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Two illustrations of synthesis, one of a rabbit, jokingly[1] being defined as being formed via an isothermal-isochoric free energy (aka Helmholtz free energy), and a realistic depiction of “human synthesis”, according to Daniel Schroeder (FET:41), form his An Introduction to Thermal Physics (2000[2], 2021[3]), the synthesis realized by the "powers" of the universe (or a magician as Schroeder depicts things), the quantitative measure of which being the “free energy of formation” , comprised of the “free energy” () and the “bound energy ().

In acronyms, FET (FET:#), short for "formation energy" theorist or “human free energy[4] theorist[5], refers to a theorist of formation energies of humans or social entities, i.e. someone who has attempted to apply either "affinity" (see: human chemical affinity or human elective affinity[6]), the forerunner concept to the "free energy"[7], and or the isothermal-isobaric thermodynamic potential to human or social chemical transformations.

An human free energy theorist, in short, is anyone who has attempted to employ "free energy" concepts to the prediction of the course of “human chemical reactions”. Shortcut key: (FET:#), e.g. Erwin Schrodinger (FET:8), is shorthand for the fact that he was the 8th person, historically, to have lectured on and or published views about "free energy" and "human nature".



Synonyms: reaction potential, “available energy” (Gibbs, 1876), “free energy” (Helmholtz, 1882), “reaction energy” (Haber, 1907), “free enthalpy” (German, 1920s), “Gibbs free energy” (Guggenheim, 1933), or “Gibbs energy” in modern terms, to social phenomena, to theorize about “human free energy” (TR:150).[4]


In 2002, Libb Thims began amassing research (see: progress report) into the question of who, prior to him, and or concordant with, had attempted to digress on the question of thermodynamics applied to the deeper questions of human concern. This resulted in the following lists of names: Thims 97 (2005), Thims 33 (2008), and HT pioneers (505+ names) (2012).[8] In the latter group, of 505-names, were a highly-select few, who had attempted to apply “free energy” to social phenomena.

In 2012, Thims began collecting these so-called “human free energy” theorists in table in the human free energy article, ordered chronologically-ordered via date of theory inception, which grew into a list of about 40+ to 50+ thinkers or theorists in this category.[4] In 2016, Thims made a focused 10-person table of "human free energy" or "human chemical affinity" theorists, give or take, who were cited with IQs 200 or above, or IQs near this range, in which he began to list both year of the start of the formation of "this idea" (see: IDEA column) as well as the year in which the idea had solidified enough to made publicly-available (see: YEAR column), typically in published form.[9]

Affinity | Based

The following are theorists who have applied the theory of affinity or "force" of reaction to humans:

# Person Idea Year Summary
Empedocles 75.png Empedocles
(2450-2390 BE)
(495-435 BCM)
445BC He introduced the concept of philia (φιλία), meaning the force of attraction when two of the four elements (earth, air, water, fire), symbol "●", move towards each other (● → | ← ●), from the Greek letter Phi (Φ) (1100BC), from the Egyptian fire drill and blacksmith god Ptah (2800BC). Though his fragments are wanting, it is inferred that he applied this model to humans (Mimkes, 2012).
Diderot 75.png Denis Diderot
(241-171 BE)
(1713-1784 ACM)
Johann Goethe
(206-123 BE)
(1749-1832 ACM)


Human affinity reaction 2.jpg

In 1770 (age 21), he “perceived something in nature (whether living or lifeless, animate or inanimate) that manifested itself only in contradictions and therefore could not be expressed in any concept, much less any word”; in 1784 (age 34), he “proved” that humans evolved (or metamorphized) over time, from earlier forms of animals, via his discovery of the human intermaxillary bone[11]; in 1794 (age 47), in his Third Lecture on Anatomy[12], he stated that “there are, by nature, stronger or weaker bonds [symbolized by the Cullen crochet ‘ { ’ bond symbol[13] (Cullen, 1756)] between these components, and when they evidence themselves, they resemble attractions between human beings. This is why chemists speak of elective affinities [symbol: ; see: human elective affinity][6], even though the forces that move mineral components [or humans] one way or another and create mineral structures are often purely external in origin, which by no means implies that we deny them the delicate portion of nature’s vital inspiration that is their due”.

Elective Affinities 4.jpg

In 1798-1801 (age 48-52), he began working with Friedrich Schiller on chemical affinities applied to romance, e.g. his “passions are not like playing cards” (1799) comment, in reference to the work of French author Prosper Crebillon (1674-1762); in 1808 (age 59), while attempting to draft his The Renouncers, wherein a "hero" is simultaneously in love with four women, devised in his mind "human affinity table"[14], the notes for which he threw away, based on the logic of “affinity tables” (Geoffroy, 1718)[15], specifically Torbern Bergman's affinity table (1775), therein ordering people, “reactively” via their mutual “human elective affinities” for each other;

In 1809 (age 60), he published Elective Affinities, wherein he presented a multi-layer encrypted novel, comprised of 36-chapters, wherein each person is explicitly-defined as a “chemical”, each chapter a new “chemical reaction”, and the force operating behind marriage formation, or dissolution, friendship bonds, reproduction reactions, is defined, by so-called “one nature” definition as being the force the chemical affinities, as defined by Newton’s 1718 Query 31.

Shelley 75.png Percy Shelley
(163-133 BE)
(1792-1822 ACM)

Potential | Based

In 1850s, the former concept of affinity or chemical affinity began to be replaced by thermodynamic potential; definitively by "free energy" as famously "proved" by Helmholtz (1882). Hence, in the years after 1882, free energy, aka Gibbs energy, reaction energy (Haber, 1905), formation energy, began to upgrade to the "force" of the affinities; this is outlined below:

# Person Idea Year Summary
Rankine 75.png William Rankine
(135-83 BE)
(1820-1872 ACM)
Rankine love poem (love is a kind of potential).png
His 1845 poem defined love as a "kind of potential", being of function three coordinates:
Love is a function of x, y, and z, of a kind which is known as ‘potential’. If the wandering course of the moon, by algebra can be predicted, human affections must yield to it soon.”
— William Rankine (c.1845), “The Mathematician in Love” [16]

In the 1850s, with William Thomson and Rudolf Clausius, he played a core part in the development of the new science of thermodynamics, from which, in the 1870s and 1880s, via Gibbs and Helmholtz, the concept of "thermodynamic potential" arose.

