Sator square

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The basic isopsephy cyphers of the Sator square, namely: the letters RPPR = 360˚, degrees of a circle, aka solar disc; TENET = 660, which translated in Greek as both "flame or fire" and "birth or beget", which is code for the Egyptian phoenix; and N = 50, which is code for the Nun, or "Nous" (monad), as Pythagoras redefined things, aka the waters or void (vacuum) out of which the universe came to be; the letters can also be rewritten into the a cross that reads "Our Father" [Pater Noster] (Grosser, 1926), the first part of the Egyptian Lord's prayer[1], with the letters alpha A (α) and omega O (ω) at the tips, the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, code for the premise that the sun (or heat) is the beginning and the end; lastly the four letters "E", surrounding the "N" are symbolic, according to Plutarch (c.110), in respect to being the second vowel of the Greek alphabet, are symbolic of the "sun" seen as the second "wandering stars" of Greek cosmology.

In cyphers, Sator square, "Sator Arepo", "tenet cross", Rotas square, etc., is a set of 25-letters (total), made from 8 Latin letters: 5 consonants (S, T, R, P, N) and 3 vowels (A, E, O), grouped into into 5-words, ordered, top to bottom, as follows:

Sator arepo teNet opera rotas

or in about some cases (about ten), ordered as follows:

Rotas opera teNet arepo sator

which are combined into a square palindrome, showing the words "Tenet", in two-directions, in the form of a cross. The letters are said, supposedly, to be filled with anagrams, astro-theology, Pythagorean number cosmology and music ratios, among other conjectured theories, each coded in coded in isopsephy (or gematria). Sator squares began to be carved in stone around Pompeii, Rome, in the first century, prior to the Mount Vesuvius eruption (79AD).[2] The gist "crude" meaning of the Sator square, as a sentence, according to modern consensus, renders: "Horus [Arepo] the savior [sator] works [opera] the wheels [rotas] of time [Saturn] or creation [tenet]", or something to this effect.[3]


Dating | Pompeii | Pre-Eruption (79AD)

The oldest-known Sator squares are found in the ruins of Pompeii, Italy, dot above, located about 1,400-miles from Egypt, from where, supposedly, the "magic square" originated.

The following Sator square, discovered in 1936, the oldest version known to date, is found carved on a column in a gymnasium[4] in Pomeii, which predates the eruption of Vesuvius on August 24, AD 79:


Within proximity to this one, another pre-eruption Sator square was found, by Italian archeologist Matteo Della Corte, inside of a house.[5][6]


The so-called “cradle of Pythagoreanism”, according to Porphyry (Vita Pythagorae, c.290), lies in the south of Italy, close to Pompeii, where the first Sator squares were found.[7] Hence, it is conjectured (Vinel, 2006), that the Tenet palindrome is a Pythagorean cosmology number puzzle, of some sort, basis, or origin? Pythagoras, and his school, e.g. considered the the "Nous", the Greek rescript of the Egyptian Nu or Nun, as the "monad", the number 1, and the origin of all things:

“Anatolius (De Decade, c.285) remarks that the Pythagoreans call the monad ‘nous’ and liken it to the one itself (to heni auten), the intelligible god (to noeto theo), the uncreated (to agenneto), beauty itself (autokalo), the good itself (autoagatho), and—among the virtues—the wisdom (phronesei) of the one.”
— Bruce MacLennan. (2019). “The Psychodynamics of Numbers” [8]

Hence, we find the single letter "N" at the center of the puzzle.

Four examples of pre-12th century "magic squares", or word puzzles, numerically-based; the Sator square shown below left.

The Sator square is thought to have been an apotropaic charm, the most-famous of a number of so-called "magic" squares, of various sizes, 3-sided to 7-sided, as shown below, that began to be made in the early Roman recension[9] period (c.100BC to 100AD). Early documented explanatory uses of the square, e.g. by Albertus Magnus (c.1260), Cornelius Agrippa (c.1520), Athanasius Kircher (1665), were to employ it as a magic-religious tool of sorts.


In 1823, scholars, as reported in an exhaustive study by Heinz Hofmann (1978), began to attempt to decode the Sator square.[10] Over a century later, Walter Budge, in his Amulets and Magic (1930), concluded that the sentence was "untranslatable".[11] Semi-modern decoding and translation attempts, include those attempted by: William Sterling (1897), William Westcott (1889), Felix Grosser (1926), with his Pater Noster anagram conjecture, Gwyn Griffiths (1971), who conjectured that Arepo connects to Apis, Walter Moeller (1973), who attempts to attempt a Mithras connection, Miroslav Marcovich (1988), who equates Arepo to Horus, and Nicolas Vinel (2006).

