Early parental death and genius

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In genius studies, early parental death and genius, key: (EPD:F#) or (EPD:M#), with "M#" or "F#" being the age of child when either the mother or father ceased to exist, refers to the salient commonality of finding a strong correlation between the phenomenon of early parent death (EPD), e.g. the father of Newton (EPD:F0) died before Newton was born, and such children later becoming geniuses, innovators, leaders, or revolution or paradigm changers. Seventy-five percent of double Nobel Prize Laureates were the result of early parental death; fifty percent of top four American film stars were results of early parental death like phenomenon. Early parental death, being first born, and various educational anomalies, are three top commonalities unique to a large percentage of historical geniuses (Simonton, 1991).[1]


The following is a work-in-progress listing "early parental death" (EPD) geniuses, where the first # column shows the numbered chronological ordering by date of birth (synthesis), the T2 column shows the person's position in the top 2000 rankings, the IQR shows the person's "real IQ" (if listed in the top 2000 rankings), the RGM column shows the person current "ranker greatest mind" position (by popular vote), the "parents" column lists a number which is the age in years (or D = day; W = week) of the person was when their parent (M = mother; F = father) or parents "died" (the cutoff being about age 16 or less); the table also is color coded for certain common grouping, e.g. law of gravitation discoverer (green), revolutionist (dark gray), existentialism (blue), vacuum experimentalist pioneer (purple), thermodynamic revolutionist (red), which is the repercussion of the vacuum experimenters, and human chemical thermodynamics (HCT) founder or pioneer (yellow):[2]

# T2 RGM Parents Notes
Aristotle 75.png Aristotle
(2339-2277 BE)
(384-322 BCM)
195 (RGM:9|1,350+) ~M8, ~F8

orphaned at tender age

World-view founder
Marcus Aurelius 75.png Marcus Aurelius
(1834-1775 BE)
(121-180 ACM)
180 (RGM:81|1,350+) F3
Al-Tawhadi 75.png Al-Tawhidi
(955-940 BE)
(923-1015 ACM)

orphaned at early age

Copernicus 75.png Nicolaus Copernicus
(482-412 BE)
(1473-1543 ACM)
185 (RGM:20|1,350+) F10 Copernican revolution
Pascal 75.png Blaise Pascal
(332-293 BE)
(1623-1662 ACM)
185 (RGM:30|1,350+) M3 Top vacuum experimentalist
Boyle 75.png Robert Boyle
(328-264 BE)
(1627-1691 ACM)
185 (RGM:529|1,350+) M3 Chemistry icon.png
Chemistry founder
Top vacuum experimentalist
Huygens 75.png Christiaan Huygens
(326-260 BE)
(1629-1695 ACM)
190 (RGM:383|1,350+) M8 Top vacuum experimentalist
Spinoza 75.png Benedict Spinoza
(323-278 BE)
(1632-1677 ACM)
185 (RGM:116|1,350+) M6 Atheism founder
Hooke 75.png Robert Hooke
(320-252 BE)
(1635-1703 ACM)
195 (RGM:372|1,350+) F13 Law of universal gravitation founder
Isaac Newton 75.png Isaac Newton
(312-228 BE)
(1643-1727 ACM)
205 (RGM:2|1,350+) F0 Law of universal gravitation founder
No image 75.png Thomas Aikenhead
(279-258 BE)
(1676-1697 ACM)
150 F10+M10 Atheism
Voltare 75.png Voltaire
(261-177 BE)
(1694-1778 ACM)
195 (RGM:62|1,350+) M7 Atheism, deism, religious skepticism
Hume 75.png David Hume
(244-179 BE)
(1711-1776 ACM)
180 (RGM:112|1,350+) F2 Religious skepticism


Rousseau 75.png Jean Rousseau
(243-177 BE)
(1712-1778 ACM)
180 (RGM:118|1,350+) M0 (9 days)
D'Alembert 75.png Jean Alembert
(238-172 BE)
(1717-1783 ACM)
185 (RGM:88|1,350+) F9
Smith 75.png Adam Smith
(232-165 BE)
(1723-1790 ACM)
170 (RGM:77|1,350+) F0
Lavoisier 75.png Antoine Lavoisier
(212-161 BE)
(1743-1794 ACM)
180 (RGM:160|1,350+) M5, S15 Chemistry icon.png

Chemistry founder
Thermodynamic revolution

Condorcet 75.png Marquis Condorcet
(212-161 BE)
(1743-1794 ACM)
180 Father died shortly after his birth (Ѻ)


