Difference between revisions of "Top 2000 geniuses and minds"

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[[File:Top 1000 geniuses.jpg|thumb|650x650px|A selection of [http://humanthermodynamics.wikifoundry.com/page/Epicenter+genius epicenter geniuses], namely: [[Johann Goethe|Goethe]], [[Aristotle]], [[Einstein]], Franklin, [[Voltaire]], [[Boltzmann]], and their associates, who each rank in as '''top 2000 minds''', geniuses, and intellects, as ordered via "intellectually brightness" (Cox, 1926), by [[real IQ]], below.]]
[[File:Top 1000 geniuses.jpg|thumb|650x650px|A selection of [http://humanthermodynamics.wikifoundry.com/page/Epicenter+genius epicenter geniuses], namely: [[Johann Goethe|Goethe]], [[Aristotle]], [[Einstein]], Franklin, [[Voltaire]], [[Boltzmann]], and their associates, who each rank in as '''top 2000 minds''', geniuses, and intellects, as ordered via "intellectually brightness" (Cox, 1926), by [[real IQ]], below.]]
In [[genius studies]], '''<big>top 2000 geniuses and minds</big>''' ([[LH]]:272|#175) is a [[work]]-in-progress ranking of the top two-thousand [[genius|geniuses]], superior [[mind|intellects]], greatest [[Mind|minds]], and erudite [[Thinker|thinkers]] of all [[time]], ordered via "[[real IQ]]", i.e. intellectually-ranked according to informed [[reality]]. Total names ranked currently: 1090+ historical (ranked), 70+ [[Top 2000 candidates|candidates]] (historical), and 60+ [[Smartest people existive|existives]] (ranked).  
In [[genius studies]], '''<big>top 2000 geniuses and minds</big>''' ([[LH]]:272) is a [[work]]-in-progress ranking of the top two-thousand [[genius|geniuses]], superior [[mind|intellects]], greatest [[Mind|minds]], and erudite [[Thinker|thinkers]] of all [[time]], ordered via "[[real IQ]]", i.e. intellectually-ranked according to informed [[reality]]. Total names ranked currently: 1090+ historical (ranked), 70+ [[Top 2000 candidates|candidates]] (historical), and 60+ [[Smartest people existive|existives]] (ranked).  


==Overview==
==Overview==

Revision as of 17:34, 24 September 2021

A selection of epicenter geniuses, namely: Goethe, Aristotle, Einstein, Franklin, Voltaire, Boltzmann, and their associates, who each rank in as top 2000 minds, geniuses, and intellects, as ordered via "intellectually brightness" (Cox, 1926), by real IQ, below.

In genius studies, top 2000 geniuses and minds (LH:272) is a work-in-progress ranking of the top two-thousand geniuses, superior intellects, greatest minds, and erudite thinkers of all time, ordered via "real IQ", i.e. intellectually-ranked according to informed reality. Total names ranked currently: 1090+ historical (ranked), 70+ candidates (historical), and 60+ existives (ranked).

Overview

Summary

The following, contained in ten wiki-pages, is meta-analysis ranking of intellects (see: IQ key), listing the greatest, top, supreme, brightest, and or most-profound “geniuses”, superior intellects, and new minds of all time.[1] The list first debuted online via the Thims 15 (2008), growing yearly thereafter. The seeds of the list include the: Cardano 12 (1560), Cox 300 (1926), Platt 12 (1962), Buzan 100 (1994), Thims 97 (2005), "Thims 32" (2010), wherein IQ corrections began, the Cattell 1000, RGM 1,350+, Murray 4000, the PR 71K+, among others (see: reference list).

Symbols

The column shows the "real IQ" (compare: non-real IQ) of each person; all scaled around the mean CPBT IQs.[2] The column shows all known historical IQ estimates or calculations of that person. The "ID" column shows the "intellectual density" (see: ID) of each person, i.e. real IQ divided by age "A". The "G" column list the gender (male / female) of each person. The "steady" Steady.png, "up" Up.png, "down" Down.png, and "wavy" Wavy.png indicators, in each ranking #, give indication on whether they are in the process of migrating upwards, downwards, "holding steady", or in a wave, processing or "undecided" state. To make a suggestion, visit either the Hmolpedia forum, the Reddit Reddit icon 2.png RealGeniuses community, or post comment on the discussion tab of this page.

Key | Existographies

In the shorthand used to defined the current real IQ, i.e. best estimate as current-reality affords the senses, or true IQ, i.e. IQ as evidenced by the "truth" of the future, of an Hmolpedia existography is: (IQ:#|#:[#](↑,↓)), where the first # is their current real IQ, the second # is their top 2000 ranking position, and the up (↑) or down (↓) arrow indicate the person's climbing or descending status in IQ and or ranking position, e.g. Wallis Budge (IQ:155|#834↑), at 20 Apr 66AE, indicates that his his IQ and or ranking is too low, given citation growth, e.g. Budge, at the date cited, is the 62nd most-cited existography (of 1 or 2K+ total) in Hmolpedia (TL:154|#62), of his work and ideas; hence, he is trending upwards intellectually, but the adjustment to the new or true IQ position has not commenced.

Geniuses | 1-200 | IQ:180-210

See also: Higher minds, 1-200, 201-400, 401-600, 601-800, 801-1,000, 1,001-1,200, 1,201-1,400, 1,401-1,600, 1,601-1,800, 1,801-2,000, Full list, Candidates

The following (see: IQ key) are intellects “1-200” of the top 2000 geniuses and minds:

# Person IQ E.jpg ID A Overview G Country
1.
Steady.jpg
210 Goethe 75.jpg Johann Goethe
(206-123 BE)
(1749-1832 ACM)
IQ O.png=240[3]

IQs BR.png=233
IQ MM.png=225
IQ B.png=215|#2
IQ SK.png=215|#4[4]
IQ CB.png=213[5]
IQ SS.png=210
IQ C.png=210|#1
IQ O.png= 210[6]
IQ W.png=200
IQ SS.png=200+
IQ GC.jpg=200
IQ SS.png=188
IQ O.png=180

2.53 82
Goethe model 2.png
(Cattell 1000:7) (RGM:41|1,350+) (PR:63|65AE / writer:4) (Murray 4000:2|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:131) (Perry 80:1) (Norlinger 22:1) (SN:1) (FA:112) (GA:6) (EVT:8) (FET:1) (EVT:8) (TL:2,190|#1) Poly-intellect, writer, philosopher, evolutionist; noted for his 1809 physico-chemical based novella Elective Affinities, which initiated the science of human chemistry, wherein the four main characters, Charlotte A (as CO3.png), Edward B (as Ca.png), Captain C (as H2SO4.png), Ottilie D Goethe.png (as a newly introduced chemical), Edward and Charlotte AB Goethe.png married or bonded AB bond Goethe.png (as Gypsum.jpg or gypsum), react or transform through the following double displacement human chemical reaction:
AB + CD reaction Goethe.png

during which their "passions" and competing "moralities" are brought into conflict and reconciled via governing nature of the “affinities” (or chemical forces) operating on and between each character; the socially-extrapolated realization of Newton's last and final "Query 31" (1718); also noted for his 1784 discovery of the human intermaxillary bone (thus proving evolution), Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), Faust (1808/1832), among other works.

M German
2.
Steady.jpg
210 Isaac Newton 75.png Isaac Newton
(312-228 BE)
(1643-1727 ACM)
IQ O.png=250+[7]
IQ SS.png=250

IQ O.png=200
IQ CPBT.png=199
IQ B.png=195|#5
IQ CB.png=193
IQ CPB.png=192
IQ C.png=190|#7
IQ JP.png=190
IQ SK.png=190|#14[4]
IQ GC.jpg=190
IQ W.png=170

2.44 84
(Cattell 1000:4) (RGM::2|1,350+) (Murray 4000:2|CS / 1|P / 2|M) (Gottlieb 1000:6) (Becker 160:2|17L) (Stokes 100:32) (Simmons 100:1) (Durant 10:7) (SIG:1) (EPD:F0) (TL:888|#2) Physicist, astronomer, chemist, mathematician, and philosopher;
“Is it not for want of an attractive virtue [no attraction] (ΔG > 0) between the parts of water (∇) and oil, of quick-silver (☿)(Hg) and antimony (♁)(Sb), of lead (♄)(Pb) and iron (♂)(Fe), that these substances do not mix; and by a weak attraction (ΔG ≈ 0), that quick-silver (☿)(Hg) and copper (♀)(Cu) mix difficultly; and from a strong one [strong attraction] (ΔG < 0), that quicksilver (☿)(Hg) and tin (♃)(Sn), antimony (♁)(Sb) and iron (♂)(Fe), water (∇) and salts, mix readily?”
— Isaac Newton (1718), “Query 31”, in: Optics

Noted for his 1671 ''Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series'', wherein, he introduced differential equations (Ѻ); for his 1686 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; wherein he codified the three laws of motion, and proved, via mathematical means, that planets travel in ellipses owing to an “inward force of attraction between planets and the sun must decrease in inverse proportion to the square of the distance between them”, which Hooke and or Halley boasted, to Wren (c.1684), to have “solved”, albeit without proof; and for his 1704 Optics, wherein argues for a corpuscular theory of light, and in the 1718 edition attached his final “Query 31”, on the nature of chemical reactions occurring by degrees of force, which launched the science of affinity chemistry.

M English
3.
Steady.png
205 Democritus
(2415-2325 BE)
(c.460-370 BCM)
IQ GC.jpg=185 2.11 90
(Cattell 1000:751) (RGM:86|1,350+) (PR:285|65AE / philosopher:29) (Becker 139:79|4L) (Stokes 100:10) (FA:17) (ACR:5) (TL:317|#22) Physicist, mathematician and philosopher;
“The material cause of all things that exist is the coming together of atoms and void. Atoms are too small to be perceived by the senses. They are eternal and have many different shapes, and they can cluster together to create things that are perceivable. Differences in shape, arrangement, and position of atoms produce different things. By aggregation they provide bulky objects that we can perceive with our sight and other senses.”
— Democritus (c.420BC), Pay (Ѻ) fragment #47

Known as the "father of atomic theory" (Leucippus is grandfather; Epicurus is son; Lucretius is grandson). See: Democritus IQ for ranking discussion.

M Greek
4.
Down.png
200 Aristotle
(2339-2277 BE)
(384-322 BCM)
IQ SS.png=250
IQ O.png=190-210
IQ Q c.png=200+[8]

IQ Q c.png=200[8]
IQ GC.jpg=200
IQ B.png=190
IQ Q c.png=190[8]

3.15 62
Aristotle model.png
(Cattell 1000:6) (RGM:9|1,350+) (PR:7|65AE / philosopher:1) (Murray 4000:3|CS / 2|B / 1|WP) (Becker 160:9|11L) (Becker 139:2|19L) (Stokes 100:9) (Perry 80:3|Li) (Glenn 20:1) (Cardano 12:2) (Durant 10:3) (EPD:FM) (TL:622|#6) Encyclopedic philosopher and general poly-intellectual;
M Greek
IQ 200 up.png
5.
Steady.jpg
195 Albert Einstein
(76 BE-0 AE)
(1879-1955 ACM)
IQ SS.png=240
IQs BR.png=233
IQ O.png=225[9]
IQ B.png=205|#4
IQ O.png=200[9]

IQ SK.png=190|#16[4]
IQ JP.png=180+
IQ O.png=160[9]
IQ GC.jpg=160
Bent arrow R.png Einstein's IQ

2.70 76
Relativity.gif
(RGM:6|1,350+) (Murray 4000:9|CS / 2|P) (Gottlieb 1000:17) (Becker 160:1|19L) (Stokes 100:93) (Simmons 100:2) (Norlinger 22:27) (LGS:1) [Kanowitz 50:2] [Cropper 30:1|R] (GPE:1) (HD:52) (TL:768|#5) Physicist, astronomer, and philosopher; noted for his 1905 discovery of the equivalence of mass and energy: E=mc2.png; for his hypothesis of "light quanta" (via Planck's 1901 "energy element"); pioneer of radiation thermodynamics of relativistic thermodynamics; famous his 1915 general theory of relativity, which explained gravity as the bending of "spacetime" around all massive bodies (as shown above); via which he predicted the gravitational bending of light rays (confirmed by Eddington during the eclipse of 1919), and also predicted the existence of "gravitational waves" (detected in 2015, emanating from the inward spiral and merger of a pair of black holes of around 36 and 29 solar masses).
M German-born American
6.
Steady.jpg
195 James Maxwell
(124-76 BE)
(1831-1879 ACM)
IQ SK.png=185|#26[4] 4.27 48
EM-wave 4.gif
(RGM:53|1,350+) (PR:457|65AE / physicist:13) (Murray 4000:20|CS / 9|P) (Gottlieb 1000:205) (Becker 160:5|15L) (Simmons 100:12) (EPD:M8) (GPE:3) (TL:551|#8) Mathematical physicist and philosopher;
Was it a god that wrote these signs, revealing the hidden and mysterious forces of nature around me, which fill my heart with quiet joy?”
Ludwig Boltzmann (1893), on Maxwell’s equations

Noted for his 1860 development of the kinetic theory of gases; his 1871 Theory of Heat, his 1873 electromagnetic field theory of light, his 1875 thermodynamic surface work, among a number of other impressive accomplishments.

M Scottish
7.
Up.png
195 Gibbs 75.png Willard Gibbs
(116-52 BE)
(1839-1903 ACM)
IQ SK.png=180|#36[4] 3.20 64
(RGM:573|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:825) [GTE:#] [GCE:27] [GPE] [GEE] (EPD:M16) (TL:866|#3) Mechanical engineer, chemical engineer, and mathematical physicist;
“Gibbs is the greatest mind in American history. Lorentz, comparatively, is the greatest and most powerful thinker I have ever known. I never met Gibbs, but, perhaps, had I done so, I might have placed him beside Lorentz.”
— Albert Einstein (c.1925/54), aggregate quote

Central founder of chemical thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, vector analysis; first-slating: 195-220 (c.2013).