R.M. Sheldon, in his Espionage in the Ancient World (2003), a book on various ancient cyphers, devotes his last 30-page chapter, entitled “An Unsolved Cryptogram: the Sator Rebus”, to a bibliographic listing of dozens of published attempts, since the early 19th century, to solve the Sator cypher, with short commentary and or summary on each attempt.[12]

E | Sun

The four "E" letters, at the center of the Sator square, according to Plutarch (110), are symbolic of the "sun", or sun god Apollo, the letter E being the second vowel of the seven Greek vowels, conceived as the second planet of the seven Greek planets.

The significance of the four “E” letters, around the “N”, at the center of the Sator square, supposedly, has something to do with the fact that the Greeks, according to Plutarch (c.110), associated the E, the second of the seven Greek vowels, with the sun, the second of the seven Greek planets, in their cosmological scheme:

“Ammonius smiled quietly, surmising that Lamprias was expressing his own opinion on the matter and was repeating a story from hearsay for which he could not be held responsible. Someone else in the group commented that this was the same explanation that a Chaldean stranger had been prattling about earlier; that there are seven vowel sounds amongst the letters; seven stars in the sky with autonomous and independent movements; the E is second in the list of vowels; amongst the seven planets the sun comes after the moon, which is first; and that nearly all Greeks identify Apollo with the sun. ‘But all these ideas’, he concluded, ‘come from star books and the rumors chattered about at the gates of the sanctuary.”
Plutarch (c.110), ‘De E apud Delphos’
“An anonymous member of the group reports the remarks of a Chaldean visitor who said that the significance of the E lay in its second place amongst the seven vowels and compared this to the second place of the sun amongst the seven wandering stars.”
— Judith Alexander (2018), “Plutarch’s ‘De E apud Delphos’: Translation and Commentary” (pg. 20) [13]

Moeller connects this to the four Es at the center of the Sator square as follows:

“The E [ε] had special quality among the ancients and was associated with Delphi, the place sacred to Apollo, the sun god. In fact, Plutarch devoted an essay to the subject, ‘De E apud Delphos’, in which he has as one of the reasons for the relationship that ‘ε’ was the second letter of the Greek vowel system and therefore represented the sun, the second of the seven planets (De E 4).”
— Walter Moeller (1973), The Mithraic Origin and Meanings of the Rotas-Sator Square (pg. 18)

The letter "E", prior to its Greek inception (or adoption), derives, as shown above, from the hieroglyph of a man with his arms raised, a person ‘in action’, or doing ‘work’ of some sort, i.e. expending ‘energy’ as we would say:[14]


E words, accordingly, such as energy, existence, engine, equation, experiments, explosion, etc., typically have deep etymological significance, in respect to a person in action, powered by the sun.


The table shown below (middle) shows the numerical equivalent, according to the Greek alphabet, of each letter, along with the sum value of all letters (2514), i.e. the numerical equivalent of the the entire sentence: Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas, and the isopsephy values of each word:

Isopsephy value: 2514
200 1 300 70 100 671
1 100 5 80 70 256
300 5 50 5 300 660
70 80 5 100 1 256
100 70 300 1 200 671


The following is one take on these numbers:

“The letters are arranged so as to read: ‘Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas’, which has the look of a Latin epigram, but it is apparently untranslatable. We know that the priests sometimes converted Roman letters into Greek, so as to obtain numbers from them, as for instance in Kircher’s Oedipus Aegyptiacus [1654] (§2.1, pg. 219), where various Latin words are written in Greek letters which bring out the number 666. If we give the letters of this seal the value of their Greek equivalents, we get 25 numbers, which may be read in various ways. The five letters on the four sides of the square form the word Sator, the ‘Sower’, or backwards ‘Rotas’, wheels. This word, written in Greek letters, has the numerical value of 671, the number of Thora, the Hebrew Bride, and óxóopos = 670. Then the sum of the numbers forming the perimeter of the square is 2084, or the length of the side of the Holy Oblation. The two middle rows of letters make up the word ‘Tenet’, read vertically and horizontally, and the numerical value of this word written in Greek letters is 660, or the number of miles in the diameter of the earth divided by 12. The four letters, which occur at the angles of the cross formed by the word ‘Tenet’, are equal to 360
— William Sterling (1897), The Cannon (pgs. 271-72)