Freud 75.png Sigmund Freud
(99-16 BE)
(1856-1939 ACM)
Freudian model.png
His A Project for Scientific Psychology (1895), outlined a draft attempt to “furnish a psychology that shall be a natural science; that is, to represent psychical processes as a quantitatively determinate state of specifiable material particles”, based on the chemical thermodynamics mode of “bound energy” (entropic energy) and “unbound energy” (free energy), which he had learned in Medical school (1873), or shortly thereafter, via the influence of his mentor Ernst Brucke, who was part of the “Helmholtz circle”, i.e. Brucke, himself, was the former Medical School lab partner and close friend of Hermann Helmholtz, who in his 1882 “On the Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes” was the one who coined the terms “free energy” (Gibbs: available energy) and “bound energy” (Clausius: entropic transformation content); Freud applied these two types of energy to the model of conscious and subconscious mental states, which became the core of his twenty-four volume collected works; some of his thermodynamics ideas are said to show through in his 1920 Beyond the Pleasure Principle; the gist of his psychodynamics theory are found in his 1923 The Ego and the Id, in which he outlines a heat engine model of the mind via an id, ego, super-ego force theory of subconscious drives.
Ostwald 75.png Wilhelm Ostwald
(102-23 BE)
(1853-1932 ACM)
the 1902 "energy theory of culture"; his 1905 MIT "Affinity Lecture", wherein he outlines a semblance of a connection from Goethe's Elective Affinities to Sadi Carnot to August Horstmann to Willard Gibbs; his 1906 Ingersoll lecture (Ѻ) turned booklet Individuality and Immortality, on the subject of what the science of energetics has to say about death and human individual (cessation thermodynamics); for his 1909 book Energetic Bases of Social Studies; for his 1912 book The Energetic Imperative, became the bases for the later Kantian reformulated "thermodynamics imperative", which William Bayliss (1915) translated into English as: "waste not free energy; treasure it and make the best use of it".
Adams 75.png Henry Adams
(117-37 BE)
(1838-1918 ACM)

Adams phase rule.png
In 1863 (age 25) he stated his famous: “Every thing in this universe has its regular waves and tides” quote to Charles Gaskell; in 1885 (age 47) he stated: “Social chemistry—the mutual attraction of equivalent human molecules—is a science yet to be created, for the fact is my daily study and only satisfaction in life” to his wife Clover Adams; in 1907 (age 69), in his The Education of Henry Adams, outlined such philosophical gems as: “A dynamic law requires that two masses – nature and man – must go on, reacting upon each other, without stop, as the sun and comet react upon each other, and that any appearance of stoppage is illusive”; in 1908, he began to seek out a physico-chemical consultant to give some peer review on his theory that: “On the physico-chemical law of development and dynamics, our society has reached what is called the critical point where it is near a new phase or equilibrium”, about which he eventually paid Henry Bumstead, one of Gibbs students, to review his draft social phase theory; in 1909, he published “"The Rule of Phase Applied to History"; in 1910, he published A Letter to the American Teachers of History, wherein he advocated that history teachers begin defining people as “human molecules” and apply the phase rules of Gibbs to the waves and tides of social phenomena; in 1912 (age 74), he was discussing what he called “physico-human sociology” with Edward Davis, and by had convinced himself that he was a Gibbsian phase.
William Bayliss 75.png William Bayliss
In 1915, Bayliss, in his Principles of General Physiology, translated Wilhelm Ostwald’s 1912 energetic imperative as follows:
“The word "entropy" is here used as having essentially the same meaning as the "bound" energy of Helmholtz. The law is therefore equivalent to the statement that "free " energy is always striving to a minimum. The fact, derived from universal experience, that free energy always tends to diminish, if it possibly can, is sometimes known as the "principle of Carnot and Clausius". It was also enunciated, about the same time as the publication of the paper of Clausius (referred to above), by William Thomson under the name of the "Dissipation of Energy." The principle has obviously a great practical, as well as philosophical, importance. It has been made by Ostwald (1912) the basis of a general rule of conduct, which he calls the "Imperative of Energetics." The rule may be translated thus: ‘Waste not free energy; treasure it and make the best use of it.’ As will be admitted, the admonition is an excellent one, and, when applied, leads to interesting results, as may be seen from the collection of essays under this name. To mention two subjects only, which are amongst those discussed, the waste involved in war and the value of a universal standard for the sizes of printed books.”
— William Bayliss (1915), Principles of General Physiology (§: Energetics, pgs. 27-47)

In 1922, Bayliss, in his “Life and the Laws of Thermodynamics” lecture, disputed some entropy and heat contentions of James Johnstone.

Henderson 75.png Lawrence Henderson
(1878-1942 ACM)
His The Order of Nature (1917), gives an outline of how Herbert Spencer needs to be overhauled via a combination of Willard Gibbs and Charles Darwin; into the 1930s, he leads the Harvard Pareto circle, wherein he teaches a Gibbs-based Sociology 23, among other endeavors along these lines.
Erwin Bauer 75 2.png Erwin Bauer


Bauer formula.png
His The Fundamental Principles of Biological Science introduces what has come to be known as the "Bauer principle", below and goes on to discuss this in terms of the time derivative of work factors—differences in pressure, concentration, electrical potential, etc., which states that:
“The living and only the living systems are never in equilibrium, and, on the debit of their free energy, they continuously invest work against the realization of the equilibrium which should occur within the given outer conditions on the basis of the physical and chemical laws.”
— Erwin Bauer (1920), The Fundamental Principles of Biological Science (pg. #)

Tibor Ganti (1971) gave the above formula for the so-called "Bauer principle".

