where is the mechanical equivalent of heat, i.e. symbol J, for Joule, in modern terms (set equal to 1 in the 20th century), is the bound energy, T is the absolute temperature, and S is the entropy. Helmholtz also referred to is "bound work" in some cases.
- Helmholtz, Hermann. (1882). “On the Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes”, in: Physical Memoirs Selected and Translated from Foreign Sources, 1: 43-97. Physical Society of London, Taylor and Francis, 1888.
- Bound energy – Hmolpedia 2020.