Fritz Lipmann

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In existographies, Fritz Lipmann (56 BE-31 AE) (1899-1986 ACM) (IQ:165|#596↑) (ID:1.90|87) (PR:11,404|65AE / chemist:163) (CR:64) (LH:6) (TL:70) German-born American physician and organism physiology chemist, noted for []


In c.1940, Herman Kalckar demonstrated that in frog muscles, where glycolysis had been inhibited with iodoacetate, muscular contraction continued for a short period using phosphocreatine as a source of energy, that phosphate compounds could provide energy.

In 1941, Lipmann, in his “Metabolic Generation and Utilization of Phosphate Bond Energy”[1], building on Kalckar, showed how cellular activity, e.g. chemical work (molecular synthesis), mechanical work (motor proteins), transport work (membrane transport), is powered thermodynamically inside of organisms; he therein pioneered the method of determining quantitative measures of "bond energy", thermodynamically, stored in the phosphate bonds of ATP.[2]


The cleaving of each high-energy phosphate bond is "exergonic", releasing energy, which is used to do cellular work.


Quotes | On

The following are quotes on Lipmann:

“In his masterly and highly influential review in 1941 Lipmann was to emphasize the central role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an ‘energy-rich’ phosphate ester, the breakdown of which to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) drives not only muscle contraction but also a host of other energy-requiring [endergonic] processes.”
— Eugene Kennedy (1991), “Herman Moritz Kalckar (1908-1991)” [3]

End matter

See also


  1. Metabolic Generation and Utilization of Phosphate Bond Energy – Hmolpedia 2020.
  2. (a) Lipmann, Fritz. (1941). “Metabolic Generation and Utilization of Phosphate Bond Energy”, Advances in Enzymology and Related Subjects, Volume One (pg. 99-162). Interscience Publishers.
    (b) Metabolic Generation and Utilization of Phosphate Bond Energy – Hmolpedia 2020.
  3. Kennedy, Eugene P. (1991). “Herman Moritz Kalckar (1908-1991)”, US National Academy of Sciences.
  4. Lipmann coupling inequality - Hmolpedia 2020.

External links

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