M American
8.
Wavy.png
195 Da Vinci 75.png Leonardo Vinci
(503-436 BE)
(1452-1519 ACM)
IQ O.png=260
IQ SS.png=250
IQs BR.png=233
IQ B.png=220|#1

IQ O.png=210, 220[6]
IQ CB.png=200
IQ SK.png=195|#9[4]
IQ O.png=181[10],
IQ C.png=180|#27
IQ W.png=167

2.99 67
Da Vinci engine.jpg
(Cattell 1000:86) (RGM:1|1,350+) (Murray 4000:3|T / 4|WA) (Gottlieb 1000:9) (Becker 160:14|9L) (Norlinger 22:23) [GEE:#] [LPKE:#] (RMS:13) (EP:4) (TL:194) Engineer, artist, technologist, polymath, physicist, astronomer, and general philosopher;
“The desire to know is natural to good men.”
— Leonardo Vinci (c.1490)

note for: blue sky problem theorist; animal heat theory, engineering, e.g. he made the first design for a piston and cylinder (see: piston) style gunpowder engine able to to lift a weight (adjacent), and therein an avowed "vacuist" (compare: avacuist); designed warfare technology, flight machines; heliocentrism advocate; did a pumpkin growing variant of Johann Helmont’s later more-popular willow growing experiment; Bible flood myth debunker; said to have utilized a "sleep formula", sleeping no more than four hours at a time, so to optimize his intellectual output: IQ of 260 (Araugo, 2017).

M Italian
9.
Up.png
195 Clausius 75.png Rudolf Clausius
(133-67 BE)
(1822-1888 ACM)
IQ SK.png=175|#84[4] 3.03 66
(RGM:399|1,350+) (SIG:3) (TL:860|#4) Mathematical physicist;
“Before Clausius, truth and error were in a confusing state of mixture, and wrong answers were confidently urged by the highest authorities.”
Willard Gibbs (1889), “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius”

Noted for his The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1865), wherein, building on Euler, Lagrange, Lavoisier, Carnot, Joule, Thomson, and Rankine, he founded the science of thermodynamics; first-slating: 195-210 (c.2014).

M German
10.
Up.png
195 Galileo 75.png Galileo
(319-313 BE)
(1564-1642 ACM)
IQ SS.png=240

IQ O.png=180-200[5]
IQ C.png=185
IQ CB.png=183
IQ B.png=180

2.67 77
Galileo ball drop.png
(Cattell 1000:46) (RGM:4|1,350+) (Murray 4000:2|CS / 5|P / 2|A) (Gottlieb 1000:4) (Becker 160:2|17L) (Stokes 100:30) (Simmons 100:7) (Norlinger 22:8) (EP:10) (GPE:5) (GAE:2) (TL:308) Physicist;
M Italian
11.
Steady.png
195 Hermann Helmholtz
(134-61 BE)
(1821-1894 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=195 2.67 73
Mechanical eyeballs (Helmholtz, 1867).png
(RGM:214|1,350+) (Becker 160:121|3L) (Simmons 100:63) (TL:394|#14) Physicist, physician, and philosopher;
“I believe it is a common saying that Helmholtz was the last of the last universal geniuses, and we are fast arriving at the point where even a single subject becomes too vast for one man.”
— Donald Liddell (1922), Handbook of Chemical Engineering

Noted for his 1882 "On the Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes", wherein, via refutation of the "thermal theory of affinity", proved the thermodynamic theory of affinity correct, according to which it is "free energy", not heat release, that is the true measure of chemical affinity; image shown are his “mechanical eyeballs”, from his Handbook of Physiological Optics (1867).[11]

M German
12.
Up.png
195 Gilbert Lewis
(80-9 BE)
(1875-1946 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=195 2.75 70
Lewis prophet.png
(RGM:489|1,350+) (FTS:6) (TL:453|#10) Physical chemist;
M American
13.
Steady.png
195 Rene Descartes
(339-305 BE)
(1596-1650 ACM)
IQ C.png=188
IQ CB.png=178
IQ B.png=175

IQ W.png=175

3.68 53
Descartes (caricature).png
(Cattell 1000:23) (RGM:26|1,350+) (Becker 160:37|5L) (Becker 139:3|18L) (Stokes 100:33) (CR:355) (LH:2) (TL:358) Philosopher and physicist; caricature[12] shows him holding Meditations on Philosophy behind a walled image of his Cartesian coordinate system, and the phrase "I think, therefore I am" motto.
M French
14.
Up.png
195 Hooke 75.png Robert Hooke
(320-252 BE)
(1635-1703 ACM)
IQ O.png=200+[3] 2.91 67 (RGM:372|1,350+) (PR:499|65AE / physicist:14) (Murray 4000:13|CS / 20|P) (EP:11) (Kanowitz 50:45) (Partington 50:23) (GPE:18) (GCE:#) (EPD:F13) (TL:153|#62) Physicist, mechanical inventor, astronomer, microscopist, chemist, engineer, experimenter, and anti-chance natural philosopher, aka "England's Leonardo" (Chapman, 2004); M English
15.
Wavy.png
195 Euler 75.png Leonhard Euler
(248-172 BE)
(1707-1783 ACM)
IQ SS.png=230
IQ Q c.png=190-210[13]
2.57 76 (Cattell 1000:512) (RGM:91|1,350+) (PR:185|65AE / mathematician:5) (Murray 4000:16|CS / 1|M) Simmons 100:35) (GME:1) (TL:111|#98) Mathematician, physicist, astronomer; M Swiss
16.
Wavy.png
195 Pierre Laplace
(206-128 BE)
(1749-1827 ACM)
IQ C.png=190 2.50 77 (Cattell 1000:233) (RGM:315|1,350+) (Murray 4000:8|CS / 4|A) (Becker 160:58|4L) (Simmons 100:29) (GPE:34) (CR:203) Physicist and astronomer; M French
17.
Steady.png
195 Voltaire 75.png Voltaire
(261-177 BE)
(1694-1778 ACM)
IQ O.png=200[9]
IQ C.png=190

IQ W.png=185

2.35 83
Voltaire statue feet.png
(Cattell 1000:4) (RGM:62|1,350+) (PR:77|65AE / writer:8) (Murray 4000:7|WL) (Durant 10:8) (RMS:29) (GPhE:#) (FA:86) (EPD:M7) (TL:335) Philosopher, writer, and lay physicist;
M French
18.
Wavy.png
195 Tesla 75.png Nikola Tesla
(99-12 BE)
(1856-1943 ACM)
IQ O.png=230-310[9]
IQ O.png=200

IQ CIQ.jpg=189
IQ O.png=140-160

2.27 86 (RGM:5|1,350+)(PR:56|65AE / inventor:4) (Becker 160:10|11L) (SIG:3) (TL:159|#66) Electrical engineer, philosopher, and inventor, M Serbian-born American
19.
Up.png

Up.png

195 Adams 75.png Henry Adams
(117-37 BE)
(1838-1918 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=195 2.44 80 (RGM:675|1,350+) (PR:35,130|65AE / writer:3,330) (GHE:1) (SN:2) (FET:5) (TL:572|#6) Historian and physico-chemical humanities pioneer;
“No one shall persuade me that I am not a phase.”
— Henry Adams (1908), “Letter to Elizabeth Cameron”, Sep 29

Noted for his physico-chemical social dynamics (1908) theory of history, a five-decade plus long effort, to apply and utilize the physical sciences, particularly chemistry, physics, and thermodynamics, employing anchor concepts such as the second law, the kinetic theory of gases, Gibbs phase rule (see: social phase), Maxwell's demon, nebular hypothesis, heat death, social gravity, social acceleration theory, etc., in the study of humans, politically, historically, and philosophically, which he viewed as human molecules (or "phases" or equilibrium states, depending), and countries, via the historical rise and fall change perspective;

M American
IQ 195 up.png
20.
Down.png
190 Young 75.png Thomas Young
(182-126 BE)
(1773-1829 ACM)
IQ O.png=185-200[14]
IQ CIQ.jpg=190

IQ SK.png=185|#17[4]

3.48 55 (RGM:772|1,350+) (Murray 4000:19|P) (CR:106) M English
21.
Steady.png
190 Carl Gauss
(178-100 BE)
(1777-1855 ACM)
IQ CIQ.jpg=300

IQ O.png=250+[15]
IQ SS.png=240
IQ O.png=200±[15]
IQ JP.png=180+

2.47 77 (Cattell 1000:848) (RGM:11|1,350+) (Becker 160:60|4L) (Simmons 100:41) M German
22.
Wavy.png
190 Pareto 75.png Vilfredo Pareto
(107-32 BE)
(1848-1923 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=190 2.53 75 (RGM:475|1,350+) (PR:1430|65AE / economist:9) (Scott 50:29) (SN:3) (TL:296|#24) Mathematical engineer, physical socioeconomist, and “engineer-turned-economist-turned-sociologist” (Stegner, 2001), M French-born Italian
23.
Up.png
190 Lagrange 75.png Joseph Lagrange
(219-142 BE)
(1736-1813 ACM)
IQ C.png=185 2.47 77 (RGM:41|1,350+) (Becker 160:109|3L) M French
24.
Down.png
190 Gottfried Leibniz
(309-239 BE)
(1646-1716 ACM)
IQ C.png=205

IQ W.png=200
IQ CB.png=194
IQ B.png=182

2.71 70 (Cattell 1000:34) (RGM:675|1,350+) (Murray 4000:14|CS / 6|M / 11|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:88) (Becker 160:79|3L) (Becker 139:18|13L) (Stokes 100:37) (Listal 100:17) (Norlinger 22:3) (GME:8) (TL:284) Mathematician, physicist, and philosopher, aka the “German Plato” (Erman, 1828); noted for M German
25.
Wavy.png
190 Empedocles 75.png Empedocles
(2450-2390 BE)
(495-435 BCM)
IQ GC.jpg=195 3.17 60 (Cattell 1000:896) (RGM:432|1,350+) (PR:739|65AE / philosopher:59) (ACR:11) (FA:10) (ET:5) (TL:301|#24) Physicist and philosopher, M Greek
26.
Steady.png
190 Carnot 75.png Sadi Carnot
(159-123 BE)
(1796-1832 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=190 5.28 36 (Cattell 1000:345) (RGM:793|1,350+) (PR:1,821|65AE / engineer:6) (EP:25) (TL:469|#10) Engineer and philosopher; noted for being the originator of the science of thermodynamics. M French
27.
Wavy.png
190 Erwin Schrodinger
(86 BE-6 AE)
(1887-1961 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=190 2.60 73 (RGM:158|1,350+) (PR:704|65AE / physicist:20) (Becker 160:44|5L) (Simmons 100:18) (FET:11) (GPE:7) (TL:244|#33) Physicist and philosopher, M Austrian
28.
Steady.png
190 Francis Bacon
(394-329 BE)
(1561-1626 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=190 2.92 65 (Cattell 1000:5) (RGM:96|1,350+) (PR:93|65AE / philosopher:14) (Gottlieb 1000:84) (Becker 160:104|2L) (Becker 139:26|11L) (Stokes 100:29) (Durant 10:6) (TL:159|#61) Philosopher and physicist; M English
29.
Steady.png
190 Boltzmann 75.png Ludwig Boltzmann
(111-49 BE)
(1844-1906 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=195 3.06 62
Boltzmann (flanked by Nernst and Arrhenius).png
(RGM:483|1,350+) (Simmons 100:24) [Kanowitz 50:44] [Cropper 30:1|SM] (GPE:26) (EPD:F15) (FTS:4) (TL:324) Physicist and thermodynamicist, of the Vienna school, a semi-categorized epicenter genius, one of the central founders of statistical thermodynamics, known for his derivation of the probabilistic or logarithmic description of entropy as a function of the molecular distributions of the body; for his 1886 lecture "On the the Second Law of Thermodynamics" applied to evolution; for his 1891 conjecture that energy can be divided "atomically" (which led, via Planck) to the quantum revolution.
M Austrian
30.
Up.png
190 Holbach 75.png Baron Holbach
(232-166 BE)
(1723-1789 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=190 2.92 65
Holbach (unbeliever).png
(RGM:688|1,350+) (PR:2,351|65AE / philosopher:141) (PL:3K+) (SN:12) (RMS:36) (FA:92) (GAE:1) (GPhE:5) (TL:301) Atheism-explicit anti-chance based matter-and-motion philosopher, eponyms: Holbachian, Holbach’s school (Ѻ), Holbach's geometrician (forerunner to Laplace's demon); characterized as the “Newton of the atheists” (Ѻ)(V|1:45) or "the supreme materialist" (Cooper, 1976), even cited so in history of atheism documentaries, and high ranked extreme atheist; in epicenter genius categorizations, was “one member of Voltaire’s circle”, if not the leader, and who; according to Caspar Hakfoort, was one of the stepping stone pioneers of scientism, being generally known for his 1770 The System of Nature: the Laws of Moral and Physical World, referred to by some as an "Atheist’s Bible", wherein saw the universe as nothing more than matter in motion, bound by inexorable natural laws of cause and effect, in which there is “no necessity to have recourse to supernatural powers to account for the formation of things.”
M German-born French
31.
Wavy.png
190 Friedrich Nietzsche 75.png Friedrich Nietzsche
(111-55 BE)
(1844-1900 ACM)
IQ Q c.png=210[16]
IQ N.jpg=200+

IQ SS.png=200+
IQ Q c.png=190[16]
IQ U.png=186
IQ O.png=180
IQ SS.png=180
IQ Q c.png=150[16]

