Fritz London

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In existographies, Fritz London (55-1 BE) (1900-1954 ACM) (IQ:#|#) (GPE:#) (LH:3) was a German-born American physicist, noted for []


Quantum chemistry

London, with Walter Heitler, followed by Linus Pauling, Robert Mulliken, Erich Haas, who coined the term “quantum chemistry” (1919), Charles Coulson, Raymond Daudel, and Per-Olov Lowdin, are considered the founders of quantum chemistry.[1]

Activation energy

In 1928, London gave an explanation of "activation energy" via quantitative theory.[2]


Quotes | On

The following are quotes on London:

“The same year Walter Heitler and Fritz London, I don't have the dates of their birth and death, both, they both died, carried out the treatment of the hydrogen molecule as involving resonance between two normal hydrogen atoms. You have an electron with positive spin on one and essentially the normal state 1s orbit and with negative spin on the other. But there's another structure were the two electrons have interchanged positions. The fact that you have two structures introduces the term that you can call a resonance integral in the energy and this is the prototype of the valence bond method. The actual structure of the hydrogen molecule is a sort of intermediate one, perhaps three-quarters the Heitler-London sort and well perhaps half-and-half, it has about, it has some, some of the Biro structure where the dual electrons are on the same atom or the Condon structure..”
Linus Pauling (1983), “The Development of the Concept of the Chemical Bond”, Jan 17 [3]

End matter


  1. Quantum chemistry – Hmolpedia 2020.
  2. Heitler, Walter. (1936). Elementary Wave Mechanics: with Application to Quantum Chemistry (pg. 167). Oxford, 1958.
  3. Pauling, Linus. (1983). “The Development of the Concept of the Chemical Bond” (aud), Hitchcock Foundation Lecture, Jan 17.

See also

External links

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