Bound energy

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In thermodynamics, bound energy (TR:81) (LH:3) (TL:84), as opposed to "free energy", refers to the quantity: TS or TdS.png, depending, the product of the entropy (S) times the absolute temperature (T).


In 1882, Hermann Helmholtz, in his “Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes”, defined bound energy as follows:[1]

Helmholtz bound energy symbol.png = Helmholtz MEH symbol.pngTS.png

where Helmholtz MEH symbol.png is the mechanical equivalent of heat, i.e. symbol J, for Joule, in modern terms (set equal to 1 in the 20th century), Helmholtz bound energy symbol.png is the bound energy, T is the absolute temperature, and S is the entropy. Helmholtz also referred to Helmholtz bound energy symbol.png is "bound work" in some cases.

End matter


  1. Helmholtz, Hermann. (1882). “On the Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes”, in: Physical Memoirs Selected and Translated from Foreign Sources, 1: 43-97. Physical Society of London, Taylor and Francis, 1888.

External links

Theta Delta ics T2.jpg