In 1865, Rudolf Clausius, in his The Mechanical Theory of Heat, described his equations for the formulation of energy and entropy, as the "first main principle" and "second main principle", respectively, of the mechanical theory of heat. In the two decades to follow, these became known as the "first law" and "second law" of thermodynamics, aka the two main laws of the universe. These are principles four and five of the eight main principles of human chemical thermodynamics, summarized below.
HCT | Axioms
On 6 May 2021, Libb Thims, in response to reading a Quora post about the possible "collapse" of "his system", aka the HCT system, in respect to the consequences and implicit assumptions of the “axioms” of human chemical thermodynamics (HCT), replied by listing six axioms, the first three shown adjacent; Democritus atom axiom was added the following day.
The following are main HCT axioms; those shown highlighted are the three core or central principles (each ranked by border thickness):
|All things that exist are the coming together of atoms and void.||Leucippus||460BC||Atomic principle||Democritus (420BC)|
|All bodies expand via heat and contract by cold.||Hooke||1665||Hooke-Boerhaave law||Boerhaave (1720)|
|The vacuum left by fire lifts a weight.||Vinci||1508||Hooke principle||Hooke (1675)|
|A gradient of reactive affinity powers exists between chemical species.||Newton||1717||Query 31||Boyle (1679)|
|Heat and work are interconvertible in fixed ratio.||Joule||1843||Mechanical equivalent of heat
|The sum of the equivalence values, of all uncompensated transformations, at the end of a series of heat cycle expansions and contractions, of a body or system, will have a maximum numerical value, which will be the condition of equilibrium||Clausius||1856||Principle of the equivalence of transformations
|The free energy of a chemical reaction is the true measure of the affinities.||Helmholtz||1882||Thermodynamic theory of affinity
|All chemical species have a formation energy, which can be calculated from the free energies of the elements at standard state; the criteria for spontaneous change, is free energy decrease.||Lewis||1923||Combined law of thermodynamics||Dolloff (1975)|
|Natural and unnatural, in physiological processes, are coupled, such that exergonic drives or powers endergonic.||Lipmann||1941||Coupling theory||Blum (1934)|
The "first principle", in the Anaximander (570BC) sense of things, to which all the others reduce, is the atomic principle, namely that all things are made and or the result of atoms and void.
In sum, axioms 1 to 5, Democritus to Joule, are "universal principles", meaning they would be reproduced exactly on any planet in the universe.
The 6th main principle or axiom, aka the second law model of Thomson, Clausius, and Gibbs, is an upgrade to the caloric principle model of Lavoisier and Carnot. This axiom, can, to note, be improved upon in the future, per reason that "sum of the equivalence values of all uncompensated transformation", which equates we known as "entropy increase" in modern terminology, is an inexact "quantity", i.e. it is difficult to measure precisely; hence the use of the inequality symbols (< or >), done as patch solution to the problem.
Axioms or principles 7 to 9, are each derived from experiment, and require prolonged discussion to summarize cogently.
The following are related quotes:
- First principle – Wikipedia.