42

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A visual of how the Egyptian model of each governor (or senator) of an Egyptian "nome" (state), of which there were "42", was said to have its own "nome god", which presided over the weighing of the soul of each person, in the judgement hall, shown above, in the afterlife. The Greeks reformulated all of this by personifying this in the name Dike, which has the isopsephy value of "42", the goddess of right order, who came to be called "Justitia" in Roman mythology, and hence "justice" in modern terms.

In numbers, 42 refers to []

Overview

Egypt

In 3100BC, when Egypt was founded, there were 42 “nomes” (states), that comprised the country.[1]

To unify the country, religiously, each nome was allowed to pick or have one nome god, and this nome god, or rather the religious leaders of each state, were allowed to pick one “negative confession[3], aka prohibited action (or “sin” in modern parlance), that would be one of the 42 weight components of a person’s soul, when judged in the after life. Moreover, in the Judgment Hall of the afterlife, these 42 nome gods, presided over the weighting of the soul on the Scale of Maat.

42 Nomes

In 1880, Heinrich Brugsch, in his “Geographical Studies, Lake Mareotis”, said the following about the 42 nome count origin, namely that at some point, Osiris worship began to dominate Egypt, at which point, previous named "Set nomes" were excluded from the list, so to make the country an Osiris number themed country, or something to this effect:[4]

