Arthur Koestler

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In existographies, Arthur Koestler (50 BE-28 AE) (1805-1983 ACM) (PR:5,374|65AE / writer:539) (CR:3) (LH:#) (TL:#) was a Hungarian-born English anti-reductionist (Jonas, 1978), holon philosopher, noted for []


In 1931, Koestler joined the communist party, but then, in 1938, disillusioned with Marxism, left.

In following four decades, Koestler published some 30 book of fiction and nonfiction, many being skeptical of science, as the answer to it all, the same way he became disillusioned with Marxism, as a former believer, as the answer to it all.


In 1956, Koestler, in his The Ghost in the Machine, interjected on the mind-matter distinction (Arnopoulos, 1993), and also discussed his "holon theory", according to which each person is a "holon", an entity that is more than the sum of its parts and, at the same time, a part of some larger whole.[1]



Koestler influenced: Aldous Huxley, an admirer.


Quotes | On

The following are quotes on Koestler:

“As the subtitle implies, his latest book, Janus: a Summing Up, restates themes from many of his other works and tries to show that they all derive from a single, unifying viewpoint - which is perhaps best described as antireductionism. His betes noires are scientists who insist that man is "nothing but" a killer ape, or a stimulus-response machine, or a bundle of neuroses, or the product of purely random mutations. To the contrary, Koestler argues, a human being is a "holon" - an entity that is more than the sum of its parts and, at the same time, a part of some larger whole. To symbolize man's dual nature, Koestler borrows the image of the two-faced Roman god, Janus. Each of us has strong "self-assertive" tendencies that help define us as unique individuals; we also have strong "integrative" tendencies that help tie us to one social group or another, each with its own rules and constraints. Only when these opposing tendencies are kept in equilibrium can we function successfully.”
— Gerald Jonas. (1978). “Seeing the Universe Whole”[2]

Quotes | By

The following are quotes:

“The psychological process of discovery is the most concise manifestation of man's creative faculty and that converse process that blinds him towards truth, which once perceived by seer, becomes so heartbreakingly obvious.”
— Arthur Koestler (1959), The Sleepwalker (pg. #)[3]; cited by Patrick Coffey (2008) in Cathedrals of Science (pg. vii)[4]
“The scientific revolution's intellectual giants were dwarfs from a moral point of view.”
— Arthur Koestler (1959), The Sleepwalker (pg. #)[5]

End matter


  1. (a) Koestler, Arthur. (1956). The Ghost in the Machine (holon, 81+ pgs). Pan, 1971.
    (b) Arnopoulos, Paris. (1993). Sociophysics: Cosmos and Chaos in Nature and Culture (Koestler, 5+ pgs). Nova Publishers, 2005.
  2. Jonas, Gerald. (1978). “Seeing the Universe Whole” (Ѻ), The New York Times, Books, Apr 2.
  3. Koestler, Arthur. (1959). The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe (pg. #). Publisher.
  4. Coffey, Patrick. (2008). Cathedrals of Science: the Personalities and Rivalries That Made Modern Chemistry. Oxford.
  5. The Sleepwalkers – Wikipedia.

External links

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