to view that Voltaire and Montesquieu were at the Holbach salon dinner when Hume in 1763 arrived, stating that he had never seen an atheist. Possibly, this was an ambiguous paragraph? Voltaire was said to have opposed the atheists of the Holbach coterie “quite bitterly when the works of Holbach and Naigeon appeared.” (Kors, 1976)[19] Voltaire, presumably, would have attended one or more of the salon meetings; alternatively, he was “off the stage” before the Holbach salon took root (Cushing, 1914)[5]; but that he did meet Holbach in Paris in 1778 and was very cordial saying that he had long desired to make his acquaintance (Naigeon, c.1780).
Montesquieu 75.png Charles Montesquieu
(266-200 BE)
(1689-1755 ACM)
Jennifer Hecht (2004) in Doubt (pg. 352) confusingly alludes to view that Voltaire and Montesquieu were at the Holbach salon dinner when Hume in 1763 arrived, stating that he had never seen an atheist. Possibly, this was an ambiguous paragraph? Alternatively, he was “off the stage” before the Holbach salon took root (Cushing, 1914)[5] and non-existent when Hume (1763) arrived.

Retrospect

Photos of the Holbach salon', as it presently stands.

In 2010, Rebecca Scott, while researching her book Infidels: In search of the First Evolutionists[20], she tracked down all the historical places proto-evolutionary ideas were discussed, from a lagoon in Lesbos where Aristotle talked about generation with his students, to the desert outside ninth-century Basra, to the police-watched houses of Paris and London in the eighteenth-century, she contacted Paris blogger Peter Olson to take some photos of the Holbach salon, inside and out, such as shown adjacent. Scott, at the end of her research, summarized the Holbach salon or "Hotel of the Philosophers" as follows:[2]

“Although there is no plaque to distinguish this house from any other eighteenth-century town house in Paris, this house at number 8, Rue des Moulins (then the Rue Royale-Saint Roch), was the centre of the French Enlightenment. Nicknamed the Hotel of the Philosophers or the Synagogue, it belonged to the Baron Holbach, a wealthy French-German intellectual and a passionate atheist, who ran a salon for the radical intelligentsia of Paris every Thursday and Sunday from 1759 to 1789. He had an excellent chef, a dining table that seated fifty, a library of over 3,000 volumes, and a large number of paintings by France's leading artists. Rousseau, Diderot, Buffon, Galiani, Grimm, Marmontel, Naigeon, Saint-Lambert, Suard all passed through these doors. Diderot rarely missed a gathering. Foreign intellectuals such as Adam Smith, Laurence Sterne and Horace Walpole had dinner here during their visits to France. The house was under police surveillance. The very first book of atheism was written here - System de La Nature – by Baron Holbach himself. Early evolutionary ideas were discussed across his table. The leading members of the Encyclopedie met here. With these people for company Diderot published Rève de d'Alembert.”
— Rebecca Scott (2010), Infidels: In search of the First Evolutionists

Inside the salon, as the story goes, they wrote the books, e.g. Christianity Unveiled (1761), System of Nature (1770), while outside the salon the police burned them, when printed, or sometimes the hangman burned the books, with a noose around them, like a mock hanging.

Quotes

A depiction of the Holbach salon (Blom, 2010), the Paris home of Baron Holbach, active from 1750s to 1770s, characterized as the "epicenter of freethinking" in 18th century Europe, whereat intellectual icons, such as: Denis Diderot, David Hume, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin, Jean Rousseau, and Charles Montesquieu, exchanged wits.

The following are quotes:

“The first time that Hume found himself at the table of Holbach, he was seated beside him. I don't know for what purpose the English philosopher took it into his head to remark to the Baron that ‘he did not believe in atheists’, and ‘that he had never seen any’. The Baron said to him: ‘count how many we are here’. We are eighteen. The Baron added: ‘It isn't too bad a showing to be able to point out to you fifteen at once: the three others haven't made up their minds’.”
Denis Diderot (1765), “Letter to Sophie Volland”, Oct 6 [21]
“There is the Rue Royale-Saint Roch! All the decent and clever people in Paris gather there. To find the door opened to you, it is not enough to have a title or to be a savant; one must also be good. It is there that exchange is secure. It is there that history, politics, finance, belles-lettres and philosophy are discussed. It is there that men esteem each other enough to contradict each other. It is there that the true cosmopolitan is found.”
— Denis Diderot (c.1780), Oeuvres (10:378-79)
Holbach, more than Voltaire, more than Diderot, is the father of all the philosophy and all the anti-religious polemics at the end of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century.”
— Auguste Faguet (c.1895), Publication [22]
“The coterie holbachique was a unique "radical" force in the thought of the eighteenth century, but this is a curious harmony, for there is no agreement upon the com-position of the coterie, or upon the precise significance of its presence in Paris. The primary reason for this is that the coterie holbachique early became the subject of a myth that passes still, in part or in whole, for the truth.”
— Alan Kors (1975), “The Myth of the Coterie Holbachique” (pg. 573) [23]
“The flourishing of radical philosophy in Baron Holbach's Paris salon from the 1750s to the 1770s stands as a seminal event in Western history. Holbach's house was an international epicenter of revolutionary ideas and intellectual daring, bringing together such original minds as Denis Diderot, Laurence Sterne, David Hume, Adam Smith, Ferdinando Galiani, Horace Walpole, Benjamin Franklin, Guillaume Raynal, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.”
Philipp Blom (2010), A Wicked Company [3]
“D'Holbach's scholarly activities began in earnest in 1744, when his uncle sent him to the University of Leiden. Around this time Leiden was internationally renowned as one of the most progressive and enlightened educational establishments in Europe. It is noteworthy that La Mettrie's radically materialist The Human Machine was published in that city in 1747, while d'Holbach was still studying there. Yet of greater significance seems to be the contact he made there with several Englishmen, including John Wilkes and Mark Akenside, who encouraged and influenced his philosophical development. His profound understanding of English philosophy, theology and literature is clear from his later writings, and he even translated Akenside's pantheistic poem Pleasures of Imagination: a Poem in Three Books (1744) into French in 1759. During the course of his education d'Holbach became fluent in French, German, English, Italian and Latin, and by his death he had amassed a private library containing some 2,956 editions. This education was life-long, as his wealth allowed him to dedicate himself to learning, collecting, discussing, writing and publishing free from either poverty or the dependency on patronage that troubled so many of his contemporaries. Once re-established in Paris after his university days, d'Holbach held a philosophical salon on Thursdays and Sundays in the Rue Royale, and periodically entertained at Madame d'Aine's Château de Grand-Val at Sucy-en-Brie. At these gatherings, he cultivated friendships and relationships with many of the most important thinkers of his time, amongst them Denis Diderot, Melchior Grimm, Jean-Francois Marmontel, Guillaume-Thomas Raynal, Adam Smith, Lawrence Sterne, David Garrick and Ferdinando Galiani.”
— Mark Curran (2012), Atheism, Religion, and Enlightenment in Pre-Revolutionary Europe (Pg. 24) [18]