3.45 55
Nietzsche (caricature).png
(RGM:39|1,350+) (Becker 139:8|17L) (Stokes 100:70) (EPD:F5) (TL:336) Atheistic philosopher; caricature[17] shows him ruminating intensely on a figure floating out of his Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1885).
M German
32.
Wavy.png
190 Pierre Gassendi
(363-300 BE)
(1592-1655 ACM)
IQ C.png=185 3.02 63 (Cattell 1000:218) (RGM:661|1,350+) (PR:3,750|65AE / philosopher:197) (GPE:50) (GCE:26) (GME:30) (TL:107|#108) Physicist and philosopher, M French
33.
Up.png
190 Huygens 75.png Christiaan Huygens
(326-260 BE)
(1629-1695 ACM)
IQ C.png=175 2.88 66 (Cattell 1000:306) (RGM:383|1,350+) (PR:612|65AE / physicist:18) (Gottlieb 1000:333) (Murray 4000:7|CS / 17|P / 4|T) (Becker 160:55|4L) (Simmons 100:40) (Kanowitz 50:16) (EP:14) (Eells 100:24) (GPE:27) (GME:28) (EPD:M8) (TL:133|#82) Physicist, inventor, astronomer, and mathematician; M Dutch
34.
Up.png
190 Guericke 75.png Otto Guericke
(353-269 BE)
(1602-1686 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=185 2.89 83 (RGM:99|1,350+) (EP:10) (SIG:5) (GPE:62) (TL:207) Experimental physicist, philosopher, and diplomat, noted for [] M German
35.
Down.png
190 Jefferson 75.png Thomas Jefferson
(212-129 BE)
(1743-1826 ACM)
IQ B.png=195
IQ CB.png=178
IQ C.png=160
IQ W.png=160

IQ S.png=160

2.29 83 (Cattell 1000:79) (RGM:78|1,350+) (PR:44|65AE / politician:7) (Washington 23|#) (FA:110) (CR:236) (LH:11) (TL:247) Politician, president, and philosopher; M American
36.
Down.png
190 Pauling 75.png Linus Pauling
(54 BE-43 AE)
(1901-1994 ACM)
IQ JP.png=180
IQ SS.png=180
IQ SS.png=170

=170
IQ O.png=160[18]
IQ SS.png=160

2.04 93
Pauling tetrahedron.png
(RGM:430|1,350+) (PR:1,449|65AE / chemist:10) (Becker 160:29|7L) (Simmons 100:16) (FET:28) (GCE:#) (EPD:F9) (TL:101|#109) Chemical engineer and physical chemist; noted for his 1939 On the Nature of the Chemical Bond, which became the standard textbook on the wave mechanics based model of the chemical bond; adjacent is a 1940s model of the tetrahedral molecular orbital structure.
M American
37.
Steady.png
190 Ostwald 75.png Wilhelm Ostwald
(102-23 BE)
(1853-1932 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=190 2.44 78 (RGM:87|1,350+) (PR:2,006|65AE / chemist:17) (SN:15) (FA:94) (GCE:21) (TL:314|#20) Physical chemist, philosopher, and atheism activist; M German
38.
Steady.png
190 Archimedes 75.png Archimedes
(2242-2167 BE)
(287-212 BCM)
IQ SS.png=240
IQ JP.png=190
IQ B.png=190
2.53 75 (Cardano 12:1) (RGM:9|1,350+) (Becker 160:13|10L) (Simmons 100:100) M Greek
40.
Wavy.png
190 Dirac 75.png Paul Dirac
(53 BE-29 AE)
(1902-1984 ACM)
IQ SK.png=185|#24[4] 2.31 82
(RGM:201|1,350+) (Murray 4000:15|P) (PR:1,898|65AE / physicists:44) (Becker 160:94|3L) (Simmons 100:20) (CR:137) (LH:3) (TL:140|#71) Physicist; noted for his 1926 derivation of the general formulation of the exclusion principle; his 1928 derivation of a relativistic wave equation for the electron, as shown adjacent carved in stone (Westminster Abby), from which he predicted the anti-electron (discovered in 1932); and for his Principles of Quantum Mechanics; upgrade ↑ for his 1927 Solvay rant on god and religion; downgrade ↓ for his later “because god made it that way” and “god is a mathematician” statements; first-slating: 190|#36 (c.2016)
M English-born American
41.
Wavy.png
190 John Neumann
(52 BE-2 AE)
(1903-1957 ACM)
IQ O.png=225[19]IQ O.png=200[20]
IQ JP.png=180
IQ O.png=180[21]

IQ O.png=163

3.58 53 (RGM:189|1,535+) (PR:937|65AE / mathematician:19) (Becker 160:142|2L) (Gottlieb 1000:959) (Odueny 100:54) (Simmons 100:51) (HFET:9) (CR:221) (LH:5) (TL:226|#35) Mathematician, chemical engineer, economist, physicist, and computer scientist; M Hungarian-born American
42.
Wavy.png
190 Enrico Fermi
(54-1 BE)
(1901-1954 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=190 3.58 53 [RGM:38|1,350+] (Becker 160:45|5L) (Simmons 100:34) M Italian
43.
Down.png
190 William Shakespeare
(391-339 BE)
(1564-1616 ACM)
IQs BR.png=233
IQ B.png=210
3.65 52 (RGM:54|1,350+) (PR:21|65AE / writer:1) (Hugo 14:14) (TL:199|#47) Writer, poet, and philosopher; M English
44.
Down.png

Down.png

190 Hypatia
(1605-1540 BE)
(350-415 ACM)
IQ O.png=210[9]
IQ O.png=200
IQ SS.png=195

IQ O.png=180
IQ O.png=170[6]

2.92 65
Astrolabe 2.png
[RGM:92|1,350+] (Becker 139:109|3L) (Norlinger 22:24) (GFG:1) (CR:44) Philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and astronomer;
“Reserve your right to think, for even to think wrongly is better than not to think at all.”
— Hypatia (c.400), Publication

only known female universal genius, daughter of mathematical astronomer Theon, the last head of the Library of Alexander; noted for being one of the last apex intellects before humanity went into the dark ages; a fabled "last persons to know everything"; noted early irreligionist; credited with the invention of the astrolabe (adjacent); is rumored to have explained the seasonal variations of the apparent size of the sun, and conceived of elliptical orbit heliocentrism; Kepler, Bertrand Russel, and Voltaire praised her; stoned to death.

F Greco-Roman Alexandrian
IQ 190 up.png
45.
Wavy.png
185 Bruno 75.png Giordano Bruno
(407-355 BE)
(1548-1600 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=190 3.56 52
Bruno (with match).png
(Cattell 1000:655) (RGM:128|1,350+) (PR:136|65AE / astronomer:3) (RMS:22) (FA:61) (GAE:15) (EVT:7) (TL:134|#83) Philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, and priest;
M Italian
46.
Wavy.png
185 Pascal 75.png Blaise Pascal
(332-293 BE)
(1623-1662 ACM)
IQ SS.png=235
IQ C.png=195
IQ O.png=195[18]
IQ W.png=192
4.74 39 (Cattell 1000:61) (RGM:30|1,350+) (PR:83|65AE / mathematician:2) (Murray 4000:8|M) (Gottlieb 1000:144) (Becker 160:38|5L) (Becker 139:50|6L) (Norlinger 22:5) (SIG:4) (GME:18) (GPE:57) (EPD:M3) (TL:129|#84) Physicist, mathematician, and philosopher, M French
47.
Down.png
185
Richard Feynman
(37 BE-33 AE)
(1918-1988 ACM)
IQ O.png=180+

to ceiling[22]
IQ O.png=190[23]
IQ O.png=185
IQ O.png=125[24]
IQ O.png=120[25]
Bent arrow R.png Feynman's IQ

2.68 69 (RGM:79|1,350+) (PR:1,334|65AE / physicist:32) (Becker 160:98|3L) (Simmons 100:52) (FA:191) (GPE:9) (TL:128|#86) Physicist and philosopher; M American
48.
Steady.png
185 Epicurus
(2296-2225 BE)
(341-270 BCM)
IQ GC.jpg=185 2.61 71 (RGM:108|1,350+) (PR:159|65AE / philosopher:21) (Becker 139:39|8L) (Stokes 100:11) (TL:389|#15) Physicist and philosopher, M Greek
49.
Up.png
185 Thomson 75.png William Thomson
(131-48 BE)
(1824-1907 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=185 2.23 83 (Cattell 1000:989) (RGM:619|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:111) (Becker 160:27|7L) (Kanowitz 50:19) (Cropper 30:5|T) (GPE:47) (SIG:6) (EPD:M6) (TL:433|#12) Mathematical physicist and philosopher; M Irish-born Scottish
50.
Wavy.png
185 Maupertuis 75.png Pierre Maupertuis
(257-197 BE)
(1698-1758 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=185 3.08 60 (Cattell 1000:598) (RGM:616|1,350+) (PR:5,423|65AE / mathematician:90) (SN:60) (Eells 100:59) (GPE:66) (GME:#) (EVT:9) (FA:89) (TL:35) Mathematician, physicist, philosopher, evolutionist, and radical materialist; M French
51.
Steady.png
185 Benedict Spinoza
(323-278 BE)
(1632-1677 ACM)
IQ CB.png=175
IQ C.png=175
IQ B.png=175
4.20 44 (Cattell 1000:108) (RGM:116|1,350+) (PR:210|65AE / philosopher:23) (Murray 4000:10|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:251) (Becker 139:10|16L) (Stokes 100:36) (Listal 100:18) (EPD:M6) (FA:71) (RMS:24) (GPhE:#) (CR:198) (LH:9) (TL:213|#43) Philosopher and "celebrated atheist" (Holbach, 1770); M Dutch
52.
Wavy.png
185 Percy Bridgman
(73 BE-6 AE)
(1882-1961 ACM)
IQ JP.png=180
IQ EM.png=170
2.34 79 [RGM:617|1,350+] M American
53.
Down.png
185 Thomas Edison
(108-24 BE)
(1847-1931 ACM)
IQ SS.png=240
IQ B.png=195
2.20 84 [RGM:147|1,350+] (Becker 160:19|8L) M American
54.
Up.png
185 Robert Boyle
(328-264 BE)
(1627-1691 ACM)
IQ C.png=160 2.89 64 (Cattell 1000:354) [RGM:529|1,350+] (Murray 4000:6|C) (Gottlieb 1000:142) (Becker 160:39|5L) [Kanowitz 50:41] (GPE:39) (GCE:6) (EPD:M3) [CR:178] Physicist, chemistry, and natural philosopher; M Irish
55.
Up.png
185 Nicolaus Copernicus
(482-412 BE)
(1473-1543 ACM)
IQ B.png=185

IQ CB.png=173
IQ C.png=160
IQ T.png=100-110

2.64 70
(Cattell 1000:341) (RGM:20|1,350+) (PR:30|65AE / astronomer:2) (Murray 4000:5|A) (Gottlieb 1000:18) (Becker 160:16|8L) (Stokes 100:25) (Simmons 100:10) (Kanowitz 50:15) (Norlinger 22:18) (Norlinger 22:18) (Durant 10:4) (GPE:35) (GAE:1) (EPD:F3) (TL:162|#63) Mathematician, astronomer, and physician;
“I am thoroughly frightened by what happened to our master, Copernicus. Although he won immortal fame among some persons, nevertheless among countless – for so large is the number of fools – he became a target of ridicule and derision. I would of course have the courage to make my thoughts public, if there were more people like you. But since there aren’t, I shall avoid this kind of activity.”
— Galileo (1596), “Letter to Johannes Kepler”

aka "next Ptolemy" (Reinhold, 1542);

M Polish
56.
Steady.png
185 Euclid 75.png Euclid
(2295-2135 BE)
(c.340-280 BCM)
IQ B.png=185 3.08 60 (Cardano 12:3) (RGM:13|1,350+) (Becker 160:34|5L) (Simmons 100:59) M Greek
57.
Wavy.png
185 Winiarski 75.png Leon Winiarski
(90-40 BE)
(1865-1915 ACM)
3.70 50 (RGM:712|1,350+) (SN:4) (TL:187) Mathematical physics based sociopolitical economist, aka "disciple of Walrus and Pareto" (Busino, 1967); M Polish-born Swiss
58.
Wavy.png
185 Dolloff 75.png Norman Dolloff
(48 BE-29 AE)
(1907-1984 ACM)
2.40 77 (SN:5|55+) (EvT:21|21+) (TL:53|#172) Metallurgical engineering geologist; noted for his Heat Death and the Phoenix (1975), wherein he gives the following "organism synthesis equation":
Dolloff organism synthesis equation.png

He is classified as the transition point mindset of someone grappling to switch from the entropy "order/disorder" model of everything to the "free energy" model of everything; all done in the framework of explicit atheism.

