History of thermodynamics
In histories, history of thermodynamics refers to the origin and development of the science of heat, work, and energy, began with Heraclitus (495BC) discussing "ergon", meaning "work", in respect to flux and fire; ending with Clausius (1865) formulating the concepts of "energy" and "entropy" of bodes, in respect to work and heat, with many stopping points in between, a significant turning point being Galileo's 1632 "vacuum measuring device", a piston and cylinder like device conceived to measure the "breaking strength" of a vacuum.
The short history of thermodynamics" (Thomson, 1854) or "mechanical theory of heat" (Clausius, 1865), starts with the introduction of the term "ergon" (Heraclitus, 495BC), meaning "work", in relation to flux and fire, and the denial of the void (Parmenides, 470BC); through the creation of vacuums (Guericke, 1654) and measurement of the ability or power of a vacuum to perform work, or lift weight through height; to the invention of the steam engine (Papin, 1690) and operational improvement of steam engines (Watt, 1780s); to the development of the abstract or theoretical "heat engine" (Carnot, 1824), based on the model of heat as "caloric" (Lavoisier, 1787); to the mechanical equivalent of heat (Joule, 1843) based derivation of the concepts of the "energy" and "entropy" of bodes or systems (Clausius, 1865).
The following are related quotes:
- “The mechanical theory of heat, in its present development, forms already an extensive and independent branch of science.”
- — Rudolf Clausius (1875), The Mechanical Theory of Heat (preface, pg. vii)
- “If we say, in the words of Maxwell some years ago (1878), that thermodynamics is ‘a science with secure foundations, clear definitions, and distinct boundaries’, and ask when those foundations were laid, those definitions fixed, and those boundaries traced, there can be but one answer. Certainly not before the publication of that memoir (Clausius, 1850).”
- “The history of thermodynamics is, in fact, much more difficult than thermodynamics itself.”
- — Maxwell McGlashan (1966), “The Use and Misuse of the Laws of Thermodynamics” 
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(b) Thims, Libb. (2020). “History of Thermodynamics” (Ѻ), Reddit.
- Thims, Libb. (2021) [66AE]. Human Chemical Thermodynamics — Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities: Meaning, Morality, Purpose; Sociology, Economics, Ecology; History, Philosophy, Government, Anthropology, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence; Religion, Relationships, Warfare, and Love (§2-50: History) (pdf). Publisher.
- Gibbs, Willard. (1889). “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius” (quote, pg. 262), Proceedings of the American Academy, new series, vol. XVI, pgs. 458-65; in The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs, Volume Two. Publisher.
- McGlashan, Maxwell L. (1966). “The Use and Misuse of the Laws of Thermodynamics” (abs), Journal of Chemical Education, 43(5):226.
- Tait, Peter. (1864). “On the History of Thermo-Dynamics” (abs), Letter to the Editors, London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal, 28(189):288-.
- Tait. Peter. (1876). Sketch of Thermodynamics. Douglas.
- Brush, Stephen. (1967). “Thermodynamics and History: Science and Culture in the Nineteenth Century”, The Graduate Journal, 7:481-543.
- Fox, Robert. (1971). The Caloric Theory of Gases: from Lavoisier to Regnault. Clarendon Press.
- Cardwell, Donald. (1971). From Watt to Clausius: the Rise of Thermodynamics in the Early Industrial Age. Cornell University Press.
- Smith, Crosbie. (1976). “William Thomson and the Creation of Thermodynamics, 1840-1855” (pdf), Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 16:231-88.
- Brush, Stephen. (1978). The Temperature of History: Phases of Science and Culture in the Nineteenth Century. Burt Franklin.
- Maffioli, Cesare. (1979). A Strange Science: Materials for a Critical History of Thermodynamics (Una Strana Scienza: Materiali per una Storia critica della Termodinamica). Milan: Feltrinelli.
- Truesdell, Clifford A. (1980). The Tragicomical History of Thermodynamics: 1822-1854 (Amz). Springer, 2013.
- Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Strong, Laurence E. (1997). “A Brief History of Thermodynamics Notation” (abs) (pdf), Journal of Chemical Education, 74(3):304.
- Smith, Crosbie. (1998). The Science of Energy: A Cultural History of Energy Physics in Victorian Britain. University of Chicago Press.
- Shachtman, Tom. (1999). Absolute Zero: and the Quest for Absolute Cold (pg. 81). Mariner Books.
- Brush, Stephen. (1999). “Gadflies and Geniuses in the History of Gas Theory” (abs), Synthese, 119(11), Apr; in: The Kinetic Theory of Gases: an Anthology of Classic Papers with Historical Commentary (§3.1:421-50). World Scientific, 2003.
- Muller, Ingo. (2007). A History of Thermodynamics. Springer.
- Coopersmith, Jennifer. (2010). Energy, the Subtle Concept: the Discovery of Feynman’s Blocks from Leibniz to Einstein. Oxford University Press.
- Starikov, Evgeni B. (2019). A Different Thermodynamics: and its True Heroes. CRC Press.
- Girolami, Gregory S. (2019). “A Brief History of Thermodynamics: as Illustrated by Books and People” (abs), Journal of Chemical Engineering Data, 65(2):298-311.
- Hanlon, Robert. (2020). Block by Block: the Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics (Illustrators: Robert Hanlon and Carly Sanker) (Ref). Oxford University Press.
- Saslow, Wayne. (2020). “A History of Thermodynamics: the Missing Manual” (Ѻ), Entropy, 22(1).
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