Heat Death and the Phoenix
In 1975, Norman Dolloff, in his Heat Death and the Phoenix (1975), gave the following "organism synthesis equation", which explains that organisms, such as coacervate, protoplasm, cells, and humans are synthetic beings, formed, by the physical chemistry reactions mechanisms of the universe, from the sum of so many ni elements:
where is the formation energy of the organism and is the entropy change associated with the reaction process. Here, in one bold sweep, Dolloff reforms nearly a century of order/disorder models of entropy, and thereby throws the erroneous "disorder of the universe tends to increase" entropy model of Max Planck, aka Planck entropy, out the window, and instead correctly uses the standard Clausius-Lewis model of free energy of chemical substances, to explain organism formation.
Dolloff is classified as the transition point mindset of someone grappling to switch from the entropy "order/disorder" model of everything to the "free energy" model of everything; all done in the framework of explicit atheism.
The following are quotes:
- “We have started with atoms and have calculated the absolute changes in entropy when they are combined in simple organic compounds; for instance, graphitic carbon and hydrogen gas combine to form gaseous butane, a decrease in entropy. We have seen that distinguishable rearrangements of the same atoms, isomers, have different entropies (the "snake" and the "spider"). We have seen that the process of polymerization results in entropy decreases whether by adding chains or cross-linking. For instance, polyethylene with a thousand links represents a decrease in entropy of almost 23,000 calories/mole when compare with the necessarily simple ethylene. The possible different arrangements of RNA and DNA molecules are enormous and must represent differences in entropy. The coacervate, protoplasm, and the cell are still more complex organizations of matter and represent further decreases in entropy in their formation. Organisms from cell to homo sapiens represent even further decreases in entropy. A chemical analysis of man has been given as so many gallons of water, calcium enough as hydroxide to whitewash a fence, phosphorous for so many matches and iron enough for a very small bag of nails. What is the difference in entropy between these chemicals and a healthy human being!”
- — Norman Dolloff (1975), Heat Death and the Phoenix (§7: “Order and Life: Evolution”, pgs. 134-35)
- Dolloff, Norman H. (1975). Heat Death and the Phoenix: Entropy, Order, and the Future of Man (figure 1.3, pg. 19; free energy, 27+ pgs; Gibbs, 9+ pgs; god; 3+ pgs; social, 9+ pgs). Exposition Press.