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In terms, biologist (LH:8) is an obsolete defunct term, presently upgraded to "chnopsologist" (Thims, 2012)[1], referring collectively for one who studies powered chnopsological things, i.e. species of powered CHNOPS+ element based organisms, principally: animals, plants, and insects, but also microscopic entities within the latter, such as: bacteria, viruses, genes, and DNA; also the evolution of species or form-change of plants, animals, and insects over time.


The following are the top biologists, according to Pantheon’s historical popularity index (HPI) ranking (PR), as of 2020 (65AE):[2]

# Person Focus Country
Charles Darwin Bird morphology and evolution of species of birds English
Carl Linnaeus Classifications of things into three groups animals, vegetables, and minerals Swedish
Gregor Mendel Cross-breeding of peas
Alexander Fleming Bacteria
Ivan Pavlov Reflex behavior in dogs
Antonie Leeuwenhoek Study of things in the microscope range
Jean Lamarck Study of changes of species over generations, e.g. giraffe neck length
Ernst Haeckel Evolution of species
Konrad Lorenz Bird behaviors
Karl Landsteiner Studied blood cell types and clotting
James Watson DNA
Luc Montagnier Studied viruses
Alfred Wallace Evolution of species; studied geography, flora, fauna, bird skeletons (over 5,000), some 125,000 insect specimens, including 83,000 beetles, and flying frogs. English
Peter Kropotkin Studied the application of Darwin’s “struggle to survive” principle to insects, dogs, and humans, to theorize about cooperation and collaboration in the same species, amid harsh weather conditions, plays a role in evolution.[3]
Georges Cuvier Studied bones of animals being dug up from about 10,000 years ago or older, such as the Mastodon (a giant elephant) and the Megatherium (a giant sloth); was to the first to suggest that earth used to be covered with giant reptiles, rather than mammals.
Richard Dawkins Genes and atheism
Rosalind Franklin Did X-ray crystallography work aimed at understanding of the molecular structures of DNA
Francis Crick DNA
Thomas Huxley Worked with Darwin on evolution, e.g. promoting the view that humans evolved from apes.
Thomas Morgan Fly morphology and genetics
Elie Metchnikoff Using the microscope, he discovery amoeba-like cells that engulf foreign bodies such as bacteria—a phenomenon known as phagocytosis and a fundamental part of the immune response
Trofim Lysenko Studied crop growth, e.g. peas and wheat, through the harsh winters, in respect to ground mineral content and heat amount.
Nikolai Vavilov Collected seeds from around the world, so to study crop growth in Russia, in the context of Mendelian genetics
Maria Sibylla Merian Studied and illustrated the metamorphosis of insects, e.g. caterpillar into butterfly
Conrad Gessner His Historia Animalium (1558) was a 4,500-page 4-volume encyclopedia, which had hand-colored woodcut illustrations of: quadrupeds, amphibians, birds, fishes, and snakes; supposedly, being the first attempt by anyone to describe animals accurately; his unfinished Historia Plantarum, presented 1,500 drawings of plants and seeds;
Rachel Carson
Karl von Frisch
Yoshinori Ohsumi
Dian Fossey
Lazzaro Spallanzani Published results (1765) which refuted the theory of spontaneous generation of organisms.[4] Italian
Charles Richet
Jules Bordet
Karl Baer
Barbara McClintock
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Richard Owen
Peter Simon Pallas
August Weismann
Ada Yonath
Harald zur Hausen
Jean-Henri Fabre
Rene Reaumur
Adelbert von Chamisso
Erasmus Darwin
Robert Brown
Christian de Duve
Theodor Schwann
Hans Spemann
Hugo de Vries
Ivan Michurin
Albrecht Kossel
Ernst Mayr
Vladimir Vernadsky
Francois Jacob
John Edward Gray
Herman Boerhaave
Etienne Hilaire
Matthias Schleiden
Dmitri Ivanovsky
Julian Huxley
Alexander Oparin
Lynn Margulis
Ludwig Bertalanffy
Desmond Morris
Jan Swammerdam
John Ray
Carl Woese
Edward Wilson
Theodosius Dobzhansky
Elizabeth Blackburn
Stephen Gould
John Haldane
George Wald
George Davis Snell
Hans Driesch
Charles Sherrington
Antoine Bechamp


The following are quotes:

Biologists who have used energy for budget-sheet accounting in biological processes must learn that the bomb calorimeter does not give the energy value of a high-quality substance. The ‘energy value’ of a person is much more than the heat content when he is burned.”
— Howard T. Odum (1976), Energy Basis for Man and Nature (pg. 3) [5]

End matter


  1. Chnopsologist – Hmolpedia 2020.
  2. Biologists –
  3. Who was Peter Kroptkin? –
  4. Lazzaro Spallanzani – Embryo Encyclopedia.
  5. Odum, Howard T. (1976). Energy Basis for Man and Nature (pg. 3) Publisher.

External links

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