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A map[1] of Egypt, showing some of the main cites of interest, such as Heliopolis, cited of the Heliopolis creation myth, Memphis, Alexandria, Amarna, home of Akhenaten, the three pyramids at Giza.

In countries, Egypt (TR:300) (LH:16) (TL:316), from the Greek Aigyptos, meaning "house of Ptah", originally called "Kemet", hieroglyph: Kmt hieroglyph.png, a black crocodile skin symbol, from "keme", meaning "black soil", in contrast the red soil of the surrounding desert, is a country in north east Africa, with a capital in Cairo, bordering on the Mediterranean sea and Red sea, whose culture is structured around the Nile, divided into the Upper Nile (Upper Egypt) and Lower Nile (Lower Egypt) regions.



The following are key cities of ancient Egypt; those shown bolded were, at one time, dated indicated, powerful religious state capitals, during which "recensions", i.e. modifications, synretisms, and redactions, etc., to the state religion accrued:



The following shows the basic outline of Egypt, divided between Lower Egypt, symbolic of the Red Crown and paprus, defined generally by the region of the Delta, comprised of 20 capitals or nomes, and the Upper Egypt, symbolic of the White Crown and the lotus, comprised of 22 capitals or nomes:



In 900BC, Greeks began to travel to Egypt to study abroad, key: (ESA:#), primarily at the colleges of Heliopolis and Memphis, as outlined below:

# Name Title
“Traveled to Egypt, and consorted with their priests; got from the Egyptians the idea of separating the military from the menial workers, thus refining later Spartan society, in which Spartans were not allowed to practice manual crafts” (Plutarch, 75AD)[2]
Thought to have traveled to Egypt to learn their method of conveying message and morality via story telling (Pope, 1720)[3]
Hesiod (c.750-650BC) Thought to have traveled to Egypt.[3]
“Traveled from Thrace to Egypt, wherein he was initiated into the mysteries of an Egyptian “Dionysus”, aka Osiris, which he brought back to Greece” (Diodorus, c.40BC)
  • “Visited Neith's temple at Sais (see: recension theory) and received from the priests there an account of the history of Atlantis.” (Plato, in Timaeus and Critias)[4]
  • “Spent time in Egypt and discussed philosophy with two Egyptian priests, Psenophis of Heliopolis and Sonchis of Sais.” (Plutarch, 100AD)
  • “Visited the great college at Heliopolis” (Budge, 1904)
Had an Egyptian connection; both he and Thales are both credited with introducing geometry into Greece.[5]
  • "Was advised by Thales to visit Egypt and to entertain himself as much as possible with the priests of Memphis and Diospolis (Thebes)[6]; it was from them that he had drawn all the knowledge which made him a sage and a scientist in the eyes of the masses.” (Iamblichus, c.284)[7]
  • “Received instruction from Oenuphis of Heliopolis” (Plutarch, 100AD)
  • Learned divination from the Egyptians (Porphyry, 380)[8]
Theodorus of Samos
Reported to have visited Greece; and to have introduced the Egyptian model of proportions into Greece.[5]
"Traveled in Egypt to ‘learn magic’." (Pliny, c.77AD)[8]
Interviewed people throughout Egypt, for his book The Histories.
“Traveled in Egypt to ‘learn magic’. (Pliny, c.77AD)[8]


Studied at the Library of Alexandria at age 18.[9]
  • “Visited (and studied at) the great college at Heliopolis.” (Budge, 1904)
  • “Stayed, as a student at Heliopolis, to study for over a decade, to learn what they could about Egyptian knowledge.” (Malieth, 2013)
  • As a youth (c.370BC), supposedly, travelled miles to listen to Plato lecture; then, having become un-enamored with Plato’s lack of mathematical ability, travelled to Heliopolis to learn astronomy.
  • “Received instruction from Chonuphis of Memphis.” (Plutarch, 100AD)
“Manetho (c.300-250BC), the priest of Sebennytus, who wrote a history of Egypt in Greek for Ptolemy II, collected his materials in the library of the priesthood of Ra.” (Budge, 1904)

End matter

See also


  1. Ross, Tina. (2020). “Illustrated: Map of Ancient Egypt”,
  2. Plutarch. (75AD). Lycurgus (translator: John Dryden) (txt). Publisher.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Taylor, John. (1852). Salt Abstinence (pgs. 13-14). Publisher.
  4. Solon – Wikipedia.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Hahn, Robert. (2012). Anaximander in Context” New Studies in the Origin of Greek Philosophy (editors: Dirk Couprie, Robert Hahn, Gerard Naddaf) (§:Prologue, pg. 73). SUNY.
  6. Diospolis – Wikipedia.
  7. Iamblichus. (c.284). “Life of Pythagoras” (pg. 12) (Ѻ). Publisher.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Digby, Kenelm. (1837). Mores Catholici: Ages of Faith (pg. 453). Publisher.
  9. Who was Archimedes (2004) –

Further reading

  • Clagett, Marshall. (1989). Ancient Egyptian Science, a Source Book, Volume One: Knowledge and Order. American Philosophical Society.
  • Clagett, Marshall. (1989). Ancient Egyptian Science, a Source Book, Volume Two: Calendars, Clocks, and Astronomy. American Philosophical Society.
  • Clagett, Marshall. (1989). Ancient Egyptian Science, a Source Book, Volume Three: Ancient Egyptian Mathematics. American Philosophical Society.
  • Gillings, Richard. (1971). Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs. MIT.

External links

Theta Delta ics T2.jpg