French English
Il est vrai que parmi le nombre des 42 nomes plusieurs ont été exclus de l'honneur de figurer dans les listes officielles comme représentants du culte d'Osiris par des raisons théologiques, leurs habitants adorant le dieu Set, le terrible antagoniste du bon dieu Osiris. Mais il est aussi vrai qu’on les remplaçait par des districts autonomes, qu'on séparait du nombre des territoires d'autres nomes, pour arriver au chiffre des 42 Sérapées. C'est ainsi par exemple que, dans la plupart des listes officielles, le dix-neuvième nome de la Haute Égypte, l'Oxyrynchitės des géographes (le nome 1J1 Uab, avec la métropole Sap-mor, selon la tradition monumentale) se trouve passé sous silence, car on y adorait le dieu Set et son emblème .vivant, le crocodile. A sa place on introduisait dans les listes le nom de la ville Who Kos, surnommée 22 (Apollinopolis parva, c'est la ville uwe bpbep des livres coptes) pour remplir la lacune qui aurait été causée par l'omission du nome Oxyrynchite et de sa métropole. It is true that among the number of the 42 nomes several were excluded from the honor of appearing in the official lists as representatives of the cult of Osiris for theological reasons, their inhabitants worshiping the god Set, the terrible antagonist of the good god Osiris . But it is also true that they were replaced by autonomous districts, which were separated from the number of territories of other names, to arrive at the number of 42 Serapées. Thus, for example, in most official lists, the nineteenth nome of Upper Egypt, the Oxyrynchitės of geographers (the nome 1J1 Uab, with the metropolis Sap-mor, according to the monumental tradition) is found passed over in silence, for they worshiped the god Set and his living emblem, the crocodile. In its place we introduced in the lists the name of the city Who Kos, nicknamed 22 (Apollinopolis parva, it is the city uwe bpbep of the Coptic books) to fill the gap which would have been caused by the omission of the name Oxyrynchite and of its metropolis.
Il y avait sur le terrain de la Basse Égypte un autre nome voué au culte du même dieu Set-Typhon. Par cette raison les prêtres se croyaient obligés à ne pas le citer dans la liste officielle des 42 nomes (osiriens) et de leurs Sérapées. C'est le onzième nome Q avec le chef-lieu Nha ka-heseb, la ville Cynopolis ou Lycopolis des géographes. On y věnérait comme représentants vivants du dieu Set les animaux sacrés de cette divinité, c'est-à-dire le crocodile et l'hippopotame. En l'éliminant du nombre des 42 autres préfectures du pays, les prêtres remplissaient la lacune par la création d'un nouveau nome supplémentaire. C'est celui de šedenu, šedun, où d'après son appellation classique, le nome de Pharbaethus. There was on the ground of Lower Egypt another nome dedicated to the worship of the same god Set-Typhon. For this reason the priests believed themselves obliged not to quote him in the official list of 42 nomes (Osirians) and their Serapées. It is the eleventh nome Q with the capital Nha ka-heseb, the city Cynopolis or Lycopolis of geographers. The sacred animals of this divinity, that is to say the crocodile and the hippopotamus, were venerated there as living representatives of the god Set. By eliminating it from the number of 42 other prefectures in the country, the priests filled the gap by creating a new additional name. It is that of šedenu, šedun, where according to its classical name, the name of Pharbaethus.
Les monuments nous ont transmis des listes extrêmement précieuses, qui représentent la série des 42 nomes de la Haute et de la Basse Égypte pour faire connaître les appellations de leurs Sérapées. L'arrangement des nomes suit l'ordre généralement adopté par les prêtres, c'est-à-dire l'ordre de la liste officielle. En commençant par le midi de la Haute Égypte, la suite des nomes prend la direction vers le nord, en donnant encore au côté ouest la préférence sur l’est, ainsi que M. DE Rougé l'a démontré depuis longtemps. Autant qu'il s'agit de la Haute Égypte, l'ordre à suivre, des deux côtés du fleuve, n'est pas soumis à de graves erreurs, mais dès qu'on se voit transporté sur les territoires de la Basse Égypte, où les nomes se trouvent distribués entre tout un système composé des branches et des embouchures du Nil, la chose devient compliquée et les doutes s'élèvent. Pour trancher toutes les questions et toutes les difficultés il ne suffit plus l'ordre topographique à suivre, mais, comme M. Robiou l'a très bien reconnu, il faut avoir recours à tous les moyens possibles pour fixer les anciens emplacements des 20 nomes de la Basse Égypte. La philologie, l'histoire, la mythologie, la géographie comparée, des fouilles et des découvertes sur les lieux, tout est bon et utile pour arriver à reconstruire l'antique réseau des nomes. C'est ainsi seulement qu'on parviendra à concevoir l'idée qui a guidé les premiers auteurs à dresser l'arrangement des districts de la Basse Égypte, comme la tradition la conservé sous la forme de la liste officielle. The monuments have transmitted to us extremely precious lists, which represent the series of 42 nomes of Upper and Lower Egypt to make known the names of their Serapeas. The arrangement of the nomes follows the order generally adopted by the priests, that is to say the order of the official list. Beginning with the south of Upper Egypt, the series of nomes head north, still giving the west side the preference over the east, as M. DE Rougé has long demonstrated. As far as Upper Egypt is concerned, the order to be followed, on both sides of the river, is not subject to serious errors, but as soon as one sees oneself transported to the territories of Lower Egypt, where the nomes are found distributed among a whole system composed of the branches and mouths of the Nile, the matter becomes complicated and doubts arise. To resolve all the questions and all the difficulties, the topographical order to be followed is no longer sufficient, but, as Mr. Robiou very well recognized, it is necessary to have recourse to all possible means to fix the former locations of the 20 nomes. from Lower Egypt. Philology, history, mythology, comparative geography, excavations and discoveries on the spot, everything is good and useful to succeed in reconstructing the ancient network of nomes. It is only in this way that we will succeed in conceiving the idea which guided the first authors to draw up the arrangement of the districts of Lower Egypt, as tradition has preserved it in the form of the official list.
Deux exemplaires de cette liste méritent une attention particulière. Suivant l'ordre monumental des 42 nomes ils nous offrent le tableau complet des 42 Sérapées. M. DÜMICHEN et après lui M. Mariette ont parfaitement compris leur importance pour la géographie et pour la mythologie, et ces savants n'ont pas manqué de les mettre au profit de la science Two copies of this list deserve special attention. Following the monumental order of the 42 nomes, they offer us the complete picture of the 42 Serapées. M. DÜMICHEN and after him M. Mariette understood perfectly their importance for geography and for mythology, and these scientists did not fail to use them for the benefit of science.