Neumann 75.png John Neumann
(52 BE-2 AE)
(1903-1957 ACM)
His review of Georges Guillaume's 1932 economic thermodynamics dissertation, concluded that: "if this [economic-thermodynamic] analogy can be worked out at all, the analogon of ‘entropy’ must be sought in the direction of ‘liquidity’. To be more specific: if the analogon of ‘energy’ is ‘value’ of the estate of an economical subject, then analogon of its thermodynamic ‘free energy’ should be its ‘cash value’." (see: human thermodynamic variable table); his followup 1932 article “A Model of General Economic Equilibrium”, derives a function φ (X, Y) related to the production of goods, based on the model of thermodynamic potentials, and is considered a classic.
Schrodinger 75.png Erwin Schrodinger
(86 BE-6 AE)
(1887-1961 ACM)
In his famous What is Life? (1943) lecture, in front of an audience that did not dwindle, he an over-laymanized derivation, using Boltzmann-Planck entropy models, to reach the concluding point that:
“Life is any thing that feeds on negative entropy.”
— Erwin Schrodinger (1943), What is Life? (§6:67-74)

Following the lecture, however, Schrodinger’s “negative entropy” was met with met with doubt and opposition, from his physicist colleagues, after which in his 1944 book version of his lecture, had to attach a “Note to Chapter 6”[17], wherein he said that had he been speaking to an audience of physicists, he would have “turned the discussion to free energy”, but that with his layman audience, he judged this to be too “highly technical” and “rather intricate”, as compared to the “Boltzmann order-disorder principle”. In the decades to follow, this “negative entropy” model of “life” created much public confusion; see: Pauling (1987), below.

Francis Simon 75.png Francis Simon (1893-1956) 1943


Was the main "objecting physicists", cited by Schrodinger, in his "Note to Chapter 6"[17] so-called "correction chapter", in respect to his definition of life as things that feed on negative entropy; the following is one synopsis of this:
“Francis Simon, then at Oxford, pointed out to Schrodinger that we do not live on alone, but on free energy. Schrodinger deals with this objection in the second edition of his book.”
— Max Perutz (1987), “Schrodinger’s What is Life and Molecular Biology” (pg. 241) [18]
John Butler 75.png John Butler




“Whether life processes obey the second law of thermodynamics or if life finds a way of evading the otherwise universal dissipation of energy has been something of a puzzle for a century. Kelvin left the matter open in his formulation of the second law, by expressly excluding the operations of ‘animate agencies’. Since then, opinions on both sides have been expressed, although a majority would probably be found in favor of the view that any local increase of ‘free’ energy is compensated by a greater amount of dissipation elsewhere, or as Schrödinger has recently put it in picturesque if somewhat inaccurate language, the organism feeds on ‘negative entropy’. On the other hand, Gilbert Lewis referred to living organisms as “cheats in the game of entropy”, which “alone seem able to breast the great stream of apparently irreversible processes. These processes tear down, living things build up. While the rest of the world seems to move towards a dead level of uniformity, the living organism is evolving new substances and more and more intricate forms.”

— John Butler (1947), “Life and the Second Law of Thermodynamics”

Mehdi Bazargan 75.png Mehdi Bazargan
(48 BE-40 AE)
(1907-1995 ACM)
Bazargan work equation.png
After completed his PhD in thermodynamics (1930s) in France, wrote on “The Thermodynamics of Love” (c.1942); in his Labor in Islam (1946), wrote a chapter on physiological thermodynamics of human labor in the context of will power; during a five-month prison spell (for political opposition), wrote the Human Thermodynamics (1956), the first book entitled “human thermodynamics”, wherein he used a thermodynamics based framework, in particular Helmholtz free energy equation (adjacent) to explain Islam, work, death, desire, love, and reincarnation scientifically.
John Kirkaldy 75.png John Kirkaldy
(29 BE-58 AE)
(1926-2013 ACM)


Kirkaldy brain model.png
His “Thermodynamics of the Human Brain” (1956) outlines a free energy minimization principle of brain operation, consciousness, and development based on the equation shown, where the following formula is quantifies the "rate of increase" of free energy or Gibbs free energy in the brain (diagrammed adjacent):

His his followup “Thermodynamics of Terrestrial Evolution” (1965) argued that the “causal element of biological evolution and development can be understood in terms of a potential function which is generalized from the variational principles of irreversible thermodynamics.”

Nicholas Roegen 75.png Nicholas Roegen
(49 BE-39 AE)
(1906-1994 ACM)
In 1966, he published an introductory essay on the relation between entropy and economics; in his 1971 The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, he situated an extremely confused logic of "material entropy", which argued that economic systems are governed by the second law, albeit he misinterpreted bound energy and free energy, to mean that, in economic terms, available energy stored in fossil fuels tends to be used up over time and converted into an unusable form of waste heat or energy; his book, in the decades to follow produced a cesspool of nonsense (many current schools of his theories are running presently).
Tukey 75.png John Tukey
(40 BE-45 AE)
(1915-2000 ACM)
Developed a chemical thermodynamics based model of "attitude change", based on the theory of absolute reaction rates, wherein each state of a chemical entity is characterized by a "free energy level", and each boundary between states by a free energy level that is higher than the levels of the state it separates; the theory was told to chemical engineer turned sociologist James Coleman who in 1971 published an abstract of it.
Rossini 75.png Frederick Rossini (56 BE-35 AE)
(1899-1990 ACM)
Rossini equation.png
His "Chemical Thermodynamics in the Real World" (1971) lecture, argued that the equilibrium constant version of the Gibbs equation (shown) explains the paradox between "freedom" and "security" in social life, in a chemical thermodynamics sense; this controversial hypothesis resulted three decades later to launch the 2006 Rossini debate on whether or not this human chemical thermodynamics framework is true, especially in a post 9/11 world.
Arthur Iberall 75.png Arthur Iberall




