Thims periodic table

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In periodic tables, Thims periodic table refers to []


In 2000, Robert Sterner and James Elser, two American limnologists, derived a 22-element empirical molecular formula for a human, based on the the classic six CHNOPS-elements: C, H, N, O, P, S, plus the following 16-elements: Ca, K, Cl, Na, Mg, Fe, F, Zn, Si, Cu, I, Sn, Mn, Se, Cr, and Co.[1] This 22-element formula was eventually published in their 2002 Ecological Stoiciometry, where they give a periodic table, showing the elements believed common to the mass composition of bacteria.[2]

In 2002, Libb Thims, independent of Sterner and Elser, following rigorous research into the mass compositions of humans, derived a 26-element human molecular formula, empirical and molecular, based on the the classic six CHNOPS-elements: C, H, N, O, P, S, plus the following 20-elements: Ca, K, Cl, Na, Mg, Fe, F, Zn, Si, Cu, B, I, Sn, Mn, Se, Cr, Ni, Mo, Co, and V.[3] This 26-element formula was eventually printed in various early draft manuscripts, e.g. Human Thermodynamics (2002 to 2003) and Cessation Thermodynamics (2005), read by about 100 reviewers, online in 2005, in the “Molecular Evolution Table” (see: molecular evolution table), and in published book form in Human Chemistry (2007) and The Human Molecule (2008), cited variously thereafter, such as Kalyan Annamalai’s Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics (2011) and Harvard’s BioNumbers (2015).[4][5]

In 2012, Thims made an online “interactive” version of the periodic table, entitled “hmolscience periodic table”, with focus on the elements in humans.[6][7]

In 2018, A.K. Haghi, in his Methodologies and Applications for Analytical and Physical Chemistry, their §:1.4 “Periodic Table of the Elements”, following discussion of the Sheehan periodic table (1970), which shows elements by percent mass via a proportionally-sized representation of each element of the periodic table, showed both two versions of Thims’ online periodic tables, which they referred to as “Thims reported interactive human molecular periodic table of elements with 26-element standard” (figure 1.6) and “Human molecular periodic table of the elements: relative abundance by percent mass” (figure 1.7), one showing the elements in humans, with the “mind”, “power”, “body”, the other with larger text-sizing for each element symbol, in an attempt to make a Sheehan-style periodic table with focus on elements in humans.[8]

Jun 2020 | Version

In Mar to Jun 2020, Thims, in his Human Chemical Thermodynamics, §:1.3 Periodic Table (pgs. 6-8), made the following version of the periodic table, also printed a postcard for teaching in videos: [9]

The element boxes shown with "thickened borders" (elements in humans) as compared to thin borders (elements not in humans) signify the 26 elements in human composition; some of which are shown with modification, e.g. dotted lines (CHNOPS elements) or white inside border (extra four Thims elements), as explained below.


The six classic CHNOPS elements: carbon C, hydrogen H, nitrogen N, oxygen O, phosphorus P, and sulfur S, are indicated by "dotted" border. The other twenty elements comprising humans, e.g. Ca, K, Na, Cl, Mg, ... V, symbolized collectively via the shorthand "+20E", as shown above (or ), are shown by solid thick black element box borders.

Sterner-Elser 22 | Thims 26

In comparing these two formulas, the Sterner-Elser empirical human molecular formula, (2000) with the Thims human molecular formula (2002), the latter of which is shown below:


we note that four elements, namely: B (boron), Ni (nickle), Sn (tin) and and V (vanadium), as shown highlighted yellow (above), the functions of which in humans as summarized in "elements table" (Thims, 2008), are not seen in the Sterner-Elser formula, whereas they are shown in the Thims formula.[10]

Color coding

The table is color-coded, as we see, we are predominately a "reactive nonmetal" / "transition metal" type of atomic geometry, as indicated by the yellow color-coding, of the reactive nonmetal elements: O, C, H, N, and P, which thus characterizes our so-called ‘reactive nature’, which quite obviously differentiates us from a say a typical ‘rock’, and its typical non-reactive nature, as shown below:

Rock vs Human 5.jpg

Humans also, as shown by the pink color-coded elements, made of transition metals: V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Mo, alkali metals: Na, K, alkaline earth metals: Mg, Ca, post-transition metals: Zn, Sn, and metalloids: B, Si.[9] In sum, a human, elementally, is a "reactive nonmetal, transition metal, alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, post-transition metal, mettaloid".

