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A depiction of Ra and Atum sitting back-to-back, symbolic of equal power, meaning that they had been joined or synretized as one new joint god, i.e. Ra-Atum or Atum-Ra.

In Egyptian mythology, Atum-Ra (TR:27) (LH:14) (TL:41), aka “Ra-Tem” (Budge, 1904) or Ra-Atum (Butler, 2010), refers to the joining or synretism of the primordial land god Atum and sun god Ra into one, which occurred in Heliopolis in the period 2700 to 2100BC, done to bring about religious solidarity between the priests of Ra and the followers of the local god Atum of Heliopolis.


The following are related quotes:

“The phoenix of Ra was that whereby Atum came into being in chaos, in the abyss, in darkness and in gloom.”
— Anon (c.2000BC), Coffin Text (Spell 76)[1]
“When the priests of Ra attained to the great power which they enjoyed at Heliopolis, under the 5th and 7th dynasties [2500-2100BC], they did not suppress the local god Tem (Atum), but they associated their god with him, and produced the compound god Ra-Tem (Ra-Atum).”
Wallis Budge (1904), The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (pg. 105)[2]
“So Atum created a little mound of dry earth to stand on, and this was the beginning of the world. This bit of dry earth, the primeval hillock [benben], is represented in old Egyptian writings by the hieroglyph which represents the sun [Ra] on the little mound at the moment of that first time.”
— Maria Leach (1956), The Beginning: Creation Myths Around the World (pg. 218)
“Although the exact experiential moment when Atum became identified with the sun god Ra can no longer be determined, it already was standard practice in the old kingdom [2700-2200BC] to refer to these polar manifestations together as a single ‘Atum-Ra’.”
— Karl Luckert (1991), Egyptian Light and the Hebrew Fire (pg. 41)[1]

End matter

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Luckhert, Karl. (1991). Egyptian Light and Hebrew Fire: Theological and Philosophical Roots of Christendom in Evolutionary Perspective (Atum-Ra, pg. 41; Spell 76). SUNY Press.
  2. Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (pg. 105). Dover, 1969.

External links

Theta Delta ics T2.jpg