Jacquard 75.png Joseph Jacquard
(203-121 BE)
(1752-1834 ACM)
160 F10
Benjamin Thompson 75.png Benjamin Thompson
(202-141 BE)
(1753-1814 ACM)
170 F2 Thermodynamic revolution
Maximilien Robespierre 75.png Maximilien Robespierre
(197-161 BE)
(1758-1794 ACM)
170 M6 French revolution
Napoleon Bonaparte 75.png Napoleon Bonaparte
(186-134 BE)
(1769-1821 ACM)
180 (RGM:154|1,350+) F15 French revolutionist
Charles Fourier 75.png Charles Fourier
(183-118 BE)
(1772-1837 ACM)
Berzelius 75.png Jacob Berzelius
(176-107 BE)
(1779-1848 ACM)
180 F4, M9 Chemistry icon.png

Chemistry pioneer

317. Taylor 75.png Robert Taylor
(171-111 BE)
(1784-1844 ACM)
175 F (6 or 7) Atheism
Mary Shelley 75.png Mary Shelley
(158-104 BE)
(1797-1851 ACM)
175 M0 (11days)
Hugh Miller 75.png Hugh Miller
(153-99 BE)
(1802-1856 ACM)
155 F5
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) .png Charles Darwin
(146-73 BE)
(1809-1882 ACM)
180 (RGM:44|1,350+) M8 Darwinian revolution
Heinzen 75.png Karl Heinzen
(146-75 BE)
(1809-1880 ACM)
M4 Atheism
Eliot 75.png George Eliot
(136-75 BE)
(1819-1880 ACM)
M16 (FA:143)
Herman Melville 75.png Herman Melville
(136-64 BE)
(1819-1891 ACM)
(RGM:341|1,350+) F13 Unitarianism (father vs orthodox Calvinism (mother) vs laugh at all
Dostoyevsky 75.png Fyodor Dostoyevsky
(134-74 BE)
(1821-1881 ACM)
180 (RGM:49|1,350+) M15 Existentialism
Tolstoy (age 20) 75.png Leo Tolstoy
(127-45 BE)
(1828-1910 ACM)
180 (RGM:75|1,350+) M2, F9 Existentialism
Thomson 75.png William Thomson
(131-48 BE)
(1824-1907 ACM)
185 (RGM:619|1,350+) M6 Thermodynamic revolution
Maxwell 75.png James Maxwell
(124-76 BE)
(1831-1879 ACM)
205 (RGM:53|1,350+) M8 Electromagnetic revolution
Thermodynamic revolution
No image 75.png Francois Massieu
(123-59 BE)
(1832-1896 ACM)
F0 Thermodynamic revolution
Willard Gibbs 75 2.png Willard Gibbs
(116-52 BE)
(1839-1903 ACM)
205 (RGM:573|1,350+) M16 Chemistry icon.png

Physical chemistry pioneer Thermodynamic revolution

Boltzmann 75.png Ludwig Boltzmann
(111-49 BE)
(1844-1906 ACM)
190 (RGM:483|1,350+) F15 Thermodynamic revolution
Quantum revolution
Friedrich Nietzsche 75.png Friedrich Nietzsche
(111-55 BE)
(1844-1900 ACM)
190 (RGM:39|1,350+) F5 Atheism
HCT pioneer
No image 75.png Joseph Klein
(106-37 BE)
(1849-1918 ACM)
F1.5 Thermodynamic revolution
Johannes Laar 75.png Johannes Laar
(95-16 BE)
(1860-1939 ACM)
M2, F13 Thermodynamic revolution
Walther Nernst
(91-14 BE)
(1864-1941 ACM)
M12 Thermodynamic revolution


Curie 75.png Marie Curie
(88-21 BE)
(1867-1934 ACM)
180 (RGM:17|1,350+) M10 Nobel Prize.pngNobel Prize.pngChemistry icon.png

Physics (1903)
Chemistry (1911)

Haber 75.png Fritz Haber
(87-21 BE)
(1868-1934 ACM)
180 M0 (3weeks) Nobel Prize.pngChemistry icon.png

Chemistry (1919)
Thermodynamic revolution

Lenin 75.png Vladimir Lenin
(85-31 BE)
(1870-1924 ACM)
155 (RGM:1040|1,350+) F15 Russian revolutionist
Russell 75.png Bertrand Russell
(83 BE-15 AE)
(1872-1970 ACM)
180 (RGM:100|1,350+) M2, F4 Nobel Prize.png