End matter

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Rue des Moulins (Paris) (French → English) – Wikipedia.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Olson, Peter. (2010). “Hotel of the Philosophers”, BlogSpot, Sep 19.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Blom, Philipp. (2011). A Wicked Company: Holbach’s Salon and the Forgotten Radicalism of the European Enlightenment (Amz) (open conversation, pg. 55; guests, pg. 56). McClelland.
  4. Diderot statute – r/Sculpture.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 Cushing, Max. (1914). Baron d’Holbach: a Study of Eighteenth Century Radicalism in France (PhD dissertation) (txt) (salon, pg. #; Plato and Aristotle [Platon et des Aristote], pg. #). Alexandria.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 Spencer, Nick. (2014). Atheists: the Origin of the Species (pg. 104). Bloomsbury.
  7. Nicolas Boulanger – Hmolpedia 2020.
  8. Jacques Naigeon – Hmolpedia 2020.
  9. Jean-Francois Marmontel – Wikipedia.
  10. Diderot, Denis. (1784). Oeuvres, Volume Five, Correspondence (pg. 465). Publisher.
  11. Marmontel, Jean. (c.1780). Memoires (pg. 214). Mercure, 2000.
  12. Marie Goeffrin – Wikipedia.
  13. (a) Hume, David. (1932). The Letters of David Hume, Volume One (editors: J.Y.T. Greig) (pg. 491). Oxford.
    (b) Blom, Philipp. (2010). A Wicked Company: Holbach’s Salon and the Forgotten Radicalism of the European Enlightenment (Amz) (pg. 137). McClelland, 2011.
  14. Hume-Holbach dinner party anecdote – Hmolpedia 2020.
  15. Durant, Will. (1965). The Story of Civilization, Volume Nine: the Age of Voltaire (pgs. 695-96). Simon.
  16. (a) Walpole, Horace. (1846). The Letters of Horace Walpole, Volume Four (pg. 226). Bentley.
    (b) Walpole, Horace. (1846). The Letters of Horace Walpole, Volume Six (pg. 370). Bentley.
    (c) Blom, Philipp. (2010). A Wicked Company: Holbach’s Salon and the Forgotten Radicalism of the European Enlightenment (Amz) (pg. 137). McClelland, 2011.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 Williams, Elizabeth. (2017). A Cultural History of Medical Vitalism in Enlightenment Montpellier (pg. #). Routledge.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Curran, Mark. (2012). Atheism, Religion, and Enlightenment in Pre-Revolutionary Europe (pg. 24). Publisher.
  19. Kors, Alan. (1976). D’Holbach Coterie: an Enlightenment in Paris (pg. 124). Princeton, 2015.
  20. Scott, Rebecca. (2013). Darwin’s Ghosts: In Search of the First Evolutionists (Holbach, 5+ pgs; Saint Roch, 2+ pgs). Bloomsbury.
  21. (a) Diderot, Denis. (1765). “Letter to Sophie Volland” (WS), Oct 6.
    (b) Anon. (2015). “Le bon David: Meets 15 Atheists”, Rodama 1789, Blogspot, Nov 8.
  22. Durant, Will. (1965). The Story of Civilization , Volume Nine, the Age of Voltaire (pg. 713). Simon and Schuster.
  23. Kors, Alan. (1975). “The Myth of the Coterie Holbachique” (abs), French Historical Studies, 9(4):573-95.

Further reading

  • Kors, Alan. (1976). D’Holbach Coterie: an Enlightenment in Paris. Princeton, 2015.
  • Zaretsky, Rob. (2006). “Hume and Humility”, Engines of Our Ingenuity, Episode 2173.
  • Radu, Kenneth. (2012). “Review of: a Wicked Company”, LindaLeith.com, Feb 3.
  • Anon. (2019). “Baron d’Holbach Brought Back to the Mother Land by a Joyous Sett” (Ѻ), Voltaire Foundation, Aug 6.

External links

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