Iberall equation.png
Beginning with his Toward a General Science of Viable Systems (1971), to his Bridges in Science: from Physics to Social Science (1974), among about a dozen others, culminating with his 1993 Foundations for Social and Biological Evolution (co-written with David Wilkinson and Douglas White), he utilizes a large amount of thermodynamics derivation, such as equation shown (which he incorrectly defines as the "Gibbs free energy function"; correctly it is the Helmholtz free energy) to outlined a rather detailed, intricate (e.g. discussing chemical potential), and interesting systems-within-systems theory of dynamical change, defining people as “human atomisms”, using theories such as homeokinetics, field thermodynamics, i.e. the Hamiltonian applied to sociology and biology, among others extended into sociology and economics.
Dolloff 75.png Norman Dolloff
(48 BE-29 AE)
(1907-1984 ACM)
In his Heat Death and the Phoenix (1975), he gives a so-called "organism synthesis equation", namely:

Dolloff synthesis equation.png

And is the first person, on record, to "turn the question towards" free energy, as Schrodinger advised, speaking very-cogently, not about entropy and order and disorder, but about how molecules are actually defined, in terms of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy.

Melvin Klegerman 76.png Melvin Klegerman




In his “Thermodynamics of War” (1976)[19], co-authored with Hugh McDonald, attempted to ferret out the beginnings of an instrument-based quantitative social thermodynamics, which they apply to the phenomena of war, wherein the define ΔG as a “barometer to determine the state of a social unit as it does for a system in chemical thermodynamics”, defining G as the capacity of a system to do useful work, H as the resources available to a system, and S as the disorder, freedom, or randomness.
Hugh J. McDonald


Gladyshev 75.jpg Georgi Gladyshev
(19- BE)
(1936- ACM)


In his "On the Thermodynamics of Biological Evolution" (1978 ), he argues that the methods of classical thermodynamics, conceived through a framework of "hierarchical thermodynamics", his own new theory, a sort of Russian doll style Gibbs energy theory of evolution and sociology, modeled on the movement of particles in chromatography columns (compare: Lange), developed in contrast to Prigoginean thermodynamics evolution models, regulates the process of the evolution of biological structure; his 1997 Thermodynamics Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings (pg. 117), quantified macro-evolution of species via the following formula:

In the 2000s, he was promoting a Gibbs energy theory of anti-aging thermodynamics foodstuff theory.

Robert Ulanowicz 75.png Robert Ulanowicz
Ulanowicz eq.png
Conceived (in 1979) of an information theory based version of free energy applied to ecosystems, termed “ascendency”, which he considered as a pseudo-thermodynamic function (first outlined in his 1980 article “An Hypothesis on the Development of Natural Communities”); his 1986 book Growth and Development extends on this using Helmholtz free energy (equation shown); his 2009 A Third Window: Natural Life Beyond Newton and Darwin, seems to argue for the existence of God in the context of an emergent (or process biology) thermodynamic depiction of evolution (or ascendency), supposedly, under the guise of the “ontic openness of nature”; is presently of the view that “entropy or entropy-related measures (such as free energy) should *not* be invoked for living systems!” (email communicate to Libb Thims, 2011), which he says he first argued on page 21 of his 1986 book.
Daniel Hershey 75.png Daniel Hershey


Hershey eq.png
Starting with his 1980 The New Age-Scale for Humans, followed by about a dozen various publications, he builds significantly on the work of Ilya Prigogine to outline a thermodynamic theory of aging;

“Thermodynamic equilibrium may be characterized by the minimum of the Helmholtz free energy, F = E – TS, where E is the internal energy, T is the absolute temperature, and S is entropy. Positive time, the direction of time’s arrow, is associated with increase in entropy. Isolated or closed systems evolve to an equilibrium state characterized by the existence of a thermodynamic potential such as the Helmholtz or Gibbs free energy. These thermodynamic potentials and also entropy are, according to Prigogine, Lyapounov functions, which means they drive the system toward equilibrium in the face of small disturbances. Old age or senescence may be the decline in our ability to produce free energy. Less free energy means diminished cell function. Vitality might be defined as our biological and thermodynamic strength, the ability to expend energy to restore ourselves to near original conditions.”

Beg 75.png Mirza Beg
(23- BE)
(1932- ACM)
1981 Published “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology: Affinity, Free Energy Changes, Equilibria, and Human Behaviour” in the Pakistan Management Review; which culminated in his 1987 New Dimensions in Sociology, which is the biggest book to apply Gibbs energy to society in a uniform manner; a salient footnote being that he equates "Gibbs energy" to the "will of Allah" (see also: Mehdi Bazargan).
Adriaan de Lange 75.png Adriaan Lange
Lange eq.png
Well-read physical sciences based thinker (above the 500+ book level in studying how thermodynamics applies to the humanities) who in 1982 began to view the idea that entropy production must apply to the spiritual world (see: living force); then, in 1986, while teaching physical chemistry class, grasped the idea that “the intricate calculations concerning free energy in chemical reactions” must apply to the process of knowing and learning, on the extrapolation that student's learning behaviors must follow or map to the behaviors of molecules moving through the chromatograph column; in 1987, completed a yet unpublished manuscript Entropy, Creativity, and Learning; in the late 1990s, began posting and discussing his theories at the Learning-org.com forums; and in 2009 published an online book Irreversible Self-Organization (in Afrikaans).
Pauling 75.png Linus Pauling
(54 BE-43 AE)
(1901-1994 ACM)
In his memorial chapter “Schrodinger’s Contribution to Chemistry and Biology” (1987), he ripped into Schrodinger’s negative model:
“In his discussion of ‘negative entropy’ in relation to life, he made a negative contribution.”
— Linus Pauling (1987), “Schrodinger’s Contribution to Chemistry and Biology”

saying that he made “no contribution to our understanding of life”, and that his lecture was too “vague and superficial” to be tolerated, even in a lay audience, pointing out that Schrodinger that he NEVER defines the system, and that anyone with “good understanding of Gibbs on chemical thermodynamics” would agree with him about this.[17]