BIO | Elements?

Of salient note, in respect to the new point of view called abioism, is that none of the elements, on the periodic table, by definition, are "alive"; accordingly, the only thing that is "bio" about the periodic table, is the fact that element symbols for elements Z5, Z53, and Z8, namely Boron, Iodine, and Oxygen, or B, I, and O, make up the three first letters, respectively, of the Greek coined prefix "bio", as found in terms such as biochemistry or biology:


When, however, one attempts to meld this Greek prefix to the sciences of "physics" or more importantly "thermodynamics", as in biophysics or biothermodynamics or biochemical thermodynamics, is where one runs into insurmountable difficulties, as evidenced in Lotka's 1925 "Regarding Definitions", the first chapter of his Elements of Physical Biology, or Sherrington's 1938 Man on His Nature lecture turned book. In particular, one cannot defined the term "bio" thermodynamically, nor locate any discernible "point", in the transformation timeline of hydrogen to human, wherein non-bio "ends" and "bio" starts, i.e. unless one is willing to embrace gradual panbioism, wherein one has to concede that fermions, bosons, and hydrogen are "sort of alive", or "half-alive" (Haldane, 1929), which is what Einstein classifies as "objectionable nonsense". Hence, what were formerly thought of as "biological elements", are now, in the post "defunct theory of life" era (Thims, 2009), re-classified as "powered CHNOPS+ elements". A prokaryote (bacteria), e.g., which is made of 15-elements (see: molecular evolution table) is NOT a living thing, but correctly a "CHNOPS+9E thing", that when "powered" or heated into their so-called habitable zone, begin to animate and react into what we formerly considered to be alive, but whereas in reality the heated-animation we observe is but geometrical property of columns 14 and 15 of the periodic table. Three species of bacteria, Carnobacterium pleistocenium, Chryseobacterium greenlandensis, and Herminiimonas glaciei, e.g. have reportedly been revived or re-animated after surviving for thousands of years frozen in ice; the before state and after state, surrounding the frozen state, are defined as powered animation states, NOT living states.[11]

State | 21 solid + 5 gas

The following shows the 26-elements (shown by blue bolded boxes) of a human colored by "state", i.e. solid, liquid, gas:

Periodic Table by State.jpg

Which shows that humans, according to a "state" definition, a solid (C, P, S, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Si, Cu, B, I, Sn, Mn, Se, Cr, Ni, Mo, Co, V) and gas (H, N, O, F, Cl) based atomic thing, a "21 solid + 5 gas" chemical species; this is indicated by the "G" symbol (highlighted gray) in the Thims periodic table.


The 1970 "Sheehan periodic table", showing elements according to abundance near the surface of the earth, made by William Sheehan.

The table shows the "mass dominance" of the top elements, shown via percentages, e.g. O 61%, C 23%, H 10%, 1 % Ca, 1% P, etc., such as was done by William F. Sheehan (1970) of the University of Santa, Clara, in his so-called Sheehan periodic table.

Mind | Body | Power

The table shows the "mind" (column 14), "power" (column 15), and "body" (column 16), according to which the valence shell arrangement of the elements in each of those columns are what account for each respective so-named property observed; which is explained more in the HCT pdf.[9]

Reproductive reaction | Synthesis

The table shows the CHNOPS+20E shorthand formula for a human, and the basic double displacement reaction (aka human reproduction reaction) that describes the synthesis of each person.