M American
59.
Up.png
Up.png
185 Shelley 75.png Percy Shelley
(163-133 BE)
(1792-1822 ACM)
IQ O.png=185+
IQ T.png=165
6.17 30 (RGM:562|1,350+) (PR:2381|65AE / writer:245) (Gottlieb 1000:509) (Nelson 19:12) (FA:119) (GA:15) (TL:129|#87) Writer, romantic poet, and philosopher; M English
60.
Wavy.png
185 Schopenhauer 75.png Arthur Schopenhauer
(167-95 BE)
(1788-1860 ACM)
IQ EM.png=170 2.57 72 (RGM:98|1,350+) (PR:143|65AE / philosopher:19) (Murray 4000:13|WP) (Becker 139:21|12L) (Stokes 100:49) (SN:15) (FA:93) (GA:10) (GPhE:#) (TL:263) Philosopher; M German
61.
Wavy.png
185 Isaac Beeckman
(367-318 BE)
(1588-1637 ACM)
3.78 49 (PR:23,344|65AE / mathematician:321) (GPE:43) (GPhE:75) (TL:14) Physicist, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, physician, meteorologist, characterized: “gifted but overly modest” (Truesdell, 1960), noted for being an early matter and motion theorist, and for being the first to arrive at the concept of atmospheric pressure (1614). M Dutch
62.
Down.png
185 Desiderius Erasmus
(489-418 BE)
(1466-1537 ACM)
IQ C.png=180

IQ CB.png=178
IQ B.png=175

2.68 69 (Cattell 1000:56) (RGM:82|1,350+) (PR:202|65AE / philosopher:24) Becker 139:114|3L) (Gottlieb 1000:97) (Stokes 100:27) (Listal 100:52) (RMS:18) (TL:40) Philosopher and theologian, aka “prince of the humanists”; M Dutch
63.
Steady.png
185 Hero 75.png Hero
(1945-1885 BE)
(c.10-70 ACM)
3.08 60 [RGM:379|1,350+] M Greek
64.
Wavy.png
185 Alan Turing
(43-1 BE)
(1912-1954 ACM)
IQ O.png=190[26]IQ O.png=180[26] 4.40 42 [RGM:12|1,350+] (Becker 160:97|3L) (Stokes 100:96) M English
65.
Down.png
185 Friedrich Schiller
(196-150 BE)
(1759-1805 ACM)
IQ C.png=165 4.02 46 (Cattell 1000:75) (RGM:37|1,350+) (PR:396|65AE / writer:52) (Stokes 100:46) (TL:156|#63) Poet philosopher and writer; M German
66.
Wavy.png
185 Humphry Davy
(177-126 BE)
(1778-1829 ACM)
IQ C.png=165 3.63 51 [RGM:530|1,350+] (Becker 160:114|3L) (Nelson 19:16) M English
67.
Steady.png
185 Sales 75.png Jean Sales
(214-139 BE)
(1741-1816 ACM)
2.47 75 [RGM:670|1,350+] M French
68.
Steady.png
185 Gerald Massey
(127-48 BE)
(1828-1907 ACM)
2.34 79
Massey and Horus.jpg
(RMS:81) (CR:105) (LH:9) (TL:119|#102) Egyptologist, archeologist, religio-mythology scholar, and free thinker,
M English
69.
Steady.png
185 John Mill
(149-82 BE)
(1806-1873 ACM)
IQ O.png=200[9]
IQ EM.png=190
IQ B.png=185

IQ CB.png=183
IQ C.png=18

2.80 66 (Cattell 1000:180) (RGM:149|1,350+) (PR:650|65AE / economist:5) (Gottlieb 1000:81) Becker 139:16|14L) (Choueiri 115:5) (Stokes 100:54) (Listal 100:32) (Perry 80:#) (Norlinger 22:4) (FA:151) (GPhE:#) (GEcE:#) (TL:119|#100) Political economist and moral philosopher; M English
70.
Steady.png
185 Freud 75.png Sigmund Freud
(99-16 BE)
(1856-1939 ACM)
IQ JP.png=180
IQ O.png=156[10]
2.23 83
Freudian model.png
(RGM:131|1,350+) (PR:27|65AE / psychologist:1) (Murray 4000:18|M) (Gottlieb 1000:15) (Becker 160:43|5L) (Becker 139:119|3L) (Stokes 100:66) (Simmons 100:6) (Bloom 100:19) (Scott 50:11) (FET:2) (FA:159) (GA:13) (RMS:75) (GPhE:32) (GSE:#) (TL:320|#21) Psychologist, psychoanalyst, and philosopher; noted for his Project for Scientific Psychology (1895), wherein he attempted to represent psychical processes as a quantitatively determinate state of specifiable "material particles", based on “bound energy” (entropic energy) and “unbound energy” (free energy).
M Austrian
71.
Up.png
185 Lotka 75.png Alfred Lotka
(75-6 BE)
(1880-1949 ACM)
2.68 69 [RGM:627|1,350+] M Austrian-born American
72.
Wavy.png
185 Comte 75.png Auguste Comte
(157-98 BE)
(1798-1857 ACM)
IQ C.png=185 3.19 59 (Cattell 1000:95) (RGM:890|1,350+) (PR:381|65AE / philosopher:35) (Gottlieb 1000:130) (Becker 139:45|7L) (Stokes 100:55) (Scott 50:5) (FA:130) (TL:118|#101) Sociologist, philosopher, and natural scientist, M French
73.
Steady.png
185 No image 2.png Ctesibius
(2240-2177 BE)
(c.285-222 BCM)
2.94 63 [RGM:631|1,350+] M Greek
74.
Wavy.png
185 Thomas Hobbes
(367-276 BE)
(1588-1679 ACM)
IQ C.png=165 2.03 91 (Cattell 1000:63) (RGM:134|1,350+) (PR:149|65AE / philosopher:20) (Murray 4000:16|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:151) (Becker 139:5|17L) (Stokes 100:31) (Perry 80:9) (FA:58) (GA:30) (RMS:18) (GPhE:14) (TL:185|#52) Mechanical philosopher, social physicist, political theorist, and psychologist; M English
75.
Down.png
185 Kant 75.png Immanuel Kant
(231-151 BE)
(1724-1804 ACM)
IQ O.png=250+[7]
IQ C.png=175
2.34 79 (Cattell 1000:33) (RGM:51|1,535+) (PR:39|65AE / philosopher:6) (Murray 4000:3|WP) (Becker 139:4|18L) (Stokes 100:45) (Perry 80:5|Li) (Durant 10:9) (RMS:21) (GPhE:#) (TL:225|#36) Philosopher, M German
76.
Wavy.png
185 William Gilbert
(411-352 BE)
(1544-1603 ACM)
3.14 59 (RGM:641|1,350+) (PR:2,085|65AE / physicist:49) (Murray 4000:18|P) (Becker 160:77|3L) (CR:34) (LH:3) (TL:37) Chemist-physicist, astronomer, and physician; M English
77.
Steady.png
185 Roger Boscovich
(244-168 BE)
(1711-1787 ACM)
2.47 75 (RGM:664|1,350+) (Eells 100:44) (TL:23) Mathematical physicist, astronomer, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, and general polymath, aka the “Croatian Leibniz” (Heisenberg, c.1930), noted for his 1758 Theory of Natural Philosophy, in which he outlined a stationary point atom theory, viewing atoms a centers of force. M Croatian
78.
Down.png

Down.png

185 Emanuel Swedenborg
(267-183 BE)
(1688-1772 ACM)
IQ G.png=210[9]
IQ O.png=205[27]
IQ C.png=165
2.20 84 [RGM:137|1,350+] (Norlinger 22:2) M Swedish
79.
Up.png

Up.png

Up.png

185 Heraclitus
(2490-2405 BE)
(c.535-450 BCM)
2.18 85 (RGM:260|1,350+) (Becker 139:41|7L) (Stokes 100:4) (Listal 100:91) (CR:132) (LH:13) (TL:145|#69) Physicist and philosopher, noted for his "flux and fire" model of change in respect to things. M Greek
80.
Down.png

Down.png

185 Hugo Grotius
(372-310 BE)
(1583-1645 ACM)
IQ C.png=200
IQ W.png=197
2.98 62 (Cattell 1000:125) (RGM:208|1,350+) (PR:753|65AE / lawyer:1) (Washington 23|#) (TL:25) Jurist, lawyer, international relations theorist, and religio-mythology code breaker, M Dutch
82.
Wavy.png

Down.png

185 Majorana 75.png Ettore Majorana
(49-17 BE)
(1906-1938 ACM)
5.78 32 [RGM:349|1,350+] M Italian
83.
Down.png
185 Friedrich Schelling
(180-101 BE)
(1775-1854 ACM)
IQ C.png=190 2.34 79 [RGM:208|1,350+] (Becker 139:117|3L) (Stokes 100:47) M German
84.
Wavy.png
185 D'Alembert 75.png Jean Alembert
(238-172 BE)
(1717-1783 ACM)
IQ C.png=185 2.85 65 (Cattell 1000:124) (RGM:88|1,350+) (PR:999|65AE / mathematician :20) (EPD:F12) (GME:26) (GPE:71) (CR:35) (LH:6) (TL:41) Physicist, mathematician, and encyclopedist; M French
IQ 185 up.png
85.
Up.png
180 Pythagoras
(2525-2445 BE)
(c.570-490 BCM)
2.25 80 (Cattell 1000:89) (RGM:7|1,350+) (PR:100|65AE / Philosophers:15) (Becker 160:50|4L) (Becker 139:78|4L) (Stokes 100:2) (GME:11) (ACR:6) (CR:119) (LH:3) (TL:121|#86) Mathematician and philosopher; M Greek
86.
Up.png

Up.png

180 Lucretius 75.png Lucretius
(2054-2010 BE)
(99-55 BCM)
IQ GC.jpg=180 4.09 44 (Cattell 1000:209) (RGM:612|1,350+) (PR:708|65AE / philosopher:55) (Becker 139:106|3L) (Simmons 100:73) (Hugo 14:6) (EVT:6) (TL:291) M Greek
87.
Steady.png
180 Rankine 75.png William Rankine
(135-83 BE)
(1820-1872 ACM)
3.46 52 (RGM:679|1,350+] (FET:2) (PR:7,322|65AE / engineer:28) (TL:122|#98) Engineer, physicist, mathematician, and philosopher; M Scottish
88.
Wavy.png
180 Niels Bohr
(70 BE-7 AE)
(1885-1962 ACM)
2.34 77
Bohr model (1913).png
(RGM:32|1,350+) (PR:327|65AE / physicist:9) (Murray 4000:7|P) (Gottlieb 1000:208) (Becker 160:11|11L) (Simmons 100:3) (CR:100) (LH:6) (TL:106) Physicist; noted for his 1913 Bohr model of the atom, wherein electrons move in specific "orbits", able to jump up or down, via photon absorption or emission, respectively; first-slating: IQ:175-185 (c.2016); downgrade ↓ from 185|#77 to 180|#90 following digestion of his Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge (1958) lectures, wherein he attempts to defend, in a puerile middle ground sense, the concepts of life, free will, and teleological like purpose, via recourse to uncertainty principle arguments (Oct 2018).
M Danish
89.
Down.png
180 Werner Heisenberg
(54 BE-21 AE)
(1901-1976 ACM)
IQ B.png=173 2.43 74 [RGM:36|1,350+] (Becker 160:46|5L) (Simmons 100:15) M German
90.
Steady.png
180 Charles Darwin
(146-73 BE)
(1809-1882 ACM)
IQ JP.png=180
IQ CPBT.png=175
IQ CPB.png=173
IQ B.png=173
IQ CB.png=169
IQ C.png=165

IQ W.png=160

2.47 73
Darwin model.png
(RGM:44|1,350+) (PR:36|65AE / biologist:1) (Becker 160:7|14L) (Stokes 100:56) (Simmons 100:4) (Norlinger 22:15) (Durant 10:10) (EPD:M8) (RGA:5|370+) (EVT:15) (TL:559|#7) Naturalist and philosopher, noted for his 1859 Origin of Species (AB:7), wherein, in opposition to creation model origin of humans, he argued, via evidence, that all species have "evolved" over time; later arguing (1871) that "life" itself originated in a lighted warm pond, made of water (H20), ammonia (NH3), and phosphoric salts (H3PO4), that was sparked by electricity or lightening.
M English
91.
Steady.png
180 Kepler 75.png Johannes Kepler
(384-325 BE)
(1571-1630 ACM)
IQ C.png=175 3.10 58 (Cattell 1000:157) (RGM:36|1,350+) (PR:349|65AE / astronomer:5) (Murray 4000:4|CS / 2|A) (Becker 160:25|7L) (Simmons 100:9) (GAE:4) (TL:121|#97) Astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher, M German
92.
Up.png

Up.png
Up.png

180 Thales
(2579-2501 BE)
(c.624-546 BCM)
2.31 78 (RGM:14|1,350+) (Cattell 1000:914) (PR:215|65AE / philosopher:25) (Becker 139:96|3L) (Stokes 100:1) (EvT:1|21+) (ACR:23) (GPhE:#) (GME:#) (FA:2) (TL:119|#115) Mathematician, philosopher, and astronomer; M Greek
93.
Up.png
180 Charles Sherrington
(98-3 BE)
(1857-1952 ACM)
1.91 94 [RGM:733|1,350+] (Simmons 100:66) (HFET:7) (TL:138|#70) Physiologist, neurologist, and philosopher; M English
94.
Up.png
180 Antoine Lavoisier
(212-161 BE)
(1743-1794 ACM)
IQ C.png=170 3.60 50 (Cattell 1000:393) [RGM:160|1,350+] (Murray 4000:5|CS / 1|C) (Gottlieb 1000:67) (Becker 160:17) (Simmons 100:8) (Partington 50:5) (EPD:M5) (GCE:2) (TL:179) Physical chemist; M French
95.
Steady.png
180 Niccolo Machiavelli
(486-428 BE)
(1469-1527 ACM)
IQ B.png=165 3.10 58
Machiavelli (The Prince).png
(Cattell 1000:83) (RGM:68|1,350+) (PR:73|65AE / philosopher:11) (Gottlieb 1000:40) (Becker 139:29|10L) (Stokes 100:25) (Listal 100:48) (GPhE:#) (TL:56) Realism philosopher, historian, politician, and diplomat, best known for his 1513 leadership advice book The Prince, political ethics discourse, advocating the "end justifies the means" philosophy; and for his fox and lions typology of human instincts.
M Italian
96.
Wavy.png
180 Mehdi Bazargan 75.png Mehdi Bazargan
(48 BE-40 AE)
(1907-1995 ACM)
2.05 88 (SN:14) (CR:80) Mechanical engineer, thermodynamicist, philosopher and 75th prime minister of Iran (1979);
“There is no denying that the ‘heat of love’, puts many obstacles in its path. It melts it, and it creates a wonderful ‘buzz’ in its owner. Literary and artistic masterpieces and how many military conquest and political successes below the ‘flames of love’ have been achieved.”
— Mehdi Bazargan (1956), Thermodynamics of Humans (pg. 9)

Noted for his 1956 treatise Thermodynamics of Humans, written during a five-month prison spell (see: genius hiatus effect), for political opposition, in which he attempted to explain the work ethic of the individual in the context of the Islamic teachings and the view that systems, physical or social, evolve towards equilibrium as quantified by a minimum of free energy; first-slating: #95 (Nov 2020).