Literature (1950)

Alexis Carrel 75.png Alexis Carrel
(892-11 BE)
(1873-1944 ACM)
F5 Nobel Prize.png

Physiology or Medicine (1912)

Arthur Eddington 75.png Arthur Eddington
(73-11 BE)
(1882-1944 ACM)
155 F2
Sorokin 75.png Pitirim Sorokin
(66 BE- 13 AE)
(1889-1968 ACM)
175 M5
Lovecraft 75.png Howard Lovecraft
(65-18 BE)
(1890-1937 ACM)
150 (RGM:424|1,350+) F8 Atheism
Pauling 75.png Linus Pauling
(54 BE-43 AE)
(1901-1994 ACM)
190 (RGM:420|1,350+) F8 Nobel Prize.pngNobel Prize.pngChemistry icon.png

Chemistry (1954)
Peace (1962)

Sartre 75.png Jean Sartre
(50 BE-25 AE)
(1905-1980 ACM)
165 (RGM:418|1,350+) F2 Nobel Prize.png

Literature (1964)

John Bardeen 75.png John Bardeen
(47 BE-36 AE)
(1908-1991 ACM)
180 M12 Nobel Prize.pngNobel Prize.png

Physics (1956)
Physics (1972)

Camus 75.png Albert Camus
(42 BE-5 AE)
(1913-1960 ACM)
165 (RGM:227|1,350+) F1 Nobel Prize.png

Literature (1957)

Julia Robinson 75.png Julia Robinson
(31 BE-30 AE)
(1919-1985 ACM)
Beg 75.png Mirza Beg
(23- BE)
(1932- ACM)
175+ F11 Chemistry icon.png

HCT pioneer (1987)

Hunter Thompson
(18 BE-68 AE)
(1937-2005 ACM)
145 (RGM:691|1,350+) F14
Thims 75.png Libb Thims
(17- AE)
(1972- ACM)
M12 Chemistry icon.png

HCT founder


A large percentage of geniuses, when they were children, watched one or both of their parents die. The figureheads of top eight scientific revolutions, shown above, were early parental death (EPD) products, the number (#) showing the age of the person when their mother (M) or father (F) died. Likewise, 75% percent of duel Nobel Prize Laureates, namely: Marie Curie, Linus Pauling, and John Bardeen, were EPD children.

A few interesting patterns can be noted from the above analysis. Generally speaking, one who possesses EPD eyes, tends to “see” the world with a much sharper, acute, and reality-attracting vision, than the average person.

Firstly, Newton and Hooke must have had a tremendously powerful anger directed against each other, to say the least.

Napoleon and Lenin, who started the French and Russian revolutions, were both products of an environment wherein their father died when they were age 15.

Pascal, Boyle, and Huygens, each of whom were M3, M3, and M8, and each of whom were three of the biggest “vacuum” experimentalists of the 17th century, which amounts to an attempt to overthrow a 2,000-year ingrained belief that “nature abhors a vacuum”, overthrowing Aristotle, in short. [3]

The experimental work of these three EPD vacuum theorists, gave birth to the “gunpowder engine” (vacuum made becomes work) and then the “steam engine” (vacuum made becomes work), which led to the five EPD thermodynamic revolutionists: Lavoisier, Thompson, Thomson, Maxwell, and Gibbs.

Next, we can note that the three existential atheists: Nietzsche, Sartre, and Camus; certainly the commonalities between Sartre and Camus are striking.

Beg | Thims

Mirza Beg, author of Physico-Chemical Sociology (1987), father died age 11, and Libb Thims, author of Human Chemistry (2007), mother died age 12, meeting for the first time in Pakistan, the two biggest pioneers of human chemical thermodynamics, after Goethe (1809), only to find out, in dialogue, that they are both products of an early parental death (EPD) environment.

Lastly, we note Mirza Beg and Libb Thims, two of the handful of people involved in the so-called "Goethean revolution", physico-chemical revolution. There are not more than a handful of thinkers, Empedocles, Goethe, Beg, and Thims, the latter two, throughout history, since chemical thermodynamics became a science, who have defined people as molecules and attempted to outline a chemical thermodynamic summary of human existence, otherwise known as human chemical thermodynamics (HTC), in respect to the view of people reacting, in the logic of human chemical reaction theory. Beg and Thims are both EPD products who went on to formulate HCT theory, only realizing this when they met in Pakistan in 2019.

