Atum

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Various depictions of the Atum, depicted wearing the dual crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, shown holding the was scepter (staff of Set) and the ankh (symbol of Ra), who is generally conceptualized as either the first land mound that arose out of the originally flooded universe, or as the first man (or man god) standing on the mound.

In Egyptian mythology, Atum (TR:92) (LH:15) (TL:107), hieroglyph: Atum 1.png, Atum 2.png, or Atum 3.png, "Atem", "Tem" (Budge, 1904), or "Temu" (Butler, 2010), was the main creator god and supreme god of Heliopolis, conceptualized, according to the Heliopolis creation myth, as the first god that self-engendered out of the Nun or primordial waters; later, 6th dynasty (2500BC), Atum was synretized with the god Ra, into the joint god Atum-Ra or Ra-Atum (Butler, 2010), with Ra subordinate, in some sense.

Overview

For millennia, in Egypt, once per year, for 150-days, the Nile River would flood, rising to heights of 30-feet, covering entire islands; when the flood began to reside, it would appear that land or islands would "seemingly" rise out of the flooded waters, as shown below:

Nile River flooded 2.jpg

In 3000BC, in Heliopolis, a creation model was invented, according to which a god called Atum either was this first primordial land mound, or he was a god standing on this primordial land mound, or he ejaculated the first land mound in the form of golden semen called the benben stone (associated with the bennu bird, aka phoenix).

Atum is generally shown wearing the dual crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, holding the was scepter (staff of Set) and the ankh (symbol of Ra).

Hinduism

In Hinduism, Atum was rescripted[1] into the character of Atman:

“In the beginning, the world was nothing but the Atman, in the form of a man. It looked around and saw nothing different to itself. Then it cried out once, It is I.' That is how the word 'I' came to be. That is why even at the present day, if any one is called, he answers, 'It is I,' and then recalls his other name, the one he bears.”
— Anon (c.750BC), Brihadaranyaka Upanishad [2]

In other variants, Atum is rendered as Adimo.

“It may be remarked, that this is the first time the name of Adam occurs in the book of Genesis. The first man, according to the ancient Brachmans, who were prodigiously anterior to the Jews, was called Adimo, a son of the earth, and his wife Procris, life. This, is recorded in the. Veidam, in the history of the second formation of the world. Adam and Eve expressed perfectly the same meanings in the Phoenician language.”
Voltaire (1770), Philosophical Dictionary, Volume Three (pgs. 185-86)[3]

Judaism

In Hebrew mythology, Atum, via god-to-prophet rescript, becomes the character of Adam, who fathers the brothers: Cain, Abel, and Seth.[4]

Nordic mythology

In Nordic mythology, Atum becomes rescripted into the the character of Odin, who fathers the brothers Loki [Set] and Thor [Horus].[1]

Quotes

The following are related quotes:

“Oh Atum-Khepri, when thou didst mount as a hill [pyramid]; and didst shine as bnw [Bennu] of the ben (or benben) in the temple of the ‘phoenix’ [bennu] in Heliopolis; and didst spew out as Shu [A], and did spit out as Tefnut; (then) thou didst put thine arms about them, as the arm(s) of a ka, that thy ka might be in them. Atum, so put thine arms about Unas; about this temple, about this pyramid, as the arm (s) of a ka; that the ka of Unas may be in it, enduring for ever and ever. Oh great Ennead who are in Heliopolis: Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys.”
— Unas Scribe (2315BC), Unas Pyramid Text (§:600), Saqqara, the necropolis of Memphis [5]
Abram, the son of Terah, corresponds to Atum, the son of Ptah, under whom the change from the seventy [70] divisions to the seventy-two [72] was effected. Atum is the ‘sun in his first sovereignty’, who wears the equinoctial crown. He is called the father of souls by the souls or gods in the Ritual. ‘Alum has ordained to thee the earth’, is said by the Osirian in the Ritual. The children of Abraham were to possess the earth. Atum was the bestower of the crown of justification of souls. ‘Thy father Turn has bound thee with this good crown of justification, with the frontlet (or crown) of life. Beloved of the gods, thou lives: for ever. Tum has ordered to thee the earth.’ This is said in the chapter of the crown of justification? Abram was the justifier in Israel, to whom the promises were made. The justification through Abram, expounded by Paul to the Romans, is the justification through Mum found in the Ritual, the justifier being an express form of this god as Har-makheru, the son who makes the word truth and is thus the justifier. One of the representations of Ptah, the Hebrew Terah, is designated ‘the god under his tamarisk.’ This tree in Egyptian is the Asru or Aser. It is identical with the Asherah and the Eshel, both rendered ‘the grove’. ‘Abram planted an Eshel in the Well of Seven and called there on the name of the lord, the everlasting god.’ This is one with the tamarisk of Ptah, and the tree that stood in the Pool of Persea, the Well of the Two Truths, which had belonged to the genitrix of the gods and the seven stars, but was converted to the use of the solar cult in mapping out the zodiac.”
Gerald Massey (1881), The Book of the Beginnings, Volume Two (pg. 320)[6]
Atum’s myth is well developed already in the Pyramid Texts. In the midst of the watery abyss of indeterminacy, personified as Nun, Atum creates for himself a point of determinacy, a mound that rises from the waters at the site of Heliopolis, a moment which is also functionally identical to that in which Atum grasps his phallus in his hand. The determinacy of place which comes with the emergence of solid ground in the Nun is one with the determinacy achieved by a part of the body (the phallus) which expresses Atum’s self-awareness. The place of the primordial hillock, which embodies the beginning of everything and was represented at Heliopolis by the presence of a benben stone, or pyramidion, is also a place which is everywhere. This moment of the emergence of the primeval mound is also hardly to be distinguished from the first sunrise, which is in turn each day’s sunrise. From here begins the close identification of Atum and Re. The compound name Re-Atum is very common, either with separate determiners indicating that the two are kept distinct even in fusion (e.g. in Coffin Text spell 673) or with Re subordinated to Atum, as in Coffin Text spell 266, where the operator says “I am Atum in his name of Re.” Where one is to be subordinated to the other, it is Re who is subordinated to Atum, for the sun can be regarded as merely one element in the self-developing totality. Alternately, the sun itself, Re in the broadest sense, can be the focus, relativizing Re in the narrow sense and Atum alike, as in Book of Dead spell 15A: “Hail to thee, Re at his rising, Atum at thy setting.”
— Edward Butler (2010), “Aten”[7]

End matter

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 God character rescripts (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  2. Weininger, Otto. (1903). Eros and Psyche or Sex and Character: A Fundamental Investigation (pg. 163). Vienna: Braumüller & Co, 1906.
  3. Voltaire. (c.1770). Philosophical Dictionary, Volume Three (pgs. 185-86). Publisher.
  4. Massey, Gerald. (1907). Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World: a Work of Reclamation and Restitution in Twelve Books, Volume One (pgs. 457-58). T. Fisher Unwin.
  5. (a) Alford, Alan. (2004). The Midnight Sun: the Death and Rebirth of God in Ancient Egypt (pg. 338). Publisher
    (b) Pyramid Texts: 588-600 – Sacred-Texts.com.
  6. Massey, Gerald. (1881). A Book of the Beginnings, Volume Two (pg. 320). Cosimo, 2007.
  7. Butler, Edward. (2010). “Atum”, Henadology, WordPress.
  8. Atoms and Atum – Hmolpedia 2020.

External links

  • Atum – Hmolpedia 2020.
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