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The basic animated[1] structure of the element carbon, an atom comprised of 6 protons and 6 neutrons, confined to a central region called the nucleus, surrounded by 6 electrons, with 2 electrons rotating in an inner orbital (s orbital), and 4 electrons rotating in an outer orbital (p orbital); which, when combined, form a four-pronged so-called sp3 orbital hybridization.

In chemistry, carbon (TR:219) (LH:20) (TL:239), symbol C, is the 6th element of the periodic table, which is an atom comprised of 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons, with an electron configuration of: [He] 2s2 2p2. The protons and neutrons are confined to the nucleus. The electrons surround the nucleus in two orbitals, an inner s-orbital, wherein two electrons move, and an outer p-orbital, wherein four electrons move. Combined, the s-orbital and p-orbital form four sp3 hybridized orbitals, arranged in a tetrahedral geometry, which favors the formation of four bonds with other elements, wherein the octet rule is satisfied.


The following shows the basic geometrical structure of carbon:

Carbon (structure).png


See main: Elemental composition of humans; Thims periodic table

The following is an early estimate of the percent carbon in humans:

“The human body contains carbon 13.5%, hydrogen 9.1%, oxygen 72%, nitrogen 2.5%, phosphorus 1.15%, sodium 0.1 %, calcium 1.3%, magnesium 0.001%, iron 0.01%, and traces of silicon and fluorine.”
— Carl Kelsey (1916), The Physical Basis of Society (pg. 7) [2]

Presently, it is known that in humans, carbon is the 2nd most dominant element, by mass composition (23% mass), of the 26-elements in the standard human molecular formula.[3]


The following are related quotes:

“Why should a group of simple, stable compounds of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), 'struggle' for billions of years to organize themselves into a professor of chemistry? What's the motive?”
Robert Pirsig (1991), Lila: an Inquiry into Morals (pg. 162) [4]

End matter

See also


  1. Carbon –
  2. Kelsey, Carl. (1916). The Physical Basis of Society (pg. 7). D. Appleton and Company.
  3. Thims, Libb. (2008). The Human Molecule (GB) (Amz) (Iss) (elemental composition table, pgs. 52-55). LuLu.
  4. Pirsig, Robert M. (1991). Lila: An Inquiry into Morals (struggle, 5+ pgs; quote, pg. 162). Random House, 2013.

External links

Theta Delta ics T2.jpg