Death / Died | Terminology note

Of note, a salient point to keep in mind, given the context of the article, is that, scientifically, the terms “death” and “died” have no conceptual meaning, in terms of physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics; they are what Charles Sherrington (1938) calls “anthropisms”, and are terms that Francis Crick (1966) says should be "abandoned". In other words, just as a hydrogen atom does not live or die, or reach a point of “death”, so it is with humans. This point of view, however, is a rather new view (only four people, in the last three decades, independently, have arrived at this view), which is called “abioism” . The point to keep in mind, is that one is advised to think about and to try to employ “life terminology upgrades”, when speaking about terms, such as death, dying, dead, and died.[4] While these new so-called "death terminology upgrades" have as of yet not been fully solidified, the point to keep in mind is that correctly, one is a powered CHNOPS+20E atomic geometry, wherein one "thinks" or "believes" that they move their "selves", but in reality it is an "exchange force" that moves people.

Revolutions | Scientific

The following table shows the main "scientific revolutions", with the core names of each revolution shown bolded:

Greek science revolution

  1. Aristotle (322BC) | EPD:M8+F8

Here, although data is lacking, we do note that the chief Greek thinker was an orphan; whose ideas dominated human science for two millennia.

1. Copernican revolution

  1. Aristarchus (270BC)
  2. Nicolaus Copernicus (1543) | EPD:F10
  3. Galileo Galilei (1609)
  4. Robert Hooke (1665) | EPD:F13
  5. Isaac Newton (1687) | EPD:F0

Here we a 60% EPD pattern among revolutionary thinkers with respect to earth and sun movements; with the lead revolutionist (Copernicus, 1543) being EPD:F10.

2. Chemical revolution

  1. Leucippus (475BC)
  2. Robert Boyle (1661) | EPD:M3
  3. Isaac Newton (1718) | EPD:F0
  4. Antoine Lavoisier (1773) | EPD:M5
  5. Torbern Bergman (1775)
  6. John Dalton (1808)

Here we see as 50% EPD pattern among revolutionary thinkers ing chemical sciences; with the lead revolutionist (Lavoisier, 1773) being EPD:M5.

3. Darwinian revolution

  1. Ovid (8AD)
  2. Johann Goethe (1780)
  3. Erasmus Darwin (1791)
  4. Etienne Saint-Hilaire (1833)
  5. Alfred Wallace (1858)
  6. Charles Darwin (1859) | EPD:M8

Here we see as 17% EPD pattern among revolutionary thinkers on the origin of species; with the lead revolutionist (Darwin, 1859) being EPD:M8.

4. Thermodynamic revolution


  1. Galileo Galilei (1638)
  2. Otto Guericke (1847)
  3. Robert Boyle (1657) | EPD:M3
  4. Robert Hooke (1657) | EPD:F13
  5. Antoine Lavoisier (1783) | EPD:M5
  6. Benjamin Thompson (1798) | EPD:F2
  7. Sadi Carnot (1824)
  8. William Thomson (1854) | EPD:M6
  9. Rudolf Clausius (1865)
  10. James Maxwell (1871) | EPD:M8
  11. Ludwig Boltzmann (1872) | EPD:F15

Here we see as 64% EPD pattern among revolutionary thinkers in the science of heat and work; with the lead revolutionist (Thomson, 1854) being EPD:M6.[5]


  1. Willard Gibbs (1876) | EPD:M16
  2. Hermann Helmholtz (1882)
  3. Walther Nernst (1905-1916)
  4. Fritz Haber (1905) | EPD:M0
  5. Gilbert Lewis (1923)

Here we see as 40% EPD pattern among revolutionary thinkers who originated chemical thermodynamics; with the lead revolutionist (Gibbs, 1876) being EPD:M16.[6]

5. Maxwellian revolution

  1. Pierre Gassendi (1649)
  2. Robert Hooke (1660s) | EPD:F13
  3. Isaac Newton (1670s) | EPD:F0
  4. Christiaan Huygens (1678) | EPD:M8
  5. Thomas Young (1801)
  6. Michael Faraday (1830s)
  7. James Maxwell (1865) | EPD:M8
  8. Albert Einstein (1905)

Here we see as 50% EPD pattern among revolutionary thinkers in the science of light and the electromagnetic phenomena; with the lead revolutionist (Maxwell, 1865) being EPD:M8.