M Iranian
97.
Steady.png
180 Faraday 75.png Michael Faraday
(164-88 BE)
(1791-1867 ACM)
IQ SS.png=230
IQ B.png=180

IQ CB.png=175
IQ C.png=170

2.40 75
Induction ring (Farada, 1831).png
(Cattell 1000:330) (RGM:18|1,350+) (PR:165|65AE / physicist:5) (Murray 4000: 7|CS / 17|T) (Gottlieb 1000:119) (Becker 160:6|14L) (Simmons 100:11) (Cropper 30:1|EM) (SIG:7) (GPE:11) (TL:125|#89) Physicist, chemist, and philosopher, adjacent is a sketch of his "induction ring" (1831).
M English
98.
Steady.png
180 Roger Bacon
(741-661 BE)
(1214-1294 ACM)
2.25 80 [RGM:537|1,350+] (Nelson 19:1) M English
99.
Wavy.png
180 Plato
(2378-2303 BE)
(c.423-348 BCM)
IQ SS.png=225
IQ B.png=180
2.40 75 (Cattell 1000:10) (RGM:16|1,350+) (PR:11|65AE / philosopher:2) (Murray 4000:2|WP) (Becker 139:1|19L) (Stokes 100:8) (Perry 80:1|Li) (Norlinger 22:25) (Durant 10:2) (ACR:1) (GPhE:2) (TL:313|#20) Philosopher; M Greek
100.
Down.png

Down.png

180 John Strutt
(113-36 BE)

(1842-1919 ACM)

2.37 76 [RGM:684|1,350+] M English
101.
Wavy.png

Down.png

180 Stephen Hawking
(13 BE-64 AE)
(1942-2018 ACM)
IQ O.png=280[28]IQ MT.png=200-250[29]
IQ SS.png=205

IQ B.png=180
IQ O.png=169[10]
IQ O.png=160
Bent arrow R.png Hawking's IQ

2.37 76 [RGM:65|1,350+] (Becker 160:12|11L) (Simmons 100:54) (Norlinger 22:29) (CR:144) (LH:4) Astrophysicist; noted for his 1965 PhD thesis, stimulated by research of mathematician Rodger Penrose, and based on Albert Einstein’s 1914 general theory of relativity, which argued that if a star can collapse inwards to form a singularity, coined a “black hole” in 1967 by American physicist John Wheeler, then so to can a singularity explode back outward; thus giving an explanation for the big bang. Hawking is also noted for his 1996 Illustrated: A Brief History of Time, wherein he gives an "entropy of mind" diagram, which he says changes in respect to doing things such as reading a book. Hawking is a key figure in the development of the subject of black hole thermodynamics; and later came out as advocating atheism. M English
102.
Steady.png
180 Strato
(c.335-269 BCM)
2.73 66 M Greek
103.
Up.png
180 Henderson 75.png Lawrence Henderson
(77-13 BE)
(1878-1942 ACM)
2.86 63
(SN:8) (EvT:19|21+) (TL:271|#30) Physiologist, physico-chemical sociologist, and anti-chance philosopher;
“Matter and energy have an original property, assuredly not by chance, which organizes the universe in space and time.”
— Lawrence Henderson (1913), The Fitness of the Environment

Ran the Harvard Pareto circle; used a synthesis of Willard Gibbs and Vilfredo Pareto for his pioneering "Sociology 23" course, wherein he employed a "box-spring model" of individuals, bound in a society, pictured, to usurp "causality" with "change of state"; the last great theory of all thing theorists or thing philosophers (following Henry Adams).

M American
104.
Steady.png
180 Cicero
(2061-1998 BE)
(106-43 BCM)
2.86 63 (Cardano 12:53) (Cattell 1000:15) (RGM:101|1,350+) (PR:119|65AE / politician:25) (Becker 139:105|3L) (Stokes 100:13) (GPhE:#) (TL:215|#42) Politician and philosopher; upgraded ↑ to 180|#103 (c.2019) from initial slating of 175|#194 (Dec, 2017). M Roman
105.
Steady.png
180 Tolstoy 75.png Leo Tolstoy
(127-45 BE)
(1828-1910 ACM)
IQ O.png=185[30] 2.20 82 (RGM:75|1,350+) (EPD:M2F9) M Russian
106.
Steady.png
180 Bertrand Russell
(83 BE-15 AE)
(1872-1970 ACM)
IQ O.png=180+
IQ JP.png=180
IQ AE.png=180
IQ PP.png=147
1.86 97 (RGM:100|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:593) (Murray 4000:17|WP) (Becker 139:23) (Listal 100:24) (Stokes 100:77) (EPD:M2F4) (HD:51) (FA:117) (GAE:21) (RGA:10|370+) (GPhE:#) (TL:174) M English
107.
Steady.png
180 Napoleon Bonaparte
(186-134 BE)
(1769-1821 ACM)
IQ U.png=186

IQ B.png=180

IQ CB.png=163
IQ C.png=145
IQ W.png=142

3.46 52 (Cattell 1000:1) [RGM:154|1,350+] (EPD:F15) (HD:20) (FA:67) (CR:163) (LH:4) (TL:167) M French
108.
Steady.png
180 Alexander Pope
(267-211 BE)
(1688-1744 ACM)
IQ C.png=180 3.21 56 (Cattell 1000:82) (PR:4,299|65AE / writer:434) (Choueiri 115:32) (TL:46) Philosopher, poet, classics scholar, and quote-smith, M English
109.
Up.png
180 Lorentz 75.png Hendrik Lorentz
(102-27 BE)
(1853-1928 ACM)
2.43 74 [RGM:597|1,350+] M Dutch
110.
Wavy.png
180 Buchner 75.png Ludwig Buchner
(131-56 BE)
(1824-1899 ACM)
2.40 75 (PR:#|65AE / philosopher:514) (SN:11) (FA:110) (GA:6) (TL:144|#71) Philosopher, physicist, physician, and pathologist; noted his Force and Matter (1855) (AB:2|5+), wherein he attempted to upgrade "matter and motion" models; first-slated 190|#40 (Mar 2017); down-graded to 180|#110 after absorbing his Force and Matter (Jul 2018). M German
111.
Up.png
180 Edwin Wilson 75.png Edwin Wilson
(76 BE-9 AE)
(1879-1964 ACM)
2.12 85 (SN:9) (CR:71) Mathematician, physical economist, and general "polymath" (Weintraub, 1991), whose interests spanned mathematics, physics, statistics, economics, astronomy, and biology; sole protege of Gibbs; taught a physical chemistry based "mathematical economics" course at Harvard (1934 to 1940); Samuelson to use Gibbs "equation 133":
Equation 133.png

to model economic stability; first-slating: 180|#110 (Nov 2020).

M American
112.
Steady.png
180 Hume 75.png David Hume
(244-179 BE)
(1711-1776 ACM)
IQ C.png=180 2.77 65 (RGM:112|1,350+) (PR:315|65AE / philosopher:31) (Murray 4000:4|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:185) (SN:49) (Becker 139:7|17L) (Stokes 100:39) (EPD:F2) (GMG:7) (GPhE:#) (GEcE:#) (TL:104) Philosopher, aka “Newton of moral sciences” (Foley, 1990); M Scottish
113.
Steady.png
180 Heraclides
(387-312BC)
2.40 75
Rotating earth.gif
Philosopher and astronomer; proposed that the earth rotates on its axis (compare: Ecphantus (c.500BC)); posited that the soul was light; did battle with Aristotle, supposedly, on the question whether the universe is finite or infinite; and is rumored, according to Simplicius (c.590AD), to have formulated heliocentrism (or at least the precursor model to what Aristarchus (c.240BC) (IQ:175|#244) put into book form); first draft slated at 180|#115, a grade above Aristarchus.
M Greek
114.
Up.png
180 William Hamilton

(1805-1865)

(Becker 160:118|3L) (GME:27) [CR:61] Mathematical physicist; noted for his 1834 On a General Method in Dynamics, wherein develops a “characteristic function” or “force function”, later employed by Clausius in his “Mathematical Introduction” to his On the Mechanical Theory of Heat; eponym of the Hamiltonian (compare: Lagrangian and Gibbsian); not to be confused with the metaphysical philosopher William Hamilton (IQ:170|#388); 112-candidate; first-slating:#114 (Nov 2020). M Irish
115.
Steady.png
180 Jeremy Bentham
(1748-1832)
IQ C.png=180 2.14 84 [RGM:727|1,350+] (Becker 139:33|9L) (Stokes 100:53) M English
116.
Steady.png
180 John Milton
(1608-1674)
IQ C.png=180

IQ CB.png=177
IQ B.png=173

2.77 65 [RGM:254|1,350+] M English
117.
Wavy.png
180 Bernhard Riemann
(1826-1866)
4.62 39 [RGM:201|1,350+] (Becker 160:125|3L) M German
118.
Steady.png
180 Michelangelo
(1475-1564)
IQ C.png=180

IQ CB.png=178
IQ B.png=175

2.05 88 [RGM:15|1,350+] M Italian
119.
Steady.png
180 Anaximander
(2565-2519 BE)
(c.610-564BC BCM)
3.91 46 (RGM:368|1,350+) (PR:768|65AE / philosopher:58) (FA:2) (EvT:2|21+) (ACR:24) (GPhE:#) (TL:53) Philosopher, M Greek
120.
Steady.png
180 Planck 75.png Max Planck
(97-8 BE)
(1858-1947 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=190 2.13 89 (RGM:23|1,350+) (Gottlieb 1000:25) (Becker 160:20|8L) (Simmons 100:25) (Odueny 100:15) (Kanowitz 50:8) (GPE:17) (PR:265|65AE / physicist:7) (TL:267|31) Physicist; downgrade from 190|#39 to 180#120 after researching on his Planck entropy model (May 66AE). M German
120.
Wavy.png
180 Emilie Chatelet
(249-206 BE)
(1706-1749 ACM)
4.18 43 (RGM:783|1,350+) (PR:3,909|65AE / mathematician:70) (TL:21) Mathematician and physicist; F French
121.
Wavy.png
180 Curie 75.png Marie Curie
(88-21 BE)
(1867-1934 ACM)
IQ SS.png=205
IQ O.png=200[9]
IQ B.png=180
2.73 66 [RGM:17|1,350+] (Becker 160:4|17L) (Simmons 100:26) (Norlinger 22:28) (EPD:M10) F Polish-born French
122.
Steady.png
180 Albertus Magnus
(750-675 BE)
(1205-1280 ACM)
2.40 75 (PR:1,084|65AE / religious figure:114) (Cattell 1000:601) (Gottlieb 1000:726) (Partington 50:40) (GCE:32) (TL:32) Philosopher, chemist, and theologian; M German
123.
Wavy.png
180 Teilhard 75.png Pierre Teilhard
(74 BE-0 AE)
(1881-1955 ACM)
2.47 73 (PR:3,455|65AE / philosopher:189) (Gottlieb 1000:809) (TL:163|#61) Jesuit philosopher, priest, chemist, physicist, and archeologist; M French
124.
Steady.png
180 Fyodor Dostoyevsky
(134-74 BE)
(1821-1881 ACM)
IQ SS.png=215 3.05 59 [RGM:49|1,350+] (EPD:M15) M Russian
125.
Up.png
180 Marcus Aurelius
(1834-1775 BE)
(121-180 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=180 3.10 58 (PR:157|65AE / politician:#) (Cattell 1000:50) (RGM:81|1,350+) (Becker 139:42) Stokes 100:16) (Listal 100:85) (Perry 80:4|Li) (FA:24) (EPD:F3) (GPhE:#) (TL:38), aka "Antoninus" (Holbach, 1770) Emperor, politician, philosopher; noted for his Mediations (167AD), characterized as the "gospel of those who do not believe in the supernatural" (Zimmern, 1887), wherein he extols on a common sense practical Heraclitus-Zeno stylized stoicism; first slating: 180|#115 (2016). M Roman
126.
Steady.png
180 Karl Marx
(137-72 BE)
(1818-1883 ACM)
IQ O.png=140-160[31] 2.81 64 (RGM:359|1,350+) (PR:37|65AE / economist:1) (Gottlieb 1000:14) (Scott 50:23) (FA:120) (Becker 139:12|15L) (Stokes 100:63) (CR:207) (LH:2) (TL:209|#43) Economist, sociopolitical theorist, and philosopher; M German
127.
Steady.png
180 Leucippus 75.png Leucippus
(2455-2390 BE)
(c.500-435 BCM)
IQ GC.jpg=180 2.77 65
Atomic philosophy icon.png
(PR:2,163|65AE / philosopher:135) (GCE:10) (ACR:18) (GPhE:#) (TL:221|#38) Physicist and philosopher, known as originator of atomic theory; first-slating: 180|#124 as above Parmenides, but below Epicurus and Democritus (Oct 2018).
M Greek
128.
Wavy.png
180 Parmenides 75.png Parmenides
(2465-2405 BE)
(510-450 BCM)
2.58 70
Parmenides (no void).png
(RGM:330|1,350+) (PR:481|65AE / philosopher:42) (Becker 139:38|8L) (Stokes 100:5) (GPhE:7) (ACR:11) (TL:140|#78) Philosopher; his “On Nature” (c.485BC) argued that "being" was unbegotten and indestructible, and therefore a "void" (or vacuum) did not not exist; this logic became, via Aristotle, the "nature abhors a vacuum" idiom; a conjecture that took two-millennia to disprove, done by Galileo (c.1630), Torricelli (1644), and Guericke (c.1645).
M Greek
129.
Wavy.png
180 Paolo Sarpi
(1552-1623)
IQ C.png=195
IQ W.png=187
2.54 71 M Italian
130.
Steady.png
180 Fritz Haber
(87-21 BE)
(1868-1934 ACM)
2.77 65
Haber process.png
(:92) (GCE:30) (EPD:M3W) (CR:62) Physical chemist;

"Haber’s Thermodynamics of Technical Gas Phase Reactions [1905] is the most important contribution to the subject of predicting the course of a chemical reaction from a few characteristic constants of the reacting substances, after the ill-starred attempt of Berthelot.”