The meaning of the values: 2514 (square sum), 650 (diagonal sum), and 256 (Arepo / Opera sum) are yet to be discerned; the number 671 conjectured by Sterling is questionable? Another take on numbers is as follows:

“It will be noticed that the great number of Sol is 666, called Sorath, SURT, the number of the Beast, about which so much folly has been written. One famous square of five times five divisions, amounting in most directions to 666 is formed of the mystic words sator, arepo, tenet, opera, rotas. Of these, the first, third, and last number 666, but opera and its reverse number only 356. The number 608 is notable, being in Coptic, PHRE, the Sun 500, 100, 8 and in Greek we find VHS, 400, 8, 200, which becomes IHS in Latin, for the Greek Upsilon changes to Y and I in Latin, and so we obtain the anagram of ‘Iesus hominum Salvator’.”
— William Westcott (1889), “Numbers: Their Occult Powers and Mystic Virtues” [15]

Here, Westcott, supposedly, derives numbers "666", which is the solar magic square, and "356", days of the year, from the letters and or words of the Sator square; this derivation, however, is difficult to follows?

Tenet | 660 | Burn, Flame / Beget, Childbirth

A depiction of the Egyptian "bennu", aka "phoenix" (Herodotus, 450BC), considered the soul (ba) of the sun god Ra, which hovered over the waters of the "Nun", enacting the creation of the universe, first giving powers to the god Atum, and also carrying the newly-born ignited inflamed sun disc into the sky, after the first land arose out of the water. The words: "to burn / inflame" and "beget" / birth" both have isopsephy values of "660", just as does the word TENET.

What we note from isopsephy values of the Sator square, is that the word Tenet has a isopsephy value of "660", which is numerically equivalent to the words: φλοξ[16][17] (value: 500+30+70+60 = 660), meaning: “to burn” / “flame” / “fire”, and to the word: τοκος[18] (value: 300+70+20+70+200 = 660), meaning: "to beget" / "childbirth" / "offspring".[19] The first of these terms, we note, is derived from the term φλέγω (phlégō, “burn”).

Bennu bird | Phoenix

The phonetic similarity of the word phlégō, “burn”, would seem to put the number of 660 into the category of the "phoenix" (Φοίνιξ), the Greek name that Herodotus gave to the Egyptian "bennu bird", the characteristics of which match the words: burn, flame, fire, beget, childbirth, and offspring.

The bennu is the "solar" bird the Egyptians believed created the universe, so to say. The Bennu was considered the "ba" (soul) or the sun god Ra, that was the first thing that hovered over the waters of the "Nun" (note: letter "N" is at the center of the TENET cross), at the chaos or void of beginning, and initiated the creative powers of the god Atum, as a result of which, or during which, the sun was "born", out of a lotus (the flower that rises each morning out of the waters of the Nile River), carried into the sky on the head of the bennu bird, as shown adjacent.

Hence, in sum, the numerical values of the square, via isopsephy, as shown below, indicate that the square is a magic square coded to be seen as view of the top of a pyramid, showing the bennu, or phoenix (as the bird was called at this point in time) bursting forth from the tip of the pyramid, after arising out of the Nun (value: 50), which is discerned by the fact that the sum of the numerical values of the letters, namely: T+E+N+E+T = 300+5+50+5+300, of each row of the "cross" (or "tenet cross") sum to "660", meaning, in Greek, flame, fire, burn, beget, childbirth, or offspring:


We also note, that the four "E" letters, which surround the tip of the pyramid, or four "5" numbers, which surround the "50" at the center of the Sator square, are symbolic, of the sun, as Plutarch (De E apud Delphos, c.110) informs us, in the sense that the letter "E" is the second vowel of the seven Greek vowels, symbolic of the sun being the second planet of the seven wandering stars of Greek cosmology. Hence the four "E" letters of the Sator square are equivalent to the four suns seen on the four sides of the benben stone, out of which the phoenix arises from its tip:


In more detail:

Meaning Letter values Sum
Tenet 300+5+50+5+300 660
φλοξ[20][21] “to burn” / “flame” / “fire” 500+30+70+60 660
τοκος[22][19] "to beget" / "childbirth" / "offspring" 300+70+20+70+200 660

The first of these terms, we note, is derived from the term φλέγω (phlégō, “burn”). The phonetic similarity of the word phlégō, “burn”, puts the number of 660 into the etymological category of the "phoenix" (Φοίνιξ), the Greek name that Herodotus gave to the Egyptian "bennu bird", the characteristics of which match the words: burn, flame, fire, beget, childbirth, and offspring. Hence, the Sator square seems to have been a Roman "magic puzzle" version of the Egyptian benben stone.

