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The gist of the so-called "BC and AD problem", i.e. that the "zero year" behind the BC/AD scheme, or Dionysian calendar (525AD), is undefined, namely that we presently date years to gray area window that spans two to three centuries of uncertainty, per the silent historians problem.

In dating systems, AD (LH:6), the acronym of “Anno Domini” (Latin), meaning “Year of the Lord”, which, in the Dionysius calendar (525AD) system, fixes the “zero year” to the birth of "Lord Jesus Christ"; compare: BC.


The AD/BC dating system was invented in 525AD by Dionysius Exiguus, therein usurping the older AUC dating system (Caesar, 46BC), aka “Anno Urbis Conditae” (Latin) or “Urban Construction Year”, that fixed the zero year to the founding of Rome (753BC). The Dionysius dating system became popular, in western Europe, after Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731), began to use it to date events; in c.800AD, during the reign of Charlemagne (742-814), the Dionysius calendar became the official dating system of the Roman empire.


The difficult with the Dionysian calendar is that, per the silent historians problem, the “zero year”, is fixed to a “murky” gray area window that spans nearly two centuries of uncertainty, as to when either Christianity was founded or when the fictional character of Jesus became a cultural reality as staple or meme.

AD coins

In 721 BE ([+1234]; 1234 AD; 1987 AUC), Bishop of Roskilde, Denmark, issued the world’s first coin with an "AD date", specifically a silver penny, with a bishop’s hat and the AD date MCCXXXIIII (1234) on the reverse, and a crown and the legends +ANNO DOMINI on the obverse.[1] This 1234 Denmark coin is shown below:[2]

1234 coin.png

The reason for dating this coin on this particular year, was that the series of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, in respect to the year 1234 Anno Domini, were though magical.[2] The next time a coin was minted with an AD date, was 1372AD coin. There are seven of these "1234AD coins" extant in the world, in various museums; other images are available.[3] The following is another coin image, with caption by coin historian Robert Levinson:

1234 coin (Levinson, 2007).png

Levinson comments on this:

“The decision to begin dating coins to an Anno Domini standard was hardly a trend-setter: 138 years passed until the next European coins were dated in 1372.”
— Robert Levinson (2007), The Earliest Dated Coins of Europe 1234-1500 (pg. 9)[4]

The first collectable dated coin is normally considered as being the 1374 Groschen from Aachen.[2]

Elementum calendar

In 2020AD, Libb Thims introduced the “year of atoms seen” based calendar system, aka "elementum calendar, Thimsian calendar, or BE/AE dating system, which fixes the “zero year”, i.e. Anno Elementum (AE) (Latin) or “After Elements” (AE), to 1955AD, the year when a human, namely Erwin Muller, first saw an atom with their own eyes, and years before this "real" event, to years "before elements" (BE) seen.

This dating system, was invented, by Thims, out of a "pressing" need to date the title pages of his various publications, his drafting Human Chemical Thermodynamics manuscript in particular, scientifically.[5] Thims, previous to this, had attempted or water tested various dating systems, e.g. a "Anno printing press" zero year (2012), "Anno Newton", as suggested by Goethe (c.1810), "Anno Goethe" (2014), "Anno Halley's comet" scheme, etc., to limited success.[6]

End matter

See also


  1. History of Dates on Coins (2018) –
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1234 Denmark coin –
  3. Early dated coins of Europe (1166-1430) –
  4. Levinson, Robert. (2007). The Earliest Dated Coins of Europe 1234-1500: An illustrated Catalogue an Guide to Dated Medieval Coinage (pg. 9). Coin & Currency Institute.
  5. Thims, Libb. (2021). Human Chemical Thermodynamics: Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities – Meaning, Morality, Purpose; Sociology, Economics, Ecology; History, Philosophy, Government, Anthropology, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence; Religion, Relationships, Warfare, and Love (pdf). Publisher.
  6. Dating system – Hmolpedia 2020.

External links

Theta Delta ics T2.jpg