— Arthur Lamb (1907), “Translators Preface”

Noted for his 1905 Thermodynamics of Technical Gas Phase Reactions, wherein he pioneered some of the precursory work to free energy tables; for his 1907 achievement of ammonia synthesis, which provided a long-sought fertilizer component for crops.

M German
131.
Wavy.png
180 Avicenna
(980-1037)
3.16 57 [RGM:159|1,350+] (Becker 160:31|6L) (Becker 139:31|9L) (Norlinger 22:33) M Persian
132.
Wavy.png
180 Oliver Heaviside
(1850-1925)
2.43 74 M English
133.
Down.png
180 Arthur Doyle
(1859-1930)
IQ B.png=182 2.61 69 [RGM:581|1,350+] M English
134.
Wavy.png
180 No image 2.png Anaxagoras
(2455-2383 BE)
(500-428 BCM)
2.50 72
Anaxagoras sun model.jpg
(Cattell 1000:703) (ACR:4) (FA:7) (EvT:4|21+) (CR:51) Philosopher, physicist, astronomer; teacher of [[Socrates]]; held the view, based on the examination of fallen meteors, that the sun was NOT a "god", but rather a hot or fiery stone (was imprisoned for this); moon light was reflected sunlight; postulated the existence of the element “aether”, which he conceived of as being in constant rotation and carried with it the celestial bodies; added at 180|#131 (c.2018).
M Greek
135.
Wavy.png
180 Augustine
(354-430)
IQ O.png=180[32] 2.40 75 [RGM:251|1,350+] (Becker 139:15|14L) (Stokes 100:19) (AT:1|D) M Roman
136.
Steady.png
180 Byron 75.png George Byron
(167-131 BE)
(1788-1824 ACM)
IQ C.png=180 5.00 36
Byron (go mad).png
(Cattell 1000:30) (RGM:1,037|,1350+) (PR:500|65AE / writer:63) (Murray 4000:9|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:385) (Choueiri 115:36) (GF:11) (TL:35) Writer, poet, and philosopher;
M English
137.
Steady.png
180 Alexander Bell
(1847-1922)
IQ B.png=180 2.40 75 [RGM:45|1,350+] (Becker 160:54|4L) M Scottish-born Canadian
138.
Up.png
180 Michel Montaigne
(422-363 BE)
(1533-1592 ACM)
IQ C.png=165 3.05 59 (Cattell 1000:171) (RGM:145|1,350+) (PR:423|65AE / philosopher:39) (Gottlieb 1000:432) (FA:58) (GPhE:#) (TL:83|#131) Philosopher; M French
139.
Steady.png
180 Harvey 75.png William Harvey
(1578-1657)
IQ C.png=180 2.28 79
Heart models.jpg
(Cattell 1000:227) [RGM:540|1,350+] (Murray 4000:7|B) (Becker 160:52|4L) (Simmons 100:38) (Hart 100:49) (Glenn 20:4) (CR:22) Physician;
“Whatever the power be that creates such an animal out of an egg, that it is either the soul, or part of the soul, or something having a soul, or something existing previous to, and more excellent than the soul, operating with intelligence and foresight.”
— William Harvey (c.1630), commentary on the source of the chick embryo

Overthrew the previous “open-ended” blood circulation models of Erasistratus, Galen, and Colombo, with a “closed-circulatory” system. (Ѻ); speculated on soul as "power" that makes an animal out of an egg; speculated on the origin of life.

M English
140.
Down.png
180 Rossini 75.png Frederick Rossini (56 BE-35 AE)
(1899-1990 ACM)
IQ GC.jpg=180 1.98 91 (SN:7) (TL:177) Physical chemist, chemical engineer, and chemical thermodynamicist; M American
141.
Up.png
180 Paine 75.png Thomas Paine
(218-146 BE)
(1737-1809 ACM)
2.50 72 (Cattell 1000:583) [RGM:220|1,350+] (Becker 139:91|4L) (Stokes 100:52) (RMS:24) (HD:15) (FA:44) (GA:28) (AFF:6) (CR:105) Political activist, philosopher, irreligionist, free thinker, and revolutionist;
“I can still remember the flash of enlightenment that shone from its pages.”
— Thomas Edison (c.1915), reflection on Paine’s [1794] Age of Reason

His The Age of Reason (1794), is the most-widely cited “atheist’s bible”, historically; his is Common Sense (1776) pamphlet, selling some 500,000 copies in the mid 1770s, became the "biggest seller per capita in American publishing history and almost single-handedly sparked the [American] revolution" (Smith, 2013); inspiration behind the BCM/ACM dating system (1802); George Washington carried his books into battle; befriended by: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe; first-slated at 175|#225 (May 2017); upgraded to #139 per Edison genius recognizes genius quote (Jun 2017).

M English-born American
142.
Wavy.png
180 Carey 75.png Henry Carey
(162-76 BE)
(1793-1879 ACM)
2.09 86 (SN:10) (TL:107) Physical science based sociologist and economist;
“The laws which govern matter in all its forms, whether that of coal, clay, iron, pebble stones, trees, oxen, horses, or men, are the same; man is the molecule of society; and social interaction operates under the great law of molecular gravitation.”
— Henry Carey (1858), The Principles of Social Science (pg. 62); cited by Pitirim Sorokin (1928) in Contemporary Sociological Theories (pg. 13)

known as the ‘Newton of social science’ (see: social Newton), noted for his three-volume 1858 The Principles of Social Science, wherein he uses of physics and chemistry in sociological theory, e.g. his ‘law of molecular gravitation’ which he says accounts the aggregation of people in larger cities, among numerous other theories, e.g. "friction" resulting from the "rubbing together of human molecules"; first-slating: 180|#149 (Nov 2020).

M American
143.
Steady.png
180 Fourier 75.png Joseph Fourier
(1768-1830)
2.90 62 (Becker 160:112|3L) M French
144.
Wavy.png
180 Cusa 75.png Nicholas of Cusa
(1401-1464)
2.86 63 [RGM:394|1,350+] M German
145.
Down.png
180 Green 75.png George Green
(1793-1841)
3.67 49 M English
146.
Steady.png
180 Ampere 75.png Andre Ampere
(180-119 BE)
(1775-1836 ACM)
2.95 61
Amps.gif
(Cattell 1000:557) (RGM:244|1,350+) (SIG:8) (Becker 160:58|4L) [Kanowitz 50:32] (Eells 100:93) (GPE:54) (SIG:6) (CR:15) Physicist and mathematician;
“The experimental investigations by which Ampere established the laws of mechanical action between electric currents is one of the most brilliant achievements in science. The whole, theory and experiment, seems as if it had leaped, full grown and full armed, from the brain of the ‘Newton of electricity’. It is perfect in form, and unassailable in accuracy, and it is summed up in a formula from which all the phenomena may be deduced, and which must always remain the cardinal formula of electro-dynamics.”
— James Maxwell (1873), Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Volume 2

Dubbed the “father of electrodynamics” (Heaviside, 1888); founder of electrodynamics, the study of currents and dynamical movements; a “tortured genius” who had the phrase “Tandem felix” (“Happy, at last”) engraved on his tombstone; gauged at 180-190 (c.2015).

M French
147.
Steady.png
180 Dalton 75.png John Dalton
(189-111 BE)
(1766-1844 ACM)
2.34 77
Dalton ball and stick atoms.png
(RGM:234|1,350+) (PR:478|65AE / chemist:5) (Murray 4000:7|C) (Gottlieb 1000:248) (Becker 160:15|9L) (Simmons 100:74) (Simmons 100:74) (Hart 100:26) (Partington 50:14) (GCE:19) (CR:29) (LH:2) (TL:31) was an English chemist; noted for his work on atomic theory, and the determination of the relative sizes of atoms, with respect to hydrogen.
M English
148.
Down.png
180 Berkeley 75.png George Berkeley
(1685-1753)
IQ C.png=190 2.69 67 [RGM:225|1,350+] (Becker 139:30|10L) (Stokes 100:44) M Irish-born English
149.
Steady.png
180 Pavlov 75.png Ivan Pavlov
(1849-1936)
IQ B.png=180 2.09 86 [RGM:182|1,350+] (Becker 160:127|3L) M Russian
150. 180 No image 2.png Francois Massieu
(123-59 BE)
(1832-1896 ACM)
63
Characteristic function notation table 2.jpg
(EPD:F0) (CR:26) Mining engineer, mineralogist, geologist, and mathematical physicist; noted for his 1869 "On the Characteristic Functions of Various Fluids", which was the first systematic discourse on “thermodynamic potentials” (Ѻ) applied to bodies, specifically fluid bodies; some characterize his "Massieu function" as the Legendre transform of entropy; influential to Willard Gibbs, who adopted his Greek letter nomenclature for defining the various thermodynamic functions, as show in the pictured characteristic function notation table.[33]; first-slate: 180|#150 (Dec 2020).
M French
151.
Steady.png
180 Madison 75.png James Madison
(1751-1836)
IQ C.png=160

IQ S.png=160

2.12 85 [RGM:465|1,350+] M American
152.
Wavy.png
180 Robert Burton 75.png Robert Burton

(1577-1640)

(CR:19) Scholar and philosopher;
“As amber attracts a straw, so does beauty admiration, which only lasts while the warmth continues. But virtue, wisdom, goodness, and real worth, like the loadstone, never lose their power.”
— Robert Burton (1621), The Anatomy of Melancholy (pg. 201)

noted for his The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), wherein he impressively employs electricity (amber), magnetism (loadstone), and heat (warmth) logic to explain love and beauty; hung himself in the same room that Robert Hooke later stayed in as a student; influential to Henry Finck and also Goethe, possibly; 112-candidate; first-slating:#150 (Nov 2020).

M English
153.
Steady.png
180 Rousseau 75.png Jean Rousseau
(243-177 BE)
(1712-1778 ACM)
IQ C.png=150 2.73 66 (Cattell 1000:43) (RGM:118|1,350+) (PR:57|65AE / philosopher:9) (Murray 4000:18|WP / 6|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:19) Becker 139:10|16L) (Choueiri 115:90) (Stokes 100:42) (Listal 100:25) (EPD:M9D) (TL:57) Genevan philosopher, writer, and social theorist; M Genevan
154.
Steady.png
180 No image 2.png Johannes Widmann

(c.1460-1498)

Widmann + and - signs.png
Mathematician; noted for his 1489 Mercantile Arithmetic, wherein the “+” and “-“ symbols first appeared in print, albeit, referred to the symbols − and + as minus and mer (Modern German mehr; "more"): "was − ist, das ist minus, und das + ist das mer", albeit in the sense of “surplus” and “deficit”; 112-candidate; first-slating:#150 (Nov 2020).
M German
155.
Steady.png
180 Coriolis 75.png Gustave Coriolis
(1833-112 BE)
(1772-1843 ACM)
3.53 51
Work equals force times distance.png
(SIG:9) (CR:35) Physicist;
“Any particle moving in the northern hemisphere is deflected to the right, and any particle moving in the southern hemisphere is deflected to the left.”
— Gustave Coriolis (1835), “On the Equations of Motion of a System of Bodies”

noted for his 1829 Calculation of the Effect of Machines, wherein he introduced the formula for work as force times distance; some assert that he introduced the factor ½ in Leibniz’s 1686 vis viva for the sake of mathematical convenience (others say it was Lagrange who did this in 1811); his 1835 paper introduced the Coriolis effect, according to which explains why toilets drain (and people move) clockwise in the northern hemisphere (drive on right side of road) and counterclockwise (drive on left side of road) in the southern hemisphere; first-slating: 180|#150 (Feb 2019).

M French
156.
Up.png
180 Fernel 75.png Jean Fernel
(485-397)
(1497-1558 ACM)
2.95 61 (PR:25,065|65AE / astronomer:191) (CR:23) (LH:5) (TL:28) Physician, astronomer, and philosopher; M French
157.
Wavy.png
180 Duhem 75.png Pierre Duhem
(1861-1916)
3.27 55 (PEC10:2)[34] (CR:34) Mathematical physicist, chemical thermodynamicist, historian, and philosopher of science, characterized an "uneasy genius" (Demartres, 1892) (Ѻ); noted for his age 26 penned a “Study of the Thermodynamics Works of Willard Gibbs” (1887); gave commentary on the Condemnation of 1277; previous Hmolpedia 2020 candidate (112-names); first-slating: 180|#150 (Nov 2020). M French
158.
Steady.png
180 Franklin 75.png Benjamin Franklin
(249-165 BE)
(1706-1790 ACM)
IQ B.png=185

IQ CB.png=173
IQ C.png=160
IQ W.png=160

2.14 84 [RGM:31|1,350+] (Becker 160:54|4L) M American
159.
Up.png
180 Jacobus van't Hoff 75.png Jacobus van't Hoff

(1852-1911)