This "solar" birth association of the word Tenet, accordingly, would thereby corroborate with the solar cross association with the Tenet cross / Sator square puzzle, such as shown below left:


This image found on a pre-12th century Latin manuscript depiction of the Sator square, showing what seems to be a cross inside of a solar circle.[23] The X or cross in a circle, we note, is the ancient Egyptian symbol of the sun or sun god, such as found in the Greek letter Theta Θ, which has its own secret solar coding   scheme. This "Tenet = 660" decipherment would also seem to corroborate with the "Pater noster AΩ" cross anagram, discussed below, wherein "Horus the Child" takes the form of the "morning sun"[24], who is shown on c.500BC artwork as being the alpha (α) and the omega (ω), or beginning and end of things.

Related to this fire phoenix association, in American folklore, it was believed that if you wrote the Sator square letters on the "side of a plate" and threw the plate into a fire it will quench the fire, without need or use of water.[25]

Magic squares

The seven planetary magic squares published by Cornelius Agrippa (1531) in his De Occulta Philosophia (§22.2).

The Sator square belongs to a category of what are called "magic squares".[26] A magic square is square, containing a number of boxes, arranged in an equal number of equal rows and columns, which vary in size from a three-row by three-column square, up to nine-row by nine-column square, of more, wherein each box of the square contains a number, each number of the square can only be used once, and, in a so-called properly constructed "magic square", the sums of the all the rows and columns must equal the same value and the sums of the two diagonals must equal the same value.

The ancients believed that each of the five visible planets, the moon, and the sun, had a magic square, which could be used to "attract" the planets influence.[27]

In c.520BC, Pythagoras, according to Iamblichus (c.305), was said to have dealt with natural and unnatural three-by-three squares.[28][6] Pythagoras, as we know, learned his math in the colleges of Egypt; hence, it would seem the case that magic squares are of Egyptian origin.

In the Chinese I Ching, dated between 400 to 900BC[29], there is a three-by-three magic square; sometimes called the "Saturn square".[27]

Planetary squares

The following are the Saturn square and the Jupiter square:

Saturn square
45 Roman
4 9 2 15 D I B
3 5 7 15 C E G
8 1 6 15 H A F
15 15 15 15 15
Jupiter square
4 14 15 1 34
9 7 6 12 34
5 11 10 8 34
16 2 3 13 34
34 34 35 34 34 34

The sum of all nine numbers is 45, and the sums of each row, column, and diagonal is 15. Each number could then be converted into the letter of its "numerical equivalent", via either isopsephy (Greek alphabet), gematria (Hebrew alphabet), or 26-letter Roman alphabet, e.g. 1 = A, 2 = B, 3 = C, etc.[30], shown above, to make word cyphers, so to say, each word then employed to make secret meanings, and the sentences formed from these boxes, e.g. "dib ceg haf", rendered, e.g. in Latin to have certain meanings.

Solar square | 666

The following is the solar square, shown, below left, with its isopsephy values, and below right, on the back of good luck Latin solar amulet:[31]

Solar square
6 32 3 34 35 1 111
7 11 27 28 8 30 111
19 14 16 15 23 24 111
18 20 22 21 17 13 111
25 29 10 9 26 12 111
36 5 33 4 2 31 111
111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111


The solar square is unique in that the number "666" reoccurs frequently in religio-mythology; for example:

“The fourth tablet is of the sun, and is made of a square of 6, and contains 36 numbers, whereof 6 on every side and diameter, produce 111, and the sum of all is 666. This being engraven on a golden plate, renders him who wears it renowned and amiable, and equals a man to kings and princes . . . but with an unfortunate sun it makes a tyrant. The numbers of this square are all curiously appropriate to the sun, whose ark has been shown to measure 666 of its diameters. Again, 666 is the diameter of a circle 2,093 in circumference, and 2,093 is 92 times the diameter of the sun's orbit as well as the diameter of the circle containing the square whose sides are 1,480,—the measure of the body of Christos.”
Cornelius Agrippa (1531), De Occulta Philosophia (§22.2); cited by William Stirling (1897) in the Cannon (pg. #) [32]
“The square of the sun has six rows of six figures, using the numbers 1 to 36, and if all the figures in the square are added the total is 666. The deduction which magicians draw from this is that the Beast of Revelation is one aspect of the sun or life force. It is the savage, relentless pulsing power which derives all living things to procreate, to survive, to master their environment.”
— Richard Cavendish (1967), The Black Arts (pgs. 130-31)
In 1973, Richard Moeller conjectured, via isopsephy arguments, that 666 was an early Roman cypher for "gold", aka the sun.[33]

