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In terms, evolution (TR:1195) (LH:15) (TL:1210|#16) refers to []


Bonnet | Etymology

In c.1760, Charles Bonnet began to employ the term "evolution", a term he coined, as a synonym of “revolution” and “metamorphose”, in the context of understanding development, nascent ideas on extinctions, and construction of a classification scheme in the great unbroken chain of being, as he saw things. Bonnet’s usage, over the next century, supposedly, was passed along through the works of French naturalist Jean Lamarck, whose work later influenced Herbert Spencer.

Goethe | Morphology

In 1784, Johann Goethe, while studying the orangutan to human facial angle diagrams of Petrus Camper, discovered the human intermaxillary bone. He then went out to describe his theory of form change over time, for plants (1790) and animals (1799), in two Lucretian style poems[1]; the following is one take on this:

“There is an evolutionary order of nature, as Goethe says explicitly in his two great scientific poems, the ‘Metamorphosis of Plants’ [1790] and the ‘Metamorphosis of Animals’ [1800].”
— Elizabeth Wilkinson (1949), “Goethe’s Poetry”[2]

In 1809, Goethe, in his Elective Affinities, outlined the basics of form change of chemicals to plants, animals, and humans.


In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, outlining his theory of species origin, and in 1872, adopted the term "evolution", via the influence of Spencer, as the name of his theory of natural selection.


The following compares Thimsian evolution vs Darwinian evolution:

Darwinian evolution.png


The following are quotes:

“We may expect that the law of organic evolution takes the form that it is accompanied in the long run with diminution of some function, analogous to thermodynamic potential, of the parameters defining the physical state of the system as a whole.”
Alfred Lotka (1945), “The Law of Evolution as a Maximal Principle” (pg. 176) [3]
Clausius and Darwin cannot both be right.”
— Roger Caillois (1973), Coherence Adventures (pg. #) [4]

End matter

See also


  1. (a) Goethe, Johann. (1790). “Metamorphosis of Plants”, in: Goethe: Selected Poems, Volume One (translator: Michael Hamburger) (pgs. 150-57). Suhrkamp, 1983.
    (b) Goethe, Johann. (1799). “Metamorphosis of Animals”, in: Goethe: Selected Poems, Volume One (translator: Christopher Middleton) (pgs. 160-61). Suhrkamp, 1983.
  2. Wilkinson, Elizabeth. (1949). “Goethe’s Poetry” (abs), German Life and Letters, 2(4):316-29.
  3. Lotka, Alfred. (1945). “The Law of Evolution as a Maximal Principle” (Jst), Human Biology, 17(3):167-94, 176n.
  4. Lone, Irfan. (2017). “Clausius and Darwin Can Both Be Right” (pdf), World Journal of Applied Physics, 2(2):55-58.

Further reading

External links

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