Max Perutz 75.png Max Perutz
In his “Schrodinger’s What is Life and Molecular Biology” (1987), citing Francis Simon (1943) and Linus Pauling (1987), he attempts to summarize all the errors associated with Schrodinger’s “negative entropy” model of life; one example:
“It was known, when Schrodinger wrote his book that the primary currency of chemical energy in living cells is ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and that the free energy stored in ATP is predominately enthalpic. Schrodinger, however, did not remove this misleading chapter from later editions.”
— Max Perutz (1987), “Schrodinger’s What is Life and Molecular Biology” (pg. 241)
Laurence Foss


Foss eq.png
His The Second Medical Revolution, co-written with Kenneth Rothenberg suggests a new approach to medicine based on quantum mechanics, irreversible thermodynamics, and information theory; his follow-up 2002 book The End of Modern Medicine has a section on what he calls the “second law of psychothermodynamics” (equation shown), wherein, building on Michael Guillen’s idea that human existence is an unnatural anomaly in the framework of a universe governed by the second law, he slants the second law into a contrived anthropomorphism to argue, in his own words, for a vitalistic (vitalism), mentalistic (mentalism), and spiritualistic (autopoietic) universal view, unlike the mechanistic (mechanism), physicalistic (physicalism), and materialistic (materialism) prevailing scientific world view.
George Tyler
(c.19- BE)
(c.1936- ACM)
Tyler table (1-4).jpg
Control systems engineer; in his “A Thermodynamics Model of Manpower Systems” (1989), starting with the partition function for a thermodynamic system, and via three pages of interesting but funny derivation, produced a table of "free energy" calculations for humans, in groups (or "manpower systems") of 0 to 5,000
Wayne Angel 75.png Wayne Angel


1991 Outlined a semblance of a Gibbs energy based model of "relation thermodynamics", albeit essentially baseless, as he builds his entire theory on Shannon entropy.
Mimkes 75.png Jurgen Mimkes
(16- BE)
(1939- ACM)
Mimkes eq.png
Since 1992, at the University of Paderborn, has been involved in the development of physical chemistry of social systems and economic systems, with articles such as “Binary Alloys as a Model for the Multicultural Society” (1995), “Society as a Many Particle System” (1997); he helped in getting the ‘physics of socio-economic systems’ recognized as a new scientific field by the German Physical Society (2001); has produced at least two graduate students by 2002 (Christian Thought and Thorsten Frund); in his 2007 chapter “A Thermodynamic Formulation of Social Science” he argues that the "Lagrange principle" (of pre-thermodynamics days), the “free energy principle” (of physics), and the “principle of maximum happiness” (of sociology) are all equivalent, and on this premise derives a Lagrange function (equation shown) of a social system of N interacting people, where (-L) is the "free energy" or common happiness of the agents, E the energy or collective laws of society, ln P the combinatorial probability distribution of the elements or individual social behavior (in which the social system is posited to be stable at maximum mutual happiness); as of 2010, was working on finishing a manuscript entitled the Chemistry of Social Bonds.
Teresa Brennan 75.png Teresa Brennan


1992 In her Interpretation of the Flesh, explains that “the solution to the riddle of femininity depends on unraveling Freud’s neglected if confused theories on psychical energy, while discarding the assumption that the subject is energetically and emotionally self-contained”; she discusses social energy, emphasizing the notion of conflicting forces complemented by bound energy and free energy; in her 1997 article “Social Pressure”, she argues that social pressure operates as physical energy, arguing that social pressures are pressures to conform but also those exerted on the psyche in the same way that physical pressures are exerted on the body; her 2004 The Transmission of Affect, presents the idea that one can soak up someone else’s depression or anxiety or sense the tension in a room, arguing that the emotions and energies of one person or group can be absorbed by or can enter directly into another.
John Christie 75.png John Christie


Christie eq.png
His “A Survey of Thermodynamical Ideas”, builds on John Neumann’s 1932 economic thermodynamics article, to outline an “island model” of 6 inhabitants, wherein he discusses Gibbs free energy, in definitional terms, and alludes to the premise that when an inhabitant enters or leaves the island—if the island were an open system—the “component will move into or out of the system to minimize its chemical potential (see: social chemical potential), i.e. it will tend to flow from regions of higher to lower chemical potential.”
Ed Stephan 75.png Ed Stephan








In 1977, interjected into a talk on human population distributions with physicist Louis Barrett on questions such as whether “humans are fermions or boson”; in 1980, began to discuss with chemist George Gerhold the subject of how the a Gibbs fundamental equation:

Stephan equation.png

applies to sociological systems of people; questions they speculated on included: “What is the total time in a social system? At the level of particles, temperature is just velocity of movement. I sense an analogy between temperature in physical systems and the technology of transportation and communication in social systems. Modern societies are 'hotter'. Big cities (high interactance centers) are 'hot': People, commodities and ideas move around faster. 'Hot' regions subdivide territory more thoroughly than 'cool' ones. And what is entropy — unpredictability? is that what we call freedom? What is the social equivalent of the product entropy-times-temperature? Freedom of movement? What do pressure and volume suggest, if anything? Could the raw product kNT be given some sociological meaning? Do humans have something like chemical potential, some sort of (bonding) potential? Maybe the last two terms in could be combined into something with a meaning specific to sociology. Combining them into -N(1 + α), with N as a population — what would be the sociological significance of the factor -(1 + α)/β? Could the value for β computed above in the case of urban population distributions (β = 2v/xμ) have any application?”; published some of his finalized ideas in the 1995 online book The Division of Territory in Society.