6. Quantum revolution

  1. Rudolf Clausius (1857)
  2. James Maxwell (date) | EPD:M8
  3. Ludwig Boltzmann (1891) | EPD:F15
  4. Max Planck (1900)
  5. Albert Einstein (1905)
  6. Niels Bohr (1913)
  7. Erwin Schrodinger (1926)

Here we see as 29% EPD pattern among revolutionary thinkers in the science of light and energy quantums; with the lead revolutionist (Planck, 1865) having no EPD, but technically it was Boltzmann (EPD:F15) who originated the idea of "energy being quantized", and it was Maxwell distribution (EPD:M8), that gave Planck his probability idea.

7. Goethean revolution

  1. Jean Sales (1789)
  2. Johann Goethe (1796)
  3. Mirza Beg (1987) | EPD:F11
  4. Libb Thims (2007) | EPD:M12

Here we see as 50% EPD pattern among revolutionary thinkers in the science of humans reactively viewed; with the lead revolutionist (Thims, 2007) being EPD:M12.


In respect to the 7 main revolutions numbered above (with thermodynamics numbered twice, general and chemical), was see that among these eight total revolution groupings, we have a 75% EPD:M pattern, the the revolutionist's mother dying (destating) at a mean age of 9.2 years.

In sum, we see that the EPD genius want “truth” at all costs, and is “willing” to “die” to get it, per reason that they have already looked “death” in the face, at a young age; a point following which a skin-thickening and brain-growing process accrued.

Atheism | Existentialism | Revolution

Among EPD and geniuses, a high prevalence of become leading atheists. Chronologically, we have:

  1. Benedict Spinoza | EPD:M6
  2. Thomas Aikenhead | EPD:F10+M10
  3. Voltaire | EPD:M7
  4. David Hume | EPD:F2
  5. Jean Alembert | EPD:F9
  6. Robert Taylor | EPD:F7
  7. Charles Darwin | EPD:M8
  8. Karl Heinzen | EPD:M4
  9. George Eliot | EPD:M16
  10. Herman Melville | EPD:F13
  11. Fyodor Dostoyevsky | EPD:M15
  12. Leo Tolstoy | EPD:F2+F9
  13. Vladimir Lenin | EPD:F15
  14. Friedrich Nietzsche | EPD:F5
  15. Bertrand Russell | EPD:M2+F4
  16. Howard Lovecraft | EPD:F8
  17. Jean Sartre | EPD:F2
  18. Albert Camus | EPD:F1
  19. Hunter Thompson | EPD:F14
  20. Libb Thims | EPD:M12

Here we see that with respect to those who lost only one parent, 59% were EPD:F with a mean age of 7.7 years. The following is one summary of EPD and atheism, with focus on the higher EPD:F pattern:

“Paul Vitz [2013], who received his doctorate from Stanford University and is a professor at New York University, studied the lives of influential atheists through history and discovered an extraordinary pattern: many of them had been abandoned by their father at a young age, their father died when they were small, or they had a terrible relationship with their dad. Just go down the list: Friedrich Nietzsche, the world's most famous atheist and coiner of the phrase ‘god is dead’, had an extremely close relationship with his father — until his dad died just short of Nietzsche's fifth birthday. Scottish skeptic David Hume's father died when Hume was two. The father of the most prominent British atheist, Bertrand Russell, died when Russell was four. The father of Jean-Paul Sartre, the French existentialist, died when Sartre was fifteen months old. The father of Albert Camus, the French atheist, died when Camus was only one. Atheistic British journalist Richard Carlisle's father died when Carlisle was four, and English freethinker Robert Taylor's father died when Taylor was about seven. Samuel Butler was beaten and terrorized by his dad and felt fear and hatred of him. Albert Ellis, the psychologist who called all religion irrational, was abandoned by his father. Madalyn Murray O'Hair, the founder of American Atheists, hated her father so much that she once attacked him with a ten-inch butcher knife as she screamed: ‘I'll see you dead! I'll get you yet! I'll walk on your grave!’.”
Lee Strobel (2017), Spiritual Mismatch: Hope for Christians Married to Someone Who Doesn’t Know God (pg. #)[7]

While, it seems, the so-called "atheism revolution" has hardly been activated, in comparison to the other scientific and intellectual revolutions, the pattern nevertheless exists. The subject, however, is more complex, with each step of the revolution amounting to a "religious recension", e.g. Akhenaten turning Egypt from henotheism to naturalistic solar monotheism, for a few decades.