Van't Hoff equilibrium box.png
(GCE:#) (PEC10:6)[34] (CR:81) Physical chemist; noted for his 1874 pamphlet wherein he formulated the theory of the tetrahedral carbon atom and laid the foundations of stereochemistry; his work in 1884 Studies in Chemical Dynamics, wherein he introduced the two-way reaction arrow “Two way arrows image.png” into chemistry and in which he described a new method for determining the order of a reaction using graphics, and applied the laws of thermodynamics to chemical equilibria; his 1886 van't Hoff equilibrium box (pictured), was the first to measure work of chemical reactions; he gave one of the first thermodynamical treatments of affinity (following Helmholtz, 1882), defining affinity as the maximum external work done by the chemical reaction at constant temperature and volume; first-slated: #154 (Nov 2020).
M Dutch
160.
180 Bose 75.png Satyendra Bose
(61 BE-19 AE)
(1894-1974 ACM)
2.31 80
Bose-Einstein condensate.png
[RGM:855|1,350+] (LGS:1) (CR:11) Mathematical physicist; pronounced: “Shoot-ing-dra Bowce” (Ѻ); noted for his 1919 proof that Planck’s theory of heat radiation could be deduced from Albert Einstein’s theory of photons, for his 1925 prediction, with Einstein, of Bose-Einstein condensate (adjacent), confirmed in 1995; and for his general Bose-Einstein statistics, which bosons obey; mean genius comparison IQ of 187; a top 500 missing genius candidate. (Ѻ); down-grade from 185|#82 to 180|#160 (Apr 66AE).
M Indian
160.
Steady.png
180 Berzelius 75.png Jacob Berzelius
(176-107 BE)
(1779-1848 ACM)
IQ C.png=160 2.65 68 (EPD:F4M9) M Swedish
161.
Steady.png
180 Alexander 75.png Alexander the Great
(356-323BC)
IQ O.png=200[35]
IQ B.png=180
5.63 32 [RGM:70|1,350+] M Greek
162.
Down.png
180 Leopardi 75.png Giacomo Leopardi
(1798-1837)
IQ C.png=185
IQ W.png=185
4.62 39 [RGM:187|1,350+] M Italian
163.
Down.png
180 Mirabeau 75.png Honore Mirabeau
(1749-1791)
IQ C.png=185 4.29 42 M French
164.
Up.png
180 Linnaeus 75.png Carl Linnaeus
(1707-1778)
IQ C.png=165 2.57 70 (Cattell 1000:128) [RGM:129|1,350+] (Becker 160:41|5L) (Simmons 100:76) (CR:32) M Swedish
165.
Wavy.png
180 John Bardeen 75.png John Bardeen
(47 BE-36 AE)
(1908-1991 ACM)
2.20 82 (Becker 160:96|3L) (Simmons 100:50) (EPD:M12) M American
166.
Wavy.png
180 Hermann Minkowski 75.png Hermann Minkowski

(1864-1909)

Spacetime.png
(GME:#) Mathematician and physicist;

“The views of space and time which I wish to lay before you have sprung from the soil of experimental physics, and therein lies their strength. They are radical. Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality.” — Hermann Minkowski (1907), Publication (Ѻ) Noted for his 1907 concept of spacetime, i.e. space and time joined as one new thing, as shown by the grids adjacent, and that Einstein’s special theory of relativity could thus be understood geometrically in four dimensions, Cartesian dimensions plus space-time; mentor to Einstein; 112-candidate; first-slating:#160 (Nov 2020).

M German
167.
Steady.png
180 Condorcet 75.png Marquis Condorcet
(212-161 BE)
(1743-1794 ACM)
IQ C.png=180 3.53 51 (EPD:F0) M French
168.
Wavy.png
180 Tukey 75.png John Tukey
(40 BE-45 AE)
(1915-2000 ACM)
2.12 85 (PR:30,618|65AE / chemist:372) (FET:15) (TL:23) Chemist, mathematician, computer scientist, and philosopher, noted for his his 1966 Gibbs energy theory of "attitude states", and for his 1973 coining of the term "bit". M American
169.
Steady.png
180 Plutarch 75.png Plutarch
(1909-1835 BE)
(c.46-120 ACM)
2.43 74 (Cattell 1000:134) (RGM:421|1,350+) (PR:404|65AE / philosopher:37) (SH:13) (FA:31) (GPhE:19) (TL:134|#77) Historian and philosopher; M Greek-born Roman
170.
Up.png
180 Froude 75.png James Froude
(137-61 BE)
(1818-1894 ACM)
2.37 76 (TL:15) Clergyman, who renounced his faith, turned philosopher, translator, historian, novelist, existographer, and editor, M English
171.
Steady.png
180 Bergman 75.png Torbern Bergman
(220-171 BE)
(1735-1784 ACM)
3.67 49
Bergman reaction scheme.png
(Partington 50:31) (GCE:24) (TL:221|#36) Chemist; noted for his 1775 Dissertation on Elective Attractions, wherein, building on the reaction bracket { logic of William Cullen (1757), produced a 59-row 50-column affinity table, the biggest one ever made, as well as reaction schematic diagram, depicting 64 reactions, involving 59 chemical species, explaining single elective affinity and double elective affinity reactions in pictorial form, including “heated” (Δ) reactions and reactions in “water” (∇), and also introduce letter symbols for both single and attached chemical species, as in A, B, a, b, abd, abcd, etc, the forerunner notations to modern chemical equations.
M Swedish
172.
Steady.png
180 Rutherford 75.png Ernest Rutherford
(1871-1937)
2.73 66 [RGM:93|1,350+] (Becker 160:21|8L) (Simmons 100:19) M New Zealand-born British
173.
Wavy.png
180 Nash 75.png John Nash
(1928-2015)
IQ O.png=180 2.06 87 M American
174.
Wavy.png
180 Toland 75.png John Toland
(1670-1722)
3.46 52 M Irish
175.
Steady.png
180 Joule 75.png James Joule
(137-66 BE)
(1818-1889 ACM)
2.57 70 (PR:428|65AE / physicist:10) (Murray 4000:16|P) (SIG:10) (Kanowitz 50:17) (Cropper 30:3|T) (GPE:28) (Becker 160:62|4L) (TL:132) Physicist and engineer; main person behind the calculation of the mechanical equivalent of heat, aka the unit of energy (J). M English
176.
Steady.png
180 Mayer 75.png Robert Mayer
(141-77 BE)
(1814-1878 ACM)
2.86 63 (Becker 160:119) (HGC:254) (TL:101|#119) Physician and physicist; third main person behind the calculation of the mechanical equivalent of heat, aka the unit of energy (J). M German
177.
Down.png
180 Bray 75.png Henry Bray
(1846-1922)
2.37 76
Bray question (1910).png
Priest turned physician and philosopher; noted for his 1910 The Living Universe, wherein he outlines a Goethe-Haeckel-Huxley stylized divine-causality ingrained physicochemical-monism, aka living universe theory, a book generally classified as the last intellectually-sober attempt at panbioism (the stepping-stone to abioism).
M English-born American
178.
Steady.png
180 Socrates 75.png Socrates
(2424-2354 BE)
(469-399 BCM)
IQ SS.png=235
IQ U.png=186
IQ B.png=160
2.57 70 [RGM:3|1,350+] (Becker 139:14|14L) (Stokes 100:7) M Greek
179.
Steady.png
180 Swift 75.png Jonathan Swift
(1667-1745)
IQ O.png=186
IQ C.png=155
2.34 77 [RGM:326|1,350+] M Anglo-Irish
180.
Steady.png
180 Black 75.png Joseph Black
(1728-1799)
2.54 71 (Nelson 19:15) M Scottish
181.
Wavy.png
180 Ole Romer 75.png Ole Romer

(1644-1710)

Romer experiment.png
(CR:6) Astronomer; noted for 1675 theory that the apparent anomalies in the apparent movement of the moons of Jupiter, which depended on what season the earth was in, i.e. Jupiter at conjunction (sun between earth and Jupiter) or opposition (earth between sun and moon), could be explained by light having a finite velocity; for his 1676 calculation of the speed of light of earth orbital radius divided by 22 minutes or 220,000 km/s (as calculated later by Christiaan Huygens); and for his 1701 thermometer, fixed at the freezing point and boiling point of water, an model that later influenced Daniel Fahrenheit (c.1708); 112-candidate; first-slating:#325 (Nov 2020).
M Danish
182.
Steady.png
180 Priestley 75.png Joseph Priestley
(222-151 BE)
(1733-1804 ACM)
IQ C.png=165 2.57 70 [RGM:885|1,350+] (Becker 160:81|3L) M English
183.
Steady.png
180 Hertz 75.png Heinrich Hertz
(98-61 BE)
(1857-1894 ACM)
5.00 36 (RGM:144|1,350+) (SIG:11) (Becker 160:67|4L) M German
184.
Steady.png
180 Gibbon 75.png Edward Gibbon
(218-167 AE)
(1737-1794 ACM)
IQ C.png=180 3.21 56 M English
185.
Steady.png
180 Geoffroy 75.png Etienne Geoffroy
(283-224 AE)
(1672-1731 ACM)
3.05 59 (TL:82) Physician and chemist; noted for his 27 Aug 1718 “Table of the Different Relations [Rapports] Observed between Different Substances”, a result of a French-to-English translation of Newton's Query 31, wherein he gives the world's first affinity table, describing, in ranked rows, the different affinities observed in chemistry between different substances; first-slating: 180|#170 (Apr 2018). M French
186.
Steady.png
180 Beethoven 75.png Ludwig Beethoven
(185-128 BE)

(1770-1827 ACM)

IQ O.png=175[36]
IQ CB.png=165
IQ C.png=165

IQ B.png=165

3.21 56 (Cattell 1000:220) [RGM:19|1,350+] (Murray 4000:1|WM) (GMG:1) (CR:8) Pianist and composer;
“His talent astonished me, but his is a totally untamed personality, and he is not entirely wrong in finding the world detestable, though this attitude does not make it more pleasant, either for himself or others … To think of teaching him would be an insolence even in one with greater insight than mine, for he has the guiding light of genius, whilst the rest of us sit in total darkness, scarcely suspecting the direction from which daylight will break upon us.”
— Johann Goethe (1811), "Commentary on his meeting with Beethoven"

Note for his 9th symphony, 5th symphony, moonlight sonata, etc.; upgraded from 170|#309 to 180|#170 (Feb 2018).

M German
187.
Steady.png
180 Fresnel 75.png Augustin Fresnel
(1788-1827)
4.62 39
Prism 315.gif
Engineer-physicist;
“By the genius of Young and Fresnel the wave theory of light was established in a position so strong that hence forth the corpuscular hypothesis was unable to recruit any adherents among the younger men.”
— Edmund Whittaker (1987), A History of the Theory of Aether and Electricity (Ѻ)

co-founder, with Thomas Young, of the wave theory of light; 2018 missing (Ѻ) GPE candidate; first-slating: 180|#170 (Mar 2018).

M French
188.
Steady.png
180 Diderot 75.png Denis Diderot
(241-171 BE)
(1713-1784 ACM)
IQ C.png=165 2.57 70
Voltaire and Diderot.png
(Cattell 1000:169) (RGM:215|1,350+) (PR:353|65AE / writer:46) (Becker 139:70|5L) (Stokes 100:43) (FA:90) (TL:178|#57) Philosopher, encyclopedist, and writer; upgrade ↑ from 170|#304 to 180|#179 (Apr 2018).
M French
189.
Steady.png
180 Shaw 75.png Bernard Shaw
(99-5 BE)
(1856-1950 ACM)
IQ JP.png=165 1.91 94 M English
190.
Wavy.png
180 Poincare 75.png Henri Poincare
(101-43 BE)
(1854-1912 ACM)
IQ O.png=35 3.10 58 [RGM:437|1,500+] [LPKE:12] (GME:9) (GPE:63) [CR:79] Mathematical physicist;
“Can satisfaction be measured? I may say that one satisfaction is greater than another, because I prefer one to the other; but I cannot say that one is two or three times greater than another … Satisfaction then is a magnitude, but not a measurable magnitude. Now is a magnitude that is not measurable therefore not amenable to mathematical theory? By no means. Temperature, for instance (at any rate before the term ‘absolute temperature’ had acquired a signification with the rise of thermodynamics), was a non-measurable magnitude. It was arbitrarily defined and measured by the expansion of mercury. It might quite as legitimately have been defined by the expansion of any other substance and measured by any function of that expansion, provided that it was a continually increasing function. Likewise, in the present case, provided that the function continually increases along with the satisfaction which it represents.”
— Henri Poincare (1905), “Letter to Leon Walras”; cited by Francis Edgeworth (1915) in “Recent Contributions to Mathematical Economics”

Known for: Poincare conjecture, relativity, thermodynamics, mathematics, economics; said to have scored at the “imbecile” level on the Binet IQ test (see: miscalculated IQ); first slated: 185-195|#40 (c.2016); down-graded: 180|#180 (Apr 2020).

M French
191. 180 Johannes van der Waals 75.png Johannes van der Waals
(1837-1923)
85
Energy surface for CO2 (Van der Waals).jpg
(CR:28) Physical chemist;
“There can be no doubt that the name of Van der Waals will soon be among the foremost in molecular science.”
James Maxwell (1874), “Article”, Nature

noted for his 1873 On the Continuity of Gas and Liquid State[37], wherein, based on Clausius’ “On the Kind of Motion we call Heat”, he derived an equation of state for a gas-approaching-liquid state, based on experimental data, and therefrom measured molecular attraction, aka dispersion forces or van der Waals force (posited 100-years prior by Priestley), and calculated the size of molecules; one of the three chiefs of the “Dutch school” of thermodynamics, along with Van’t Hoff and Roozeboom; pictured is his energy surface for (Boerhaave Museum, Leiden); influences: Clausius, James Maxwell, Ludwig Boltzmann, and Willard Gibbs;

“I cannot covalent bond with you / These van der Waals forces, will have to do.”
Mala Radhakrishnan (2014), “Tweet”, Apr 4

Erich Muller (1998) theorized that social forces are a type of van der Waals dispersion force; Jose Aguilera (2012) likens a marriage bond to a weaker type of covalent bond and or Van der Waals interaction force; first-slate: 180|#190 (Dec 2020).