Libb Thims (c.1991) 75.png Libb Thims
(17- AE)
In 1994-1995, while taking chemistry, physical chemistry, and chemical engineering thermodynamics courses, began ruminate on how ΔG = ΔH – TΔS mapped out, over time, in terms of the “before state” (e.g. love at first sight) and “after state” (e.g. child born from that love turns 15 and begins to detach from the parental structure), in respect to the spontaneity rule: ΔG < 0? In 2001, he began to see though the puzzle, in terms of the view that one can define an "existive state" Gibbs energy G, comprised of seven enthalpic components, and five entropic components, for a given person, or bonded aggregated of humans (e.g. a married couple or dihumanide molecule), in each state, as shown below and that the sum of all of the existive Gs, for all the reactants and products involved, would yield the overall Gibbs energy change ΔG of the entire process:
Gibbs energy (human).png

In 2007, he published the two-volume Human Chemistry, which established he science of "human chemistry", and in 2013 began drafting human chemical thermodynamics.[20]

Sture Nordhom 75.png Sture Nordholm


Nordholm eq.png
In his article “In Defense of Thermodynamics: an Animate Analogy”, coins the subject name "animate thermodynamics" as the thermodynamics of human behavior, and argues that thermodynamic formulation can be applied to explain human behavior, on the logic that the basic elements of the description of atoms, molecules, and matter can be "scaled up" to the realm of living organisms without changes other than in complexity of the systems and their behavior, and using equation shown equates energy to wealth, kinetic energy to cash, potential energy to property, and entropy to freedom; states that nature's goal is to minimize the free energy of the subsystem; and ends with the assignment of eight example homework problems (with clues).
Wayne Saslow 75.png Wayne Saslow (c.1941-) 1999
Saslow eq.png
His “An Economic Analogy to Thermodynamics”, goes through a considerable, albeit mostly empty, derivation, wherein starts off with a 1980 study on the experimental findings of rat economic behaviors, then goes on to equates wealth W to negative Helmholtz free energy (-F), utility U to negative energy (-E), surplus Ψ to entropic energy (TS), price p to chemical potential, and number of goods n to number of chemical species crossing the boundary N; gives a thermodynamic-to-economic variables table, similar to James Reiss (1994).
Josip Stepanic 75.png Josip Stepanic
Stepanic eq.png
In his “Approach to a Quantitative Description of Social Systems Based on Thermodynamic Formalism”, outlines a toy model of social systems in thermodynamic terms (equation shown), where U tilde.png is the internal energy, G tilde.png is the Gibbs potential, T tilde.png the temperature, S tilde.png the entropy, where the tilde (~) means the quantities are social “analogous quantities” to actual thermodynamic potentials, and where the F sub i tilde.png denote external factors (influencing the people of the system), which influence some of the social system characteristics X sub i tilde.png, upon which the internal energy depends; founded the journal Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems (2003); followup articles include: “Social Equivalent of Free Energy” (2004), “Social Free Energy of a Pareto-Like Resource Distribution” (2007), among others.
Daniel Schroeder 75.png Daniel Schroeder
Schroeder rabbit synthesis (2000).png
In his An Introduction to Thermal Physics (2000) he gave an image of a magician "magically" making a rabbit appear via the power of Gibbs energy per unit time (pictured), stating the following about the synthesis:
“To create [synthesize] a rabbit [human] out of nothing and place him on the table, the magician [universe] need not summon up the entire enthalpy, . Some energy equal to TS, can flow in spontaneously as heat; the magician [universe] must provide only the difference, , as work.”
— Daniel Schroeder (2000), An Introduction to Thermal Physics (pg. 150) [2]

In his 2021 edition, he gives an Helmholtz free energy version of the rabbit as well.

Christopher Hirata
(27- AE)
(1982- ACM)
Hirata eq.png
In his "physics of relationships" he outlined a chemical thermodynamic model, using a variation of the Gibbs equation (equation shown) of how single and paired students form in a typical college student body during a single school year, showing how the equilibrium constant could change per various conditions; discussed concepts such as the gay molecule or polygamy molecule, etc.
Jing Chen 75.png Jing Chen


Chen eq.png
In his 2000 “Economic and Biological Evolution”, argued that economic systems are as open dissipative systems, which need to extract negative entropy from the environment to compensate for continuous dissipation; in his “Universal Natural Law and Universal Human Behavior” (2002), he argued that just as are the "lower" needs of humans, such as eating, thermodynamic processes, so too are the "higher" needs, such as literature, good poems, and distinct paintings, which are rare events, characterized by high information content, which can be represented as a low entropy level and act as methods of attracting members of the opposite sex in the competition for reproduction; thus, the display of low entropy evolved as the universal signal of attractiveness in sexual and social communication; thus, he argues, from poem writing to money making, the pursuit of low entropy is the main drive of human behavior; followed this up with “An Entropy Theory of Psychology and its Implications to Behavioral Finance” (2003), The Physical Foundations of Economics (2005), and “Understanding Social Systems: A Free Energy Perspective” (2008), in the latter of which he uses the Helmholtz free energy (equation shown), among others.
Hwang 75.png David Hwang
(24- AE)
(c.1979- ACM)
Hwang eq.png
His article "The Thermodynamics of Love" explains how one can determine whether or not any given male-female reaction is "favored" in terms of specific Gibbs free energy (equation shown), in which he makes one of the first reaction coordinates for a human chemical reaction.
Gavin Ritz 75.png Gavin Ritz


