Elemental composition of humans

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A periodic table showing the 26 elements (highlighted and color coded), as tabulated by mass percentage below, that humans are comprised of.[1] Further commentary on this table in HCT (§Periodic Table) draft (2020) .[2]

In hmolscience, elemental composition of humans (LH:27) refers the elements that humans are made of, which, based on current mass composition data and known element functionality, amounts to 26 elements.[3] A human, periodically speaking, is a ‘reactive nonmetal’ (10 elements), ‘transition metal’ (8 elements), ‘alkali metal’ (2 elements), ‘alkaline earth metal’ (2 elements), ‘post-transition metal’ (2 elements), ‘metalloid’ (2 elements), respectively. These elements are shown on the adjacent periodic table[1], and tabulated below by mass percentages in humans.


The following is the basic 26-elemental composition of a human (Thims, 2007)[4], ranked by percent (%) mass, showing element symbol, CPK color (C column), atomic number (Z column), the total link (TL) ranking, general function in humans, and an image of the element at standard temperature and pressure (STP); the four elements shown with yellow, namely: tin Sn, boron B, nickel Ni, and vanadium V, are not found in the Sterner-Elser human molecular formula (Ecological Stoichiometry, 2002)[5], but are found in the Thims human molecular formula (Human Chemistry, 2007)[3], based on element functionality in humans; elements not highlighted are common to both formulations:

Element % C Z TL Function
Oxygen O 61 O CPK.png 8 291
O (image).png
Roughly 60% of the body is H2O, which is essential for almost all chemical reactions within the body.
Carbon C 23 C CPK.png 6 239
C (image).png
Major elemental component of carbohydrates and fats.
Hydrogen H 10 H CPK.png 1 315
H image.png
Major elemental component of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
Nitrogen N 2.6 N CPK.png 20 137
N image.png
Major elemental component of proteins (comprised of N, H, C, and O).
Calcium Ca 1.4 Ca CPK.png 5 52
Ca image.png
Used in the development and maintenance of bone structure and development. Functions in the clotting process, nerve transmission, muscle stimulation, parathyroid hormone function, and metabolism of vitamin D, etc.
Phosphorus P 1.1 P CPK.png 15 83
P image.png
Plays a part in almost every chemical reaction within the body because it is present in every cell. Forms calcium phosphate with calcium in the bones and teeth in a 2-1 ratio. Is important in the utilization of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for growth, maintenance, and repair, etc.
Potassium K 0.3 K CPK.png 19 1
K image.png
Functions mainly in the intercellular fluid as the primary ion force. Potassium together with sodium helps regulate the water balance within the body. Potassium regulates the transfer of nutrients to the cell, transmits electrochemical impulses, and is necessary for normal growth enzymatic reactions, etc.
Sulfur S 0.2 S image.png 16 6
S image (visual).png
Keeps hair glossy and smooth and keeps the complexion clear and youthful. Sulfur is an important elemental constituent of thiamin, biotin, methionine, cystine, and cysteine. It disinfects the blood, resists bacteria, and stimulates bile production in the liver, etc.
Chlorine Cl 0.18 Cl CPK.png 17 1
Cl image.png
Helps regulate acid alkali balance, stimulates production of hydrochloric acid, stimulates the liver to function as a filter for wastes, aids in keeping joints and tendons in youthful shape, and helps distribute hormones, etc.
Sodium Na 0.17 Na CPK.png 11 12
Is found in every cell in the body. Sodium functions with potassium to equalize the acid-alkali factor in the blood. Along with potassium, it helps regulate water balance within the body. Sodium keeps blood minerals soluble, so they will not build up as deposits in the bloodstream, etc.
Magnesium Mg 0.029 Mg CPK.png 12 12
Mg image.png
70% of the bodies magnesium supply is located in the bones together with calcium and phosphorus, while 30% is found in cellular fluids and some soft tissue. Is involved with energy production of glucose, protein and nucleic acid synthesis, the formation of urea, vascular tone, muscle impulse transmission, electrical stability of the cells, and neurotransmission, etc.
Iron Fe 0.012 Fe CPK.png 26 169
Fe image.png
The major function of iron is to combine with protein and copper in making hemoglobin. Iron builds up the quality of the blood and increases resistance to stress, the immune system, energy production, growth in children, and resistance to disease.
Fluorine F 0.004 F CPK.png 9 12
F image.png
Research indicates that fluorine increases the deposition of calcium, thereby strengthening the bones. Helps reduce the formation of acid in the mouth caused by carbohydrates, thereby reducing the likelihood of tooth decay.
Zinc Zn 0.003 Zn CPK.png 30 1
Zn image.png
Helps fight disease, protect the immune system, involved in the Krebs cycle, has been found to increase the male sex drive, is a constituent of more that 2,000 enzymes involved in digestion and metabolism, etc.
Silicon Si 0.001 Si CPK.png 14 14
Si image.png
Is needed for the connective tissues of the body such as the tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, nails, skin, and hair, and is essential for their integrity. Silicon works with calcium to make strong bones, proper levels are essential during growth periods, and it is helpful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, etc.
Copper Cu 0.0003 Cu CPK.png 29 75
Cu image.png
Involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin, collagen, and the neurotransmitter noradrenalin. Is an important blood antioxidant, prevents the rancidity of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and helps cell membranes remain healthy.
Iodine I 0.00003 I CPK.png 53 1
I image.png
Aids in the development and functioning of the thyroid gland, and is an integral part of thyroxine. Iodine plays an important role in regulating cellular oxidation, promotes growth and development, and stimulates the basal metabolic rate—helping the body burn excess fat.
Tin Sn 0.00003 Sn CPK.png 50 1
B image.png
Deficiency results in poor growth and diminished hemoglobin synthesis.
Boron B 0.00003 B CPK.png 5 1
B image 2.png
A trace mineral essential for healthy bones.
Selenium Se 0.00002 Se CPK.png 34 1
Se image.png
Is a natural antioxidant that protects against free radicals and appears to preserve elasticity of tissue that become less elastic with aging. Is necessary for the production of prostaglandins, and pancreatic function depends upon selenium, etc.
Chromium Cr 0.00002 Cr CPK.png 24 1
Cr image.png
Stimulates the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of glucose for energy and the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. It appears to increase the effectiveness of insulin and its ability to handle glucose, preventing hypoglycemia or diabetes. The mineral may also be involved in the synthesis of protein through its binding action with RNA molecules.
Manganese Mn 0.0002 Mn CPK.png 25 1
Mn image.png
Functions as an important antioxidant in the prevention of toxic oxygen forms. It plays a role in activating numerous enzymes that are necessary for utilization of choline, biotin, thiamine, and ascorbic acid. Is a catalyst in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and mucopolysaccharides, etc.
Nickel Ni 0.0002 Ni CPK.png 28 1
Ni image.png
May be a factor in hormone, lipid, and membrane metabolism and cell integrity. Significant amounts are found in DNA and RNA. May be involved in glucose metabolism, etc.
Molybdenum Mo 0.000007 Mo CPK.png 42 1
Mo image.png
Is an essential part of two enzymes: xanthine oxidase—which aids in the mobilization of iron from the liver reserves and helps change iron from ferrous to ferric, and aldehyde oxidase—which is necessary for the oxidation of fats. It is also a factor in copper metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and the final stages of urine production, ect.
Cobalt Co 0.000004 Co CPK.png 27 1
Co image.png
Necessary for the normal functioning and maintenance of red blood cells as well as all other body cells; and is a constituent of vitamin B12.
Vanadium V 0.0000002 V CPK.png 23 1
V image.png
Has been shown to reverse diabetes. Inhibits cholesterol synthesis. Bones, cartilage, and teeth require it for proper development. It has been shown to have a function in cellular metabolism, iron metabolism, and red blood cell growth, etc.

End matter

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 See: Thims periodic table.
  2. Thims, Libb. (2020). Human Chemical Thermodynamics: Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities — Love, Meaning, Morality, and Purpose; Sociology, Economics, History, Philosophy, Government, Anthropology, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence, Ecology, Religion, Relationships, and Warfare (§: Periodic Table) (pdf). Publisher.
  3. 3.0 3.1 (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry, Volume One. LuLu.
    (b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry, Volume Two. LuLu.
  4. Thims, Libb. (2008). The Human Molecule (GB) (Amz) (Iss) (elemental composition table, pgs. 52-55). LuLu.
  5. Sterner, Robert and Elser, James. (2002). Ecological Stoichiometry: the Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere (human molecule, empirical formula pg. 3; discussion, pgs. 47, 135). Princeton University Press.

External links

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