In c.455BC, Empedocles, under the supposed influence of Anaxagoras, was employing the term “[add]” (Fragment DK38), which some translated as “ether” (Leonard, 1908), “air” (Burnet, 1920), or “aither” (Inwood, 1992), as a seeming unstated fifth element; for example:
- “Come then! I shall tell you first the source from which the sun in the beginning and all other things which we now see became clear: earth and billowy sea and fluid air and the Titan aither squeezing all the them around in a circle.”
- — Empedocles (c.455BC), Fragment I39 / DK38
- “For when aither separated and flew off from air and fire, and evolved into a heaven revolving in a very wide orbit, then fire - which had remained a little apart from the heaven - itself also grew into the rays of the sun. Earth withdrew into one place and when solidified by necessity it emerged and settled in the middle. Moreover, aither, being much lighter, moves all around it without diversion.”
- — Empedocles (c.455BC), Fragment I40 / A49a; cited by Philo of Alexandria (c.20AD) in On Providence
The following are quotes:
- “Someday, after mastering ether, winds, the waves, the tides, and gravity, we shall harness the energies of love, and then, for a second time in the history of the world, man will have discovered fire.”
- Bothamley, Jennifer. (2002). Dictionary of Theories: One Stop to more than 5,000 Theories (§:Aether (either), pg. 13). Visible Ink.
- Teilhard, Pierre. (1973). Toward a Future State (translator: Rene Hague) (pdf) (§:“The Evolution of Chastity”, pgs. 60-87; quote [note: "for god" removed], pg. 86-87). Harcourt, 1975.
- Ether – Hmolpedia 2020.