Ritz eq.png
In circa 1992 began theorizing on how to employ thermodynamic logic in business and social concerns; his 2001 conference presentation “Motivational Modelling” began to mention thermodynamical ideas, e.g. Ilya Prigogine, Stuart Kaufman, Nicholas Georgescu, etc., in his motivation work theory; his 2009 “The Fundamental Formula as Energy and Work” employed the relatively unknown human free energy theories of African chemist and physicist Adriaan de Lange to argue that a version of the Gibbs equation (shown), where F is Gibbs free energy, W is work, Wo is organical work done by living organisms (the product of J, mental exertion, and T, target time).
Alfredo Infante


Hwang eq.png
His “Social Entropy: A Paradigmatic Approach of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to an Unusual Domain” uses advanced intelligence perspective to argue that the Gibbs free energy of a social system is the total energy in the system less the energy that is unavailable and that this difference represents the ‘state’ of the system.
Harold Morowitz 75.png Harold Morowitz
(28 BE-61 AE)
(1927-2016 ACM)
2002 In his The Emergence of Everything, speculated on a Gibbs free energy interpretation of the work of Pierre Teilhard on the emergence of mind from matter in terms of enthalpy (H) and bound energy or transformation content energy (–TS).
Evguenii Kozliak 75.png Evguenii Kozliak


Gibbs energy change.png
His JCE article “Energy and Money, Chemical Bonding as Business, and Negative ΔH and ΔG as Investment”, outlines a type of human thermodynamics education style of teaching, defining people as human atoms or human molecules and applies chemical thermodynamics, namely the Gibbs equation, to business (see: business thermodynamics), specifically as a way to facilitate the teaching of physical chemistry; possibly also outlining a human chemical bond theory.
Ingo Muller 75.png Ingo Muller


Muller eq.png
In his 2002 “Socio-thermodynamics: Integration and Segregation in a Population”, explains behaviors of a metaphorical population of hawks and doves using an extrapolation of logic from the thermodynamics of binary mixtures whose components mix at high temperature, but separate at low temperature exhibiting miscibility gaps; included an expanded chapter on this in his 2005 Energy and Entropy, in which he derives a first law, second law, and combined Gibbs equation (shown) of socio-thermodynamics, where S is the entropy, U the shortfall, V the volume (or habitat), p the "population pressure", and τ the homogeneous temperature inside the population; his 2007 A History of Thermodynamics, includes a section on “socio-thermodynamics”, in which he states that this "subject belongs more to the future of thermodynamics than to its history", and at present is struggling to be taken seriously.
John Avery.png John Avery


Avery eq.png
His Information Theory and Evolution, attempts to explain the phenomenon of life, including its origin, evolution, and human cultural evolution, in terms of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and information theory; arguing that the paradox between the disorder view of the second law and highly ordered complex living systems, has its resolution in the Gibbs free energy that enters the biosphere from outside sources; built on Erwin Schrodinger's infamous "turn the discussion toward free energy" addendum, by adding to it Gilbert Lewis' 1923 Gibbs free energy of formation model, Fritz Lipmann’s 1941 free energy coupling theory and John Neumann's circa 1945 free energy automaton theory; was one of the reviewers for Libb Thims’ Human Chemistry (2007) offering the intuitive suggestion that human molecules move along paths of minimum Gibbs free energy. Co-winner of the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize.
Mala Radhakrishnan 75.png Mala Radhakrishnan
(23- AE)
(1978- ACM)
Reaction coordinate 3.jpg
In 1998, while a chemistry and physics student (BS Harvard 2000; PhD physical chemistry, MIT 2007), she began to write chemical-stylized poetry, which she tested at local poetry jam sessions, becoming known around Boston as the “chemistry poet”; publishing them in: Chemistry for the Couch Potato (2003)[21], Atomic Romances, Molecular Dances (2011), Thinking, Periodically: Poetic Life Notions in Brownian Motion (2018); in 2012, via handle @AtomicRomances, began Tweeting 100s of philosophically-laded social-family style, physical chemistry themed rhymes, over 420+ Tweets by Jul 2014;
Stephen Gillett


2005 His “Entropy and its Misuse: Energy, Free and Otherwise”, attempts to correct all the errors in Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen’s 1971 ideas about "low entropy" in respect to natural resources and economics.
Gabriel Lozada 75.png Gabriel Lozada


2005 In his article “Entropy, Free Energy, Work, and other Thermodynamic Variables in Economics”, he takes aim at Stephen Gillett's theory of economic free energy, and attempts to prove, via haphazard derivation, that "free energy is not related to economic value".
Dimitris Keranis 75.png Dimitris Keranis


Gibbs energy function.png
In his essay “Human Values and the Second Law of Thermodynamics”, he argues that human purposeful action can be quantified formulaically, using the Gibbs function (as shown), arguing that energy and entropy are the two opposing forces involved in nature’s tendency to organize itself through the production of work and the associated acts that are responsible for the flow of energy in social systems, of which economic activity is central aspect and in which intellectual actions, such as speech, scientific productions, poetry, and literary, etc., translate into “value flows” in the social systems, reflecting the tendency of systems toward equilibrium, through the dispersal of wealth, income redistribution, and decentralization of power, etc.; of which he argues, the flow of economic acts and value acts are captured in Xenophon Zolotas’ 1981 economic and social welfare growth function.
Mark Janes 75.png Mark Janes


Gibbs energy change.png
His carbon entromorphology theory is a human atom based scheme, which considers the human being to be a ‘type of gigantic carbon atom’ (Mr. Carbon Atom), and uses aspects of thermodynamics, particle physics, and the atomic model logic (molecular orbital theory) to explain facets of humanity; an example being his “soulatrophic” model of morality, in which state of humanity is posited to be evolving to a future iron-like orbital structure of stability (similar to Pierre Teilhard’s omega point theory).
Bertrand Roehner 75.png Bertrand Roehner


2007 His Driving Forces in Physical, Biological and Socio-Economic Phenomena (pgs. 74-75) touches on the premise that Gibbs energy might quantify “metastable states” socially, e.g. Tsarist Russia.
Thomas Wallace 75.png Thomas Wallace