50% of the top four film “stars”, namely Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant, were products of “early parental death” (EPD) (or like) phenomena.[8][9]

The following are related quotes:

“Rumford [Benjamin Thompson] has informed us himself that he should probably have remained in the modest condition of his ancestors if the little fortune which they had to leave him had not been lost during his infancy. Thus, like many other men of genius, a misfortune in early life was the cause of his subsequent reputation. His father died young [age 2]. A second husband removed him from the care of his mother, and his grandfather, from whom he had everything to expect, had given all he possessed to a younger son, leaving his grandson almost penniless. Nothing could be more likely than such a destitute condition to induce a premature display of talent.”
Georges Cuvier (c.1815), Publication (pg. 9)
“Parental loss and orphanhood: Exceptionally achieving individuals in virtually every human endeavor are more likely to have lost a parent [in youth], and especially both, relative to any reasonable baseline (Albert 1971; Eiduson 1962; Eisenstadt 1978; Goertzel et al. 1978; Illingworth & lllingworth 1969; Martindale 1972; Walberg et al. 1980). Lenin was a teenager when his father died; Napoleon was around 15 when he lost his father; and Beethoven's mother died when he was 16, his father when he was 18. To show that these are not isolated instances, Eisenstadt (1978) examined 699 eminent personalities (about 14% of whom were scientists) from almost all eras and nationalities: 61% lost a parent before age 31, 52% before 26, and 45% before 21. Albert (1971) looked at the geniuses, both creators and leaders, who qualified for membership in the Cox (1926) sample and discovered that parental loss was characteristic of between 22 and 31%. Another investigation using a slightly overlapping sample of famous persons from all walks of life found that almost one-third of them had lost their fathers early in life (Walberg et al. 1980). This "orphanhood effect" has been most consistently demonstrated for literary creators: Martindale (1972) observed the absence of the father in 30% of a sample of poets. and more dramatically. Brown (1968) noted that 55% of his sample of writers had lost a parent before age 15. This same effect may hold for distinguished scientists as well: Newton's father died before Newton was even born, and though not nearly so dramatic, Boyle, Huygens, Lavoisier, Count Rumford. Lord Kelvin, Maxwell, and Marie Curie all lost a parent early in their lives (Price 1963, p. 109).”
Dean Simonton (1998), Scientific Genius: a Psychology of Science [10]

End matter


  1. Simonton, Dean. (1991). “When Giftedness Becomes Genius: How Does Talent Achieve Eminence?”; in: Handbook of Gifted Education (editors: Nicholas Colangelo and Gary Davis) (pg. 343);. Allyn and Bacon.
  2. Note: if you know of others, not listed here, feel free to post a comment on the discussion page.
  3. Thims, Libb. (2020). 'Human Chemical Thermodynamics — Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities: Meaning, Morality, Purpose; Sociology, Economics, Ecology; History, Philosophy, Government, Anthropology, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence; Religion, Relationships, Warfare, and Love (§:4-15 [vacuum chapters]) (pdf). Publisher.
  4. Life terminology upgrades (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  5. Note: Clausius (1865) is the one who actually "founded" thermodynamics; but it was the young Thomson who ran around the Paris book stores looking for Carnot, and it was Thomson's May 1854 Q/T function which inspired Clausius' Dec 1854 δQ/T function, and hence "entropy".
  6. Note: a parental death at "age 16" is not technically classified as a "full strength" EPD. Generally a full-strength EPD has to be age 13 / age 14, approximately, or below.
  7. (a) Vitz, Paul. (2013). Faith of the Fatherless: the Psychology of Atheism (pg. #). Ignatius Press.
    (b) Strobel, Lee. (2017). Spiritual Mismatch: Hope for Christians Married to Someone Who Doesn’t Know God (coauthor: Leslie Strobel) (pg. #). Zondervan.
  8. Hepburn, age 13, walking into a room to see her brother hanging from a rope; Grant, age 7, after seeing his younger brother die, from tuberculous meningitis, was later, age 9, told by his father that his mother had “died” (as he later declared) or gone on a “long holiday” (early version), whereas in fact she had been placed in an insane asylum, as Grant came to learn into adulthood.
  9. AIF’s 100 Years, 100 Stars – Wikipedia.
  10. Simonton, Dean. (1998). Scientific Genius: a Psychology of Science (§: Parental loss and orphanhood, pgs. 108-). Cambridge.

External links

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