Chemical thermodynamics

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A basic chemical thermodynamics icon, the "system" being a reaction flask, wherein a chemical reaction is occurring, which is surrounded by a water or ice bath, depending, which a measured temperature. The system on the left being exothermic, i.e. releasing heat; the system on the right being endothermic, i.e. absorbing heat. The amount of heat released or absorbed, determined by the amount of ice the reaction melts or freezes.[1]

In science, chemical thermodynamics is the study of the heat, work, and energy aspects of atoms and molecular or chemical species; the thermodynamics of chemical phenomenon.


  1. Lavoisier, Antoine; Laplace, Pierre. (1783). Memoir on Heat (translator: Henry Guerlac). Neale, 1982.

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Theta Delta ics T2.jpg