History | Early views

In 1899, John Thornton, an English physiologist, stated that, of the 72-elements then known, 14 elements enter into the composition of the human body: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, fluorine, and silicon; and noted that other elements, such as manganese and lead (anti-element: poison), have sometimes been found in small quantities.[12]

In 1937, David Webb, an Irish botanist, in association with F.R. Fearon, in their “Studies on the Ultimate Composition of Biological Materials”, did spectrographic calculations and measurements on marine invertebrates, which resulted in the determination of 20 elements, tabulated below left, comprising "living systems" as they titled things.[13]

in 1968, Harold Morowitz, in his Energy Flow in Biology, citing the previous 20-element table of David Webb (1937) and the so-called "CHNOPS system" (see: CHNOPS) nomenclature of George Armstrong (1964), produced a 22-element table of the elements of man, alfalfa, copepod, and bacteria, shown below (right).[14]

Morowitz element table (1968).jpg

Morowitz, of note, includes all of Webb’s 20 marine invertebrate elements, less three: boron B (5), cobalt Co (27), and Molybdenum Mo (42), and adds five: rubidium Rb (37), bromine Br (35), tin Sn (50), manganese Mn (25), and aluminum Al (13), though it seems without justified explanation?

In 1989, John Emsley, in his famous The Elements, in which devoted several pages to each element, out of which, in total, he gave the figure that “59-elements are in humans”. This figure, however, is an overestimate, by some 33 elements.


  1. Sterner-Elser human molecular formula (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  2. Sterner, Robert and Elser, James. (2002). Ecological Stoichiometry: the Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere (human molecule, empirical formula pg. 3; discussion, pgs. 47, 135). Princeton University Press.
  3. Human molecular formula (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  4. Annamalai, Kalyan, Puri, Ishwar K., and Jog, Milind A. (2011). Advanced Thermodynamics Engineering (§14: Thermodynamics and Biological Systems, pgs. 709-99, contributed by Kalyan Annamalai and Carlos Silva; §14.4.1: Human body | Formulae, pgs. 726-27; Thims, ref. 88). CRC Press.
  5. (a) Thims human molecular formula (molecular) (2015) – Harvard BioNumbers.
    (b) Thims human molecular formula (empirical) (2015) – Harvard BioNumbers.
  6. Thims human molecular formula (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  7. Hmolscience periodic table (subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  8. Haghi, A.K. (2018). Methodologies and Applications for Analytical and Physical Chemistry (co-authors: Sabu Thomas, Sukanchan Palit, Priyanka Main) (Thims “human molecular” periodic table of element”, pg. #). CRC.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Thims, Libb. (2020). Human Chemical Thermodynamics — Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities: Meaning, Morality, Purpose; Sociology, Economics, Ecology; History, Philosophy, Government, Anthropology, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence; Religion, Relationships, Warfare, and Love (§1.3:Periodic Table, pgs. 6-8)) (pdf). Publisher.
  10. Thims, Libb. (2008). The Human Molecule (elements table, pgs. 52-56). LuLu.
  11. Bacteria (Cryobiology) – Wikipedia.
  12. Thornton, John. (1899). Human Physiology (14 elements in human body, pg. 412). Longman’s Green.
  13. (a) Webb, D.A. and Fearon, W.R. (1937). “Studies on the Ultimate Composition of Biological Materials. Part I. Aims, Scope and Methods”, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 21:487-504. (b) Webb, D.A. (1937). “Studies on the Ultimate Composition of Biological Materials. Part II. Spectrographic Analyses of Marine Invertebrates with Special Reference to the Chemical Composition of Their Environment”, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 21:505-539. (c) Morowitz, Harold. (1968). Energy Flow in Biology: Biological Organization as a Problem in Thermal Physics (table 3-1, pg. 47). Academic Press.
  14. Morowitz, Harold. (1968). Energy Flow in Biology: Biological Organization as a Problem in Thermal Physics (table 3-2, pg. 48). Academic Press.

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