We also know that in the famous story of the "last supper of Osiris", Set chops up Osiris into 14 pieces.

In 2001, Moustafa Gadalla, an Egyptian civil engineer and historian[5], in his Egyptian Cosmology: the Animated Universe, conjectures that the number 42 derives from the product and six time seven, shown below, and that the numbers "6" and "7" are related to Osiris, citing factoids such as that the temple of Osiris, uniquely, has seven rooms:[2]

We also know, related to this, that the body of Osiris was said to have been chopped into 14 pieces, which were scattered about the land by Set, and that wherever a piece landed, a temple grew. Also, when Isis went to retrieve all the pieces, so to make Osiris into a mummy, she could only find 13 pieces:

The 14th piece said to have been eaten by a fish in the Nile, called the oxyrhincus[6], a blush shark-like fish.[7]

In 2006, Willem Zitman, in his Egypt: Image of the Heaven, the Planisphere and the Lost Cradle, argues, based on some statements of Herodotus, that the number “42” is symbolic of the number of degrees in the sky between the constellations of Horus and Set, at a certain time. Zitman says that "42°, a number sacred to the Egyptians, is the size of the central celestial image from the first and second cultural periods".[8]

The number "42" is conjectured to be derived from a cosmological scheme of some sort, involving the constellations of Orion, and those of the gods Horus and Set, in the days prior to the unification of Egypt as an empire.

Greece

In Greece, the number "42" became the secret name of "Dike", the goddess of justice:

  • Dike (δικε) = law (Roman rescript: Justice)
  • Ill-treatment (αικια)
  • Assembly (αλια)
  • Together, at once (αμα)
  • Troubles, evils (κακα)

Christianity

In 100BC to 800AD, during the Roman recension, the period when Rome was founded as an empire, a new state religion was constructed, to bind the Roman empire, wherein former Egyptian model of 42 nome gods and 42 negative confessions, was rescripted, monotheistically, to the effect that there was said to be 42 generations between Abraham and Jesus, meaning from Ra to Horus, in the original version.

Popular culture

In popular culture, the number “42” has been employed as a motif in works such as Lewis Carroll’s 1865 Alice and Wonderland, which has 42 illustrations (among other cyphers), and Douglas Adams’ 1970 The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, the number said to be the answer to “life, the universe, and everything”.

Quotes

The following are related quotes:

42 is 3 14s [3 x 14 (314) = 42 / 3.141592 ... / Pi / Bible]. It’s meant to get you to explore the number. It encodes pi, among other things. An atheist arguing against a historical Bible is like a vegetarian yelling at someone wearing a synthetic leather jacket. Your base of argumentation is off, unfortunately.”
— The Sozo Guy (2020), Comment to Thims “42 Generations of Christ: Abraham (Ra) to Jesus (Horus)” video[9]

End matter

References

  1. Egypt – Hmolpedia 2020.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Gadalla, Moustafa. (2001). Egyptian Cosmology: the Animated Universe (pg. 54). Tehuti.
  3. Negative confessions – Hmolpedia 2020.
  4. Brugsch, Heinrich. (1880). “Geographical Studies, Lake Mareotis” (“Etudes Geographiques, Le Lac Mareotis”) (pgs. 34-35) Egyptology Review, 1(1):35-47.
  5. Moustafa Gadalla – Wikipedia.
  6. Oxyrhincus – Almaany.com.
  7. Gordon, J.S. (1997). Land of the Fallen Star Gods: the Celestial Origins of Ancient Egypt (pg. 86). Simon & Schuster, 2013.
  8. Zitman, Willem. (2006). Egypt: Image of the Heaven, the Planisphere and the Lost Cradle (pg. 89-91; 42 nomes, pg. 138). Publisher.
  9. Sozo Guy. (2020). Comment to “42 Generations of Christ: Abraham (Ra) to Jesus (Horus)” (YT), Atheism Reviews, 2017.

External links

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