In science, force (TR:1,456) (LH:43) (TL:1,499|#10), from the Greek letter phi (NE:510), meaning frictional surface action, is the product of the mass of a body, moved, and its acceleration (Newton, 1686); the ratio of the work done on a body and the distance through which it is moved (Coriolis, 1829); the unit of which are newtons or kg⋅m/s².
Ptah | Phi
In 2800BC, in Memphis, the god Ptah Φθά (NE:510) was the central creator god, who fashioned the world and or the sun on his divine potter's wheel, and also ignited the sun with his divine solar fire drill. This was the central motif of the Memphis creation myth. The secret name of Ptah is the Greek letter phi (NE:510), from which the majority of modern "ph-", e.g. philo- (philosophy), photon, Phoenix, phlogiston, etc., or "f-", e.g. fire, flame, ferro- (iron), etc., based words derive their meaning, in reference to the heat and flame made via friction from his solar fire drill..
Nht | Knife
In 1200BC, in the Papyrus Harris 500, according to Egyptologist Jean Hess (1888), Francis Griffith (1900), and Wilhelm Spiegelberg (1922), the symbol of a seated god with a knife perched on his knees, shown below, named “nht”, is the hieroglyph for the divine personification of force:
This total hieroglyph is the name: Pn-n-nht-w in full, the "nht" part, purported to mean "divine force".
The discussion of this Egyptian "nht" force concept is said to be found in the story of "Setne", popular with the priests of Memphis, home to supreme god Ptah, wherein Thoth entreats Ra to return his book of magic, which has been stolen by Ne-nefer-ke-Ptah; whereupon Ra fulfills this request by sending down a "divine force" (nht) from heaven, charged with prosecution of the robber.
Here, of note, English writers, e.g. Griffith (1900), translate "nht" as "divine power", whereas German writers, e.g. Spiegelberg (1922), translate this as "god force" or god kraft (Gotteskraft). The distinction between force (or kraft), energy, and power, however, did not full become clarified until the mid 20th century.
The long and the short of this, is that the "friction" generated by the rubbing sticks together to make fire, as in Ptah's fire drill, friction defined as "force that resists the motion of one surface relative to another surface", is the ancient root etymology of the modern term "force".
Empedocles | Philia
In 445BC, Empedocles proposed a model wherein the world was made of four principles or four elements (earth, air, water, and fire), each conceptualized as a dot "●", and that these were attracted together, e.g. to form bodies, by two forces, namely attractive force called philia (φιλία) (NE:551), secret name: "will" (βουλημα) (NE:551), conceptualized by elements attracting towards each other:
- ● → | ← ●
The root letter of philia (φιλία) is the Greek letter Phi (NE:510), which is numerically equivalent, via isopsephy, to the name Ptah (NE:510). Hence, as Ptah, with his solar fire drill making flame, said to have ignited the sun, root etymology of Empedocles "philia", it would presumably mean "attraction" in the sense of one of the first law of affinity, i.e. "like tends toward like", or "fire tends towards fire". Empedocles also introduced a repulsive principle he called neikos (νέικος) (NE:355), generally translated as "strife", meaning causing the elements to separate, symbolically:
- ← ●|● →
Later translators, tended to render Empedocles philia and neikos as "forces", more often than not, anthropomorphizing them as the forces of "love" and "hate", or attraction an repulsion.
Coriolis work principle
where W is work and d is the distance though which the force moves the body.
- SI unit geniuses – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Memphis creation myth – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Papyrus Harris 500 – Wikipedia.
- (a) Hess, Jean. (1888). The Demotic Novel by Stne Ha-m-us (Der Demotische Roman von Stne Ha-m-us) (pg. 73). Leipzig.
(b) Griffith, Francis L. (1900). Stories of the High Priests of Memphis (pgs. 26, 109). Clarendon.
(c) Spiegelberg. Wilhelm. (1922). “The Egyptian Deity of the ‘Force-God’” (“Die Agyptische Gottheit der Gotteskraft”), Zeitschrift fur Agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 57:148.
(d) Jammer, Max. (1957). Concepts of Force: a Study in the Foundations of Dynamics (nht, pgs. 18-19). Dover.
- Jammer, Max. (1957). Concepts of Force: a Study in the Foundations of Dynamics (nht, pgs. 18-19). Dover.
- Griffith, Francis L. (1900). Stories of the High Priests of Memphis (pgs. 26, 109). Clarendon.
- Spiegelberg. Wilhelm. (1922). “The Egyptian Deity of the ‘Force-God’” (“Die Agyptische Gottheit der Gotteskraft”), Zeitschrift fur Agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 57:148.
- Kamtekar, Rachana. (2009). “Knowing by Likeness in Empedocles” (jst), Phronesis, 54:2-5-38.
- Principle of the transmission of work – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Force – Hmolpedia 2020.