The number 0.666 or 2/3, in Pythagorean tuning, represents the descending "perfect fifth" (frequency ratio of 3:2 ascending or 2:3 descending), which is a frequency ratio of pitches that is pleasing to the ear.[34] One take on this is as follows:

Helios, 318, the Greek name of the sun, is derived from the ratio of the circle, for the reciprocal of π is .318. In other words, a circle measuring 1000 units in circumference (representing unity) will have a diameter of 318 units. In music, 0.666 is the string ratio of the perfect fifth, while 0.888 is the string ratio of the whole tone. The Greeks did not use the decimal point at all, and, in every instance where gematria values are based on mathematical ratios, the ‘decimal point’ has been moved over exactly three places. In other words, while we define these ratios in relation to ‘1’, we conclude that the Greeks defined these ratios in relation to ‘1000’, which represents the same principle, the monad or unity, the ineffable first cause.”
David Fideler (1993), Jesus Christ, Sun of God: Ancient Cosmology and Early Christian Symbolism (pg. 84) [35]

In 1973, Richard Moeller attempts to connect the 666 solar symbolism to the Sator square, via Mithras mythology (the Persian rescript of the Osiris-Horus + Ra mythos), as shown adjacent.[33]

Overview | Usage


In c.1260, Albertus Magnus, in his Egyptian Secrets, to give some context in which the Sator square was employed, namely as a sort of magic charm, or Egyptian magic spell, associates the words: sator, arepo, and tenet, supposedly, with three variations of the "cross of Christ", namely: Sator = mildepos (mild?), Arepo = mesepos (medium?), Tenet = habenepos (hot?), possibly, as shown below:


and says you have to do the following with the word square to make "witches" go away:

“An excellent way to prove whether a person is a witch or not: First, try to obtain St. John's roots and one ounce of herb of the same plant called moto. Write the [Sator square] letters upon a scrap of paper and put to the root and herbs. This must be sewed up in a piece of leather, and if you wish to see the witch, only carry the paper with you, but it must be taken in the hour when the first quarter of the moon occurs. You will then perceive that no witch can remain in the same room with you.”
Albertus Magus (1260), Egyptian Secrets (pg. 78) [36]

The word square, in this period, thus used to make evil go away.


In 1520, Cornelius Agrippa discussed seven of these "magic squares", in respect to their hidden astro-theological, e.g. zodaic or solar, coding, about which he says:

“It is affirmed by magicians, that there are certain sacred tables of the planets endowed with many and very great virtues of the heavens, inasmuch as they represent that divine order of celestial numbers which can no other way be expressed than by the marks of numbers and characters.”
Cornelius Agrippa (c.1520), Publication; cited by William Stirling (1897) in the Cannon (pg. #) [37]
The first "magic square", according to Cornelius Agrippa (1531), which represents Saturn via numbers.

The first of these "magic squares", described by Agrippa, as shown adjacent. Agrippa describes this magic square as such:

“The first of them is assigned to Saturn[38], and consists of a square of three, containing the particular numbers of nine, and in every line, three every way and through each diameter (diagonal), making fifteen. Now the whole sum of the numbers is forty-five. Each number represents an intelligence for good, or a spirit for bad. Out of the same numbers is drawn the seal, or character, which should be engraved on a plate of lead. If this be done with a fortunate Saturn it is a safeguard to births and bringing forth, but if it be done with an unfortunate Saturn, it hinders buildings, plantings, and the like, and casts a man from honors and dignities. The number 45, deduced from this square, is in round numbers the square root of Saturn's orbit. And if the numbers of the square be read from right to left in the three rows, we get 294, 753, and 618, all of which are mystical numbers, already discussed. 294 is the numerical equivalent for Ecclesia, the Church, 753 is the diameter of a circle whose circumference is 2,368, and 618 is the numerical equivalent of IHΣ, etc. By reading it perpendicularly other numbers are obtained, which have also mystical meanings.”
Cornelius Agrippa (c.1520), Publication; cited by William Stirling (1897) in the Cannon (pg. #) [39]

