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In existographies, Empedocles (2450-2390 BE) (495-435 BCM) (IQ:190|#25) (Cattell 1000:896) (RGM:432|1,350+) (PR:739|65AE / philosopher:59) (ACR:11) (FA:10) (EVT:5) (ESA:10) (TR:288) (LH:13) (TL:301|#24) was a Greek physicist and philosopher, noted for []


The basis Empedoclean view of birth and death, namely: they do not exist. Rather, what we conceive as birth and death, are by the coming together and later separation of the elements, mediated by the forces.

In 445BC, Empedocles, in his Fragments, introduced the two forces and four elements model of things, according to which there existed four principles or four elements (earth, air, water, and fire), each conceptualized, herein, as a dot "●", and that these were moved around to form bodies, by two forces, namely an attractive force called philia (φιλία) (NE:551), secret name: "will" (βουλημα) (NE:551), from the Greek letter Phi (Φ) (1100BC), from the Egyptian fire drill Ptah (2800BC), conceptualized by elements attracting towards each other:

● → | ← ●

and a repulsive principle he called neikos (νέικος) (NE:355), generally translated as "strife"[1], meaning causing the elements to separate, symbolically:

← ●|● →

Later translators, tended to render Empedocles philia and neikos as "forces", more often than not, anthropomorphizing them as the forces of "love"[1] and "hate", or attraction an repulsion. This, however, may be over-reading of the extant fragments, in respect to what Empedocles originally meant, e.g. philia, with secret name: "will" (βουλημα) (NE:551), conceptualized as the "force of will" of each element, or something to this effect?


Quotes | On

The following are quotes on Empedocles:

“What good did it do Epicurus to maintain that there is no providence; or Empedocles to teach atheism (see: atheism professor); or Socrates to swear by the dog, and the goose, and the plane-tree, and Aesculapius struck by lightning, and the demons whom he invoked? And why did he willingly die? What reward, or of what kind, did he expect to receive after death?”
Theophilus (c.170AD), “Letter to Autolycus” [2]

Quotes | By

The following are quotes by Empedocles:

“There is neither birth nor death for any mortal, but only a combination and separation of that which was combined, and this is what amongst laymen they call ‘birth’ and ‘death’. Only infants or short-sighted persons imagine any thing is ‘born’ which did not exist before, or that any thing can ‘die’ or parish totally.”
— Empedocles (c.450BC), Fragment I21 / DK8 + Fragment I23 / DK11; cited by Baron Holbach in The System of Nature (pg. 27); cited by cited by Alfred Lotka (1925) in Elements of Physical Biology (pg. 185, 246)
“Thus, by the will (secret name: philia (φιλία)) of “τιχης” (luck, fortune, chance), all things have thought.”
— Empedocles (c.455BC), Fragment I95 / DK103[3]

End matter


  1. 1.0 1.1 Kamtekar, Rachana. (2009). “Knowing by Likeness in Empedocles” (jst), Phronesis, 54:2-5-38.
  2. (a) Theophilus. (c.170). “Letter to Autolycus” (txt) (Adversus Autol III.2), Book 3, Ch. 2: “Profane Authors had No Means of Knowing the Truth”. Publisher.
    (b) Kors, Alan C. (2014). Atheism in France, 1650-1729, Volume I: the Orthodox Sources of Disbelief (pg. 191). Princeton University Press.
  3. Anti-chance – Hmolpedia 2020.

External links

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