Gibbs energy change.png
His book Wealth, Energy, and Human Values, applies the basics of physical chemistry and chemical thermodynamics, in particular the Gibbs equation (adjacent), to the modeling of the rise and fall of civilizations, in what he considers a ‘mechanistic-thermodynamic paradigm’; contains a good appendix on "The Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Applied to Socioeconomics", which outlines a decent reaction coordinate depicted initial state / final state view of mechanism-based society reaction processes.
Surya Pati 75.png Surya Pati


Gibbs energy function.png
Explain how single people with higher Gibbs free energy (adjacent equation) are “more restless” and thus resultantly tend to form a bond with another person to “stabilize” themselves; also speculates on how activation energy, entropy, and enthalpy apply to human relationships.
Klaus Jaffe 75.png Klaus Jaffe


2016 Attempts to use Shannon entropy mixed with free energy talk to argue about complexity and synergy socially.
Leachman 75.png Jacob Leachman
(28- AE)
(c.1983- ACM)
2016 In Apr 2016, Leachman, in his “Initial Thoughts on the Thermodynamics of Societal Phase Change”, an idea blog reaction to Darpa’s Mar 2016 “Next Generation Social Science” posting (Ѻ), began to blog out his theory that Gibbs energy correlated to "potential for societal change"; getting nearly to the book stage.


The following are those who have publicly argued that free energy does NOT applied to human formations, reactions, or dynamics:

# Person Idea Year Summary
Prigogine 75.png Ilya Prigogine
(38 BE-48 AE)
(1917-2003 ACM)
After reading Henri Bergson’s Creative Evolution (1907), in 1937, he went on to pen his “Thermodynamics of Evolution” (1972), outlining his far-from-equilibrium dissipative structures theory of order formation (in opposition to that of free energy based equilibrium changing models of chemical thermodynamics), and in his 1977 Nobel Prize speech for this theory, gave his opinion that free energy models, him using Helmholtz free energy, do NOT apply to evolution and society formations:
“Thermodynamic equilibrium may be characterized by the minimum of the Helmholtz free energy defined usually by: . Are most types of ‘organizations’ around us of this [minimum free energy equilibrium] nature? It is enough to ask such a question to see that the answer is negative [Incorrect]. Obviously in a town, in a living system, we have a quite different type of functional order. To obtain a thermodynamic theory for this type of structure we have to show that that non-equilibrium may be a source of order. Irreversible processes may lead to a new type of dynamic states of matter which I have called ‘dissipative structures’ (see: bifurcation).”
— Ilya Prigogine (1977), “Time, Structure and Fluctuations”

This asserted view, backed by a Nobel Prize win for this view, led to a mass of confusion, in the lay public cultural mind, in the decades to follow, e.g. leading people to believe that evolution and form change happens far far away from equilibrium at the “edge” of chaos. It takes some time to learn that throughout this argument, he was selling a creationism free will argument, wrapped in a Sokal affair style, toolism-based scientific-looking Trojan horse.

Philip Moriarty 75.png Philip Moriarty
2009 “To suggest that your thesis is that the laws of thermodynamics ‘govern human existence’ is a grossly misleading understatement. Your thesis (such as it is) is that there are quantum mechanical, chemical bonds between humans which can give rise to ‘human reactions’ and that there are enthalpic/entropic contributions to a ‘human’ free energy function. I am going to walk away from this, and leave you to your delusions.”
— Philip Moriarty (2009), Moriarty-Thims debate

Spent several months arguing with Thims and others that arrangements or groupings of humans do not have a entropy, but also that free energy functions do NOT apply to humans.

End matter


  1. Note: the isothermal-isobaric free energy H applies to constant volume reactions, e.g. in bomb calorimetery, wherein chemicals are explosively reacted at high pressures, in a "bomb" like reaction vessel; Rabbits are synthesized in isothermal-isobaric reaction conditions, where the "animal territories" (volumes) change.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Schroeder, Daniel V. (2000). An Introduction to Thermal Physics (pdf) (magician diagram, pg. 150; one rabbit, two rabbit diagram, pg. 163). Addison.
  3. Schroeder, Daniel V. (2021). An Introduction to Thermal Physics (Rabbit, 5+ pgs; enthalpy rabbit, pg. 33). Oxford.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Human free energy – Hmolpedia 2020.
  5. Note: Thims (5 May 88AE) reduced HFET to FET, per reason that shorter and quicker terminology and acronyms are better, and per reason that "formation energy", a newer term Thims had begun to employ online and in video, is much better than the more cumbersome older terms such as "standard state Gibbs free energy of formation" among others.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Human elective affinity – Hmolpedia 2020.
  7. Note: the free energy change ΔG is the measure of the forces of the affinity A, as proved by Helmholtz (1882).
  8. Reference lists – Hmolpedia.
  9. IQ:200+ HCT prodigies (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Goethe timeline – Hmolpedia 2020.
  11. Human intermaxillary bone – Hmolpedia 2020.
  12. Third Lecture on Anatomy – Hmolpedia 2020.
  13. Symbols – Hmolpedia 2020.
  14. Goethe affinity table – Hmolpedia 2020.
  15. Affinity table (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  16. The Mathematician in Love (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Note to Chapter 6 (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  18. Perutz, Max. (1987). “Schrodinger’s What is Life? and Molecular Biology”; in: Schrodinger: Centenary Celebration of a Polymath (§19:234-51, quote, pg. 241). Cambridge.
  19. Klegerman, Melvin; Hugh, McDonald. (1976). “The Thermodynamics of War” (GB) (pdf), American Laboratory, 8:61-73.
  20. Human chemical thermodynamics – Hmolpedia 2020.
  21. Radhakrishnan, Mala. (2003). Chemistry for the Couch Potato: a Collection of Poems (GB). Publisher.

External links

Theta Delta ics T2.jpg