Agrippa, following this, explains that the second table, that with four sides, is associated with Jupiter, a table with five sides with Mars, a table with six sides, the fourth table, he says, is associated with the sun, from which he derives the number 666 as follows:

“The fourth tablet is of the sun, and is made of a square of 6, and contains 36 numbers, whereof 6 on every side and diameter, produce 111, and the sum of all is 666. This being engraven on a golden plate, renders him who wears it renowned and amiable, and equals a man to kings and princes . . . but with an unfortunate sun it makes a tyrant. The numbers of this square are all curiously appropriate to the sun, whose ark has been shown to measure 666 of its diameters. Again, 666 is the diameter of a circle 2,093 in circumference, and 2,093 is 92 times the diameter of the sun's orbit as well as the diameter of the circle containing the square whose sides are 1,480,—the measure of the body of Christos.”
Cornelius Agrippa (c.1520), Publication; cited by William Stirling (1897) in the Cannon (pg. #) [40]

The fifth table, with seven sides, is associated with Venus. The sixth table, has eight sides, and is associated with Mercury. The seventh table, with nine sides, is associated with the moon. It is likely that Agrippa's version of things, e.g. a five sided table being associated with Mars, differed from the original interpretation of the 5-sided Sator table (67AD). Nevertheless, we see a sample of how these tables attempted to map cosmological data, in a proto-scientific way.


In 1665, Athanasius Kircher, in his Arithmologia (1665), shows Sator square in a Solomon seal, in side of a circle:


He does, in two pages, do some speculative decoding; the Latin to English translation, however, is wanting.[41] Kircher, supposedly, concluded that "Arepo" was gibberish or an abracadabra (Marcovich,1988).[42]

Overview | Decoding

N | Nun

A depiction of Ra, the sun, aka "Our Father" (Pater Noster) as he was known, at Dendera Temple (Hathor complex)[43], in the form of a bulb of light, being born out of a "lotus", the symbol of the birth of "Horus the child" (aka Harpocrates), or the "morning sun"[24], who is the alpha (A) and the omega (Ω), the stem of which dipping into the primordial waters of the Nun (or Nu), the central letter "N" being at the center of the Sator square (and Tenet cross).[43]

The Sator square, firstly, we note, is a five-word sentence palindrome, meaning that the same words form if the sentence is read forward or backwards:[44]

Sator arepo teNet opera rotas

It seems also to be of significance that the letter ‘N’ is at the center of the sentence palindrome, the ‘tenet cross’, and the Sator square. This would seem to be symbolic of the ‘Nun’, which also is a palindrome, and in Egyptian astro-mythology, is the origin of all things, aka the void or vacuum of the Greek chaos origin of all things rescript of the former. The Nun or "N" etymology, to note, is also found in words such as: new, nil, neo, naught, negative, noosphere, etc.

Arepo | Horus

In 1971, Gwyn Griffiths, in his “Arepo in the Magic Sator Square”, gave a “plausible explanation” (Sheldon, 2003) that the word Arepo is a personal name derived from the Egyptian Hr-Hp, i.e. “face of Apis” (or Horus-Apis), making a connection to Serapis (Osiris-Apis), and says the puzzle derives from Alexandrine Egyptian origin where there was a Gnostic tradition that use acrostics.[45]

In 1983, Miroslav Marcovich, building on Griffiths, conjectured that Arepo is the Latin form of "Harpo", which is the Greek form of Horus:

“I suggest that Arepo is a latinized form of a Kurzname [short name / nickname] of the extremely popular ‘god of good luck’ in the Graeco-Roman Egypt: Harpon (Knuphi), Arpo(cras), Harpo(crates), i.e. ‘Horus-the-child’.”
— Miroslav Marcovich (1967), “SATOR AREPO = ΓΕΩΡΓΟΣ ἉΡΠΟΝ (ΚΝΟΥΦΙ), ἉΡΠΩΣ, Arpo(Cra), Harpo(Cartes)” (pg. 156) [10]

In 1988, Marcovich, in his expanded Studies in Graeco-Roman Religions and Gnosticism, conjectured that that "Arepo" is code for Harpocrates (Horus the child), aka "Horus" as the "morning sun"[24], similar to how Hor-Hap (Serapis or Osiris-Apis) is the father of Horus; the main argument is as follows:[42]


The following diagrams a glimpse of Marcovich "Arepo = Horus" conjecture, in the Mithras solar cross[46], below left, Mithras being the Persian equivalent or rescript[47] of the Horus solar myth:


This can be compared to Walter Moeller (1973), above right, who used isopsephy (or gematria) to argue that the letters are coding of the procession of the equinoxes, below right, or something along these lines.[33] There seems to be no doubt that isopsephy of some sort is behind this "Tenet cross", as nearly all words from the invention of the Greek alphabet (1,000BC up to 400AD) had some type of numerical equivalence coding or meaning behind them.

