Benedict Spinoza

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In existographies, Benedict Spinoza (323-278 BE) (1632-1677 ACM) (IQ:185|#51) (Cattell 1000:108) (RGM:116|1,350+) (PR:210|65AE / philosopher:23) (Murray 4000:10|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:251) (Becker 139:10|16L) (Stokes 100:36) (Listal 100:18) (EPD:M6) (FA:71) (RMS:24) (GPhE:#) (CR:198) (LH:10) (TL:213|#43) was a Dutch philosopher and "celebrated atheist" (Holbach, 1770), noted for []



In 1676, Spinoza, in his Ethics: Demonstrated in Geometrical Order, posthumously-published, presented a treatise on morality written in the style of Euclid's Elements, as a series of geometrical proofs of numerous philosophical points, accompanied by definitions, axioms, demonstrations, and corollaries, as well as intervening stretches of friendlier prose (scholia).

Theological Politics

In 1670, Spinoza, in his Theologico-Political, building on Abraham Ezra (1089-1167), denied that Moses wrote the Pentateuch; for example:

“It is thus clearer than the sun at noonday that the Pentateuch was not written by Moses, but by someone who lived long after Moses.”
— Benedict Spinoza (1670), Theologico-Political (pg. #)[1]


Quotes | On

The following are quotes on Spinoza:

“All our modern philosophers, though often perhaps unconsciously, see through the glasses which Spinoza ground.”
Heinrich Heine (c.1835), Publication [2]

End matter


  1. Smith, George. (2015). “Why Spinoza’s Theologico-Political Treatise became one of the most scandalous books ever written” (Ѻ),
  2. (a) Ratner, Joseph. (1927). “Introduction”, in: The Philosophy of Spinoza: Selection from His Works. Modern Library.
    (b) Hecht, Jennifer M. (2003). Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas (pg. 376). HarperOne.

External links

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