M Dutch
192.
Down.png
180 Kierkegaard 75.png Soren Kierkegaard
(1813-1855)
4.29 42 (Becker 139:22|12L) (Stokes 100:69) M Danish
193.
Down.png
180 Melanchthon 75.png Philipp Melanchthon

(1497-1560)

IQ C.png=190

IQ W.png=180

2.86 63 M German
194.
Down.png
180 Bossuet 75.png Jacques Bossuet

(1627-1704)

IQ C.png=180
IQ W.png=177
2.37 76 (Cattell 1000:61) Cleric, Bishop, preacher, political philosopher, theologian, and writer; noted for his Discourse on Universal History (1681) (Ѻ), regarded by many as a “second edition” of Augustine’s City of God (426AD), which had addressed theological puzzles, such as suffering of the righteous, the existence of evil, the conflict between free will and divine omniscience, and the doctrine of original sin. (Ѻ) M French
195.
Up.png
180 Locke 75.png John Locke
(323-251 BE)
(1632-1704 ACM)
2.50 72 (Cattell 1000:35) (RGM:536|1,350+) (PR:92|65AE / philosopher:13) (Murray 4000:7|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:11) (Becker 139:6|17L) (Stokes 100:38) (FA:733) (GPhE:#) (GEcE:#) (TL:79) Physician, economist, sociologist, and philosopher; his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, made the first serious attempt to explain the functioning of the mind in purely naturalistic terms, without recourse to divine intervention; upgraded ↑ from 170|#347 to 180|#172 (Feb 2018). M English
196.
Wavy.png
180 Charlemagne 75.png Charlemagne

(c.742-814)

2.50 72 M Frankish
197.
Up.png
180 Papin 75.png Denis Papin
(308-243 BE)
(1647-1712 ACM)
2.73 66
Papin engine (Louvre Museum, Paris).png
(PR:2,320|65AE / inventor:24) (Murray 4000:18|T) (TL:109|#102) Physicist, engineer, and inventor;
M French
198.
Steady.png
180 Kircher 75.png Athanasius Kircher
(353-275 BE)
(1602-1680 ACM)
2.31 78 (RGM:517|1,350+) (PR:2,986|65AE / philosopher:169) (TL:41) Theologian, Egyptologist, physicist, philosopher, aka "Incredible German"; M German
199.
Steady.png
180 Alexander Humboldt 75.png Alexander Humboldt
(186-96 BE)
(1769-1859 ACM)
IQ C.png=185 2.02 89 (Cattell 1000:94) [RGM:133|1,350+] (Becker 160:113|3L) (CR:15) Geographer, naturalist, explorer, romantic philosopher;
“People often say that I’m curious about too many things at once. But can you really forbid a man from harboring a desire to know and embrace everything that surrounds him?”
— Alexander Humboldt (c.1810), Publications (Ѻ)

A fabled "last person to know everything" [38] and oft-characterized polymath; younger brother to Wilhelm Humboldt [RGM:47|1,350+]; in Jena (1797), with his brother Wilhelm, Friedrich Schiller, and Johann Goethe, the four discussed, in Goethe's own words, “all of nature from the perspectives of philosophy and science”; in c.1800, proposed that South America and Africa were both joined (see: Pangea); in his 1844 multi-volume Cosmos, he attempted to sketch out a physical description of the universe.

M Prussian
200.
Wavy.png
180 Kahn 75.png Genghis Kahn
(793-728 BE)
(c.1162-1227 ACM)
IQ B.png=180
IQ O.png=102-125[39]
2.77 65 (PR:2|65AE / militarian:1) Military leader; noted as founder of Mongol empire and for various unique military tactics. M Mongolian

Discussion

Data analysis

In terms of nationality (as of 29 Oct 65AE): 38 English, 32 French, 27 Germans, 22 Greeks, 16 Americans, 11 Italians, 6 Dutch, 4 Swedish, 4 Scottish, 3 Austrians, 3 Romans, 3 Russians, 3 English-born Americans, 2 Danish, 2 Irish, 2 German-born Americans, 1 Anglo-Irish, 1 Austrian-born American, 1 Croatian, 1 Frankish, 1 French-born Italian, 1 Genevan, 1 German-born French, 1 Greco-Roman Alexandrian, 1 Greek-born Roman, 1 Hungarian-born American, 1 Indian, 1 Irish-born English, 1 Irish-born Scottish, 1 Mongolian, 1 New Zealand-born English, 1 Persian, 1 Polish, 1 Polish-born French, 1 Polish-born Swiss, 1 Prussian, 1 Scottish-born Canadian, 1 Serbian-born American, 1 Swiss. In terms of gender, there are: 3 females.

Point

A "point” is made, herein, to distinguish between “profound geniuses”, e.g. Goethe, Shelley, Gibbs, Maxwell, etc., “mundane geniuses”, e.g. Benz, Hollerith, Guttenberg, etc., and "niche geniuses", e.g. Jenkins, a recent steroid chemistry genius. Thinkers, herein, said another way, are gauged in respect to the size of the "fish" they went after. There are, in this sense, "big fish geniuses" and "little fish geniuses". In other words, while some may "think about flying", e.g. Da Vinci, others "fly", e.g. Montgolfier, some “fly us the moon”, e.g. Braun, a rare few, e.g. Aristotle, ruminate on "why" we fly (or move) in the first place, particularly in respect to the more deeply-puzzled words “love[40] and "meaning", and a few from a universal perspective.[41]

Divides

As this top 2K ranking was initiated via Thims 15 (2008), a growing collection people cited with IQs of 200 or above, aka the "200 divide", it would seem of worth to say a few notes about IQ "divides" in general, as they have changed over the years, particularly after the neural and unbiased "CPBT IQ ruler" (c.2019) was arrived upon, which situated Newton at IQ 199 and Darwin at 175, as anchor points to "fit" all other divides around.

300 divide

Historically, prior to 2010, among the so-called ceiling geniuses, four individuals were known to have been cited with having IQs of 300 or above, namely: Adragon Mello (IQ:400), Ainan Cawley (IQ:349), Michael Kearney (IQ:325), and William Sidis (IQ:300). Given digestion, these all turned out to be biased, bogus, non-real IQ, over-estimates, i.e. inflated IQs. The first three were IQs calculated by their parents, when they were aged four or five. The latter, i.e. the Sidis IQ, is a prolonged story, in and of itself. The infamous "Thims 32" (2010) was the result, during which, Thims took it upon himself to re-rank and correct all genius level IQs, each assigned IQ fitted better to reality.

225 divide

In 1924, Maud Merrill, amid here historiometric analysis of the 300 eminent figures, from the Cattell 1000 rankings, of adulthood age in the years 1350 to 1850, based on the 6,000-page report on the extant existographic report on the group, compiled by Lela Gillan and Ruth Livesay, amounting to about 20-pages for each person, ranked Goethe with an AII IQ of 225, the highest IQ estimate reported by all three independent reviewers (Lewis Terman, Catherine Cox, and Maud Merrill). This was the first calculation of a human as having an IQ of 225. In the 2010s, amid the growth of the IQ tables, the ceiling was set at 225 with Goethe holding the position. In 2019, following digestion of the two mean CPBT IQ calculations of Newton (IQ:199) and Darwin (IQ:175), Thims began to glean the view that possibly the "225" ceiling value might be set too high, as per historical mean consensus indicates?

200 divide

Presently, there are 4-names in the 200+ to 210 (the current ceiling genius IQ) range.

The assignments of IQs at 200 or above, i.e. ceiling range genius IQs, has been problematic, since the invention of the IQ scale by Lewis Terman in 1916. The IQ 200 calculation of the age four Francis Galton (Terman, 1917), being an early infamous example (see: Galton's IQ).

On this platform, in the the sixty years to follow, a plethora of purported IQ:200± supposed-to-be "geniuses" began to emerge, via contrived calculations, such as the "sigma 6 trick", "age ratio" prediction method, or the "IQ Ponzi scheme", etc., after which a rather confused mess of objectionable nonsense has resulted in respect to the "genius ceiling" and genius ceiling IQ or ceiling range IQ. On 29 Sep 2010, Libb Thims, having collected 29-names, no coincidence intended[42], each cited as having an IQ of 200 to 400, nearly all being "objectionable nonsense" calculations, began to take it upon himself, as a duty to "real geniuses", e.g. "respect" vs "disrespect", to re-rank all IQs.

On 7 Apr 66AE, Thims, following reflection on Newton's "Query 31", and how he intuited that the study of chemical affinities, in the future, will invariably work to progress and improve the nature of "moral philosophy", and combined with reflection on the Cardano 12, wherein the Cardano top 19 names can be compared to each name's present ranking in the top 2000, which is eye-opening, to say the least, adjusted the "IQ 200 cutoff" was adjusted, to the affect that only those above, were minds able to employ their logic, up and down the chain of being, e.g. morals micro to macro, without having to pussyfoot or tiptoe around the god question or fear of religion. Newly adjusted 200+ names: Goethe (IQ:210|#1), Newton (IQ:210|#2), Democritus (IQ:205|#3), Aristotle (IQ:200|#4).

Thims, following reflection on the previous adjustment, intuited (14 Apr 66AE) the basic rule that for one to know that a genius, in intellect, ranks into the 200+ range, that their magnum opus should have passed two-centuries of digestion, at a minimum.

195 divide

Presently, there are 15-names in the 195+ (to previous divide) range. Those in the 195+ (to ceiling IQ) range, generally be guided in their research towards finding the "secret principle" of nature. This division includes Helmholtz, the classified "last of the last universal geniuses" (Liddell, 1922).

190 divide

Presently, there are 25-names in the 190+ (to previous divide) range. Some in this category are classified into the "last person to know everything" and or "last universal genius" category.

185 divide

Presently, there are 40-names in the 185+ (to previous divide) range. This division includes a number of legendary geniuses, stirred into a rather "gray area" of up or down future movement.

Quotes

The following are related quotes:

IQ is thought to be a measure which expresses the relative brightness or intelligence of any given individual.”
Catherine Cox (1926), The Early Mental Traits of Three Hundred Geniuses (pg. 47)

End matter

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References

  1. Why does Libb Thims make genius lists? (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  2. The real IQ of each person has been adjusted to fit realistically around the two century-plus digested Cox-Buzan-Platt-Thims IQs, namely those of Newton (IQ CPBT.png = 199) and Darwin (IQ CPBT.png = 175).
  3. 3.0 3.1 Who had the highest IQ ever? (2003) – Able2Know.org.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Kermit, Sperging. (2019). “Greatest Geniuses: Top 100”, Real Geniuses, Reddit, Feb.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ratner, Paul. (2016). “24 of the smartest people who ever lived: the smartest humans in history are ranked” (Ѻ), BigThink.com, Sep 18.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 IQ of Famous People [WB] (2007) – AceIntelligence.com.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Locklin, Scott. (2011). ”Eudoxus of Cnidos”, WordPress, Oct 13.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 What was Aristotle’s IQ? (2018) – Quora.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 IQ:200+ (references) – (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Famous People IQ Scores (2011) - IQCertificate.org.
  11. Helmholtz, Hermann. (1867). Handbook of Physiological Optics (Handbuch: der physiologischen Optik) (pg. 526). Publisher.
  12. Rene Descartes – SimplyCharly.com.
  13. What was Euler’s IQ? (2019) – Quora.
  14. Bertrand, Natasha. (2015). “The 40 Smartest People of All Time” (based on the Thims 40), Business Insider, Feb 27.
  15. 15.0 15.1 What was Gauss’s IQ? (2019) – Quora.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 What is your IQ estimate for Friedrich Nietzsche? (2018) – Quora.
  17. Historical caricatures (Vladymyr Lukash) – Behance.net.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Norlinger, Ulf. (1998). “Estimated IQs of Some of the Greatest Geniuses” (Ѻ), Blog, Apr 21.
  19. Anon. (2016). “MBTI and IQ” (Ѻ) (an AI and Chris Langan fan), Dec 7.
  20. What would an IQ of 500 or 1000 look like? (2015) - Quora.
  21. What does an 180 IQ (SD 15) look like? (2017) – Quora.
  22. Was Richard Feynman’s IQ really 125? (2018) – Quora.
  23. High verbal IQ and genius (Veidth, 2018) – Quora.
  24. Feynman’s IQ (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020
  25. Brotman, Barbara. (1992). “Genius at Work”, Chicago Tribune, Nov 17.
  26. 26.0 26.1 What was Alan Turing’s IQ? (2016) – Quora.
  27. IQ Scores of Famous Celebrities (2007) - kids-iq-tests.com.
  28. Groening, Matt. (1999). Simpsons (episode: “They Saved Lisa’s Brain” (Ѻ)(Ѻ)(Ѻ)) (quote: “Big deal, my IQ is 280.”). Publisher.
  29. (a) McPherson, Stephanie. (2006) (Mensa Test score: extremely well, pg. 26). Publisher.
    (b) What is Stephen Hawking’s IQ? (2014) – Yahoo Answers.
    (c) McEvoy, Joseph P. (2009). Introducing Stephen Hawking (IQ 200-250, pg. 87). Icon Books.
  30. Tolstoy IQ (2012) (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  31. Marx IQ vs Musk IQ? (2017) – Quora.
  32. Anon. (2008). “Higher IQs and Beliefs in God” (Ѻ), GhostPlace.com
  33. Characteristic function notation table – Hmolpedia 2020.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Philoepisteme. (2018). “10 Candidates: Already Written About” (post: #15), Hmolpedia 2020 Forum, Jul 14.
  35. Alexander the Great’s IQ (2014) – Hmolpedia 2020 forum.
  36. Not Enough Artists (2013) – Hmolpedia Forum.
  37. Van der Waals, Johannes. (1873). On the Continuity of the Gaseous and Liquid State. Dover, 2004.
  38. Last person to know everything (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  39. How smart was Genghis Kahn? (2017) – Quora.
  40. Note: the Hmolpedia “equation of love” is the most-liked of 5,376-articles of Hmolpedia 2020.
  41. This ranking note “point” was made while listening to ABBA’s 1975 song “I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do”, the opening verse of which is: “Love me (bond) or leave me (de-bond); Make your choice (force of chemical affinity, pre-Helmholtz era (c.1200-1882); the Gibbs energy of the system, post-Helmholtz era (1882-forward)) but believe me; I love you; I do, I do, I do, I do, I do; I can't conceal it; Don't you see?; Can't you ‘feel’ it?; Don't you too?; I do, I do, I do, I do, I do”. Those geniuses who attempt to decode the nearly-intractable terms: “feelings” and “choice”, and are close to successful at it, tend to be more profound.
  42. Note: this "29" commonality, was not noticed until 14 Apr 66AE.

Further reading

  • Pop, Claudiu. (2021). “What is a Genius IQ score?” (Ѻ), UnFoldToday.com.

External links

  • Thims, Libb. (2017). “Top 100 Geniuses” (Ѻ), YouTube, Human Chemistry 101, Nov 24.
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