Sator | Soter | Savoir

The Greek word for savior is “soter”.[48] Some translations associate the term “sator” as “savior”, related to a title given to Ptolemy, but the inhabitants of Rhodes, who he had saved from a siege.[49] As "Horus the savior", during the Roman recension, became "Jesus the savior", it would seem plausible that Sator = Savior, and that Arepo Sator = Horus the Savior; or Sator Arepo = the savior Horus. The Egyptian name “Har-nedj-itet”, e.g., means “Horus the Savior of his Father.”[50] This saving of "his father" corroborates with the hidden "Pater Noster" (our Father) anagram of the Sator square.

Magnet | Bone of Horus

A curved polished bronze steel version of the Sator square.[51] The name Arepo, according to Miroslav Marcovich (1983) is Latin for "Harpo", which is Greek for Horus, who in Egyptian science, was associated with the magnet, who attracted the iron and steel, which was associated with the god Set.

The "tenet cross", whatever the words themselves mean, seems to indicated the sun (or sun god) with a cross "+" over it, the ancient Egyptian symbol for the sun, as found in the Greek Theta "Θ" symbol, wherein, as we known, the cross part of Theta, as said to be representative of Horus "the magnet", aka the "bone of Horus", as the Greeks called it, and Set "the iron" (Set or Satan being found in other "magic squares"[42] of this period):

“The loadstone is called, by the Egyptians, the ‘bone of Horus’, as iron is the ‘bone of Typho [Set].”
Manetho (c.300BC), Publication [52]

Also, we know how, as constellations, Horus as Orion, Set as the Bear, they provided North-South direction to the ancients. This north/south magnetic nature of tenet cross, according, seems to have been played out in the film, in respect to the character Sator, saying how "entropy inverts the same way the magnetic poles have switched", as discussed below.

Saturn | ASA / ORO

In c.1970, Richard Frajola, one of Walter Moeller’s students, conjectured that since the word “Satre” is Etruscan for Saturn, then the planet Saturn, the god of time[47], can be found in the following letter triangles, below left and right:[53]


We also have noted, previously, that the word "Saturn", supposedly, is carved below the oldest-known Sator square, in the gymnasium at Pompeii. Saturn is the Greco-Roman god time.[47]

Henry Parker, another of Moeller’s students, conjectured that the 12-letters of corners, above middle, can be read as “I pray at your alter”, ORO te meaning “I pray”, and ASA, in Umbrian, meaning “alter”, or something to this effect.[53]

AΩ | Pater noster

An "alpha" (α) and "omega" (ω) depiction of the Horus to Harpocrates to Jesus rescript, which is coded, in some way with the formation of the Greek alphabet. The first image showing Horus the child, as the "morning sun"[24], born out of a lotus, that rises out of the Nun (Upper Egypt, 2500BC). The middle image shows Harpocrates, the Greek version of Horus, on a Greek gem, shown between an omega and an alpha (Greece, 500BC).[54] The latter image shows Jesus, with a sun halo, shown between an alpha and an omega, in a Roman catacomb.

In 1000AD, the Greek alphabet was formed. The alpha (Α) and omega (Ω) are the first and last letters, respectively, of the classical (Ionic) Greek alphabet.[55]

In c.500BC, pictures of Harpocrates, the Greek version of "Horus the Child", aka the "morning sun"[24], in Egyptian mythology, began to appear on gems, as shown adjacent, with the letters alpha "A", at back, and omega "Ω", in the front.

In c.200AD, the New Testament, of the Bible, says that the "lord god" is the alpha and the omega:

“I am alpha [α] and omega [ω], the beginning and the end, saith the lord god, that is, and that was, and that is to coming, almighty.”
— Anon (200AD), Bible, New Testament (Revelations, 1.8)

In 400AD, pictures of Jesus, began to appear with the alpha and omega symbols, as shown adjacent.

Grosser | 1926

In 1926, Felix Grosser conjectured that the letters of the square can be rearranged to make a “Pater Noster cross”, aka an “Our Father” cross, leaving two extra As and Os, or alphas and omegas, which could be placed at the tips of the cross or at the vertexes.[56] In 1973, Walter Moeller, in his The Mithraic Origin and the Meanings of the Rotas-Sator Square, citing Grosser, discussed how the 25-letters of the square can be reordered into the so-called "Pater Noster Alpha-Omega cross", in two alternative forms, shown below:[33]


A 1952 sketch of a "Pater Noster AO cross"[57], with other symbolism, associated with the work of Cyrus Gordon:[58]

The phrase "Pater Noster" is Latin for "Our Father", and is the start of the famous Lord's prayer, which ends with the words "Amen"[59], the supreme god of Egyptian during the Theban recension (1550-720BC).[60] The Christianity version of the Lord's prayer, to note, is the Roman recension rescript of spell 125 of the Egyptian Book of the Dead.[1] This connects things back to the Horus, or Horus the child (Harpo-crates), aka "morning sun"[24], who is shown above being born out of a lotus, the stem of which dips into the water of the Nun (letter "N"), who is shown flanked by the letters Alpha (A) and Omega (Ω). Jesus, likewise, is pictured above (right), with the same Horus-based AΩ symbolism (AO cross) associated with him.

The supreme gods[61] during this period, e.g. in 69AD, the oldest known Sator square, were Osiris and Horus, as evidenced by the art work on Dendera Temple.[62] During the Roman recension, 100BC to 800AD, Osiris and Horus were merged into the character of Jesus, and Osiris became god the father.

Horus | Morning sun | N, α, ω

Hence, given the above, e.g. AΩ symbolism (AO cross), the Pater Noster anagram, "morning sun"[24] born out of the Nun (N), as shown below[63], many versions of which on the walls at Dendera Temple:


We arrive as the following decoding of the Tenet cross:


The Sator square, seems to be, in short, is a cypher for the Egyptian myth of the morning sun "born", i.e. the alpha [α] point, out of the waters of the Nun [N], via a rising out-of-the-water lotus, which culminates in the omega [ω] point, with Osiris, shown above in the form of the djed pillar (backbone of Osiris), being the "Our Father" (Pater Noster), which explains why the letter "N" is found prominently in the Tenet cross or Sator square, as this is the origin of all things, in all variants of the Egyptian creation myths, the Heliopolis creation myth being the most dominate version.

Although, there seems to be some missing or unsolved cyphers in the Sator square cypher, e.g. isopsephy coding, this seems to be the gist of the decoding, namely a solar birth mythos, coded into a isopsephy-based, palindrome-devised, anagram-loaded geometric cypher, so to say.

Tenet | Nolan film | Alpha / Omega ending

A first draft "basic" attempt, by the YouTube channel LatinTutorial (2015), to render the Sator square in straight Latin, which seems to convey little meaning?[64]
See main: Tenet (film)

The ordering of the letters of the Greek alphabet, from alpha [α], the beginning, to omega [ω], the "end", the Hebrew alphabet, Latin alphabet, and hence in the modern English alphabet, derived therefrom, as outlined above, is based on the the Egyptian cyclical solar creation cycle. This is played out at the end of the 2020 film Tenet, by Christopher Nolan, as follows:


Although difficult to conjecture, in respect to reading Nolan's mind, reading the mind of the Greek who situated the alpha-omega cypher-based alphabet, along with the admixture of the Horus as sun god and Ra as sun god mythos combinations of the Egyptians, the one thing that comes to mind, reading the above dialogue, is the "getting on the boat of Ra" cyclical re-occurrence. One example of this is the Hindu "samsara" concept, derived from Ra-based mythology, via the Brahma rescript, wherein the soul of the person becomes freed from cyclical return; this seems to play out in the character Neil saying, at the end of the film, that he is going to take one more crack to saving the world, or "run at existence", or something along these lines.


The following are related quotes:

SATOR square as a good number, it is impossible to associate its origin with a pejorative use of an imperial name. The 666 in the TENET cross, then, may stand for AYPEXION EHMA, solar symbol or sun sign (Lilliebjorn, c.1933).
— Walter Moeller (1973), The Mithraic Origin and Meanings of the Rotas-Sator Square (pg. 19